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man.nopage(7)							 man.nopage(7)

Name
       man.nopage - the man.nopage macro package for printing reference pages

Syntax
       tbl file...  | nroff [ -nN ] [ -rpS ] [ -rl1 ] -man.nopage | col | ...
       tbl file...  | *troff [ -nN ] [ -rpS ] [ -rl1 ] -man.nopage | ...

Description
       The  macro package is used to format reference manual pages for unpagi‐
       nated viewing or for printing on line printers.	The  installed	refer‐
       ence pages are formatted by the and the commands, using the macro pack‐
       age.

       The page width is 80 columns when formatted by the command and  is  8.5
       inches  when formatted with text formatters.  The output is unpaginated
       when formatted by the command, hence the name `nopage'.	The output  is
       paginated  when formatted by text formatters, with page numbers appear‐
       ing at the bottom of each output page with odd page  numbers  appearing
       on  the	right  side  and even page numbers appearing on the left side.
       The output is similar to the output generated with the macro package.

       The format of the ULTRIX online reference pages is  determined  by  the
       macro package.  The macros are a compatible subset of the macros.

   Macros
       The following describes the macros in the macro package.

       Any text argument can range from zero to six words.  Quotation marks ("
       ") can be used to include blanks in words.  If text is  not  specified,
       special treatment is applied to the next input line that has text to be
       printed.	 In this way, can be used to italicize a whole	line  or  fol‐
       lowed by to make small bold letters.

       A  prevailing indent distance is remembered between successive indented
       paragraphs, and is reset to a default value upon reaching a nonindented
       paragraph.   Default  units for indents i are ens (an en is 1 character
       or 1/2 em space in current point size).

       Typeface and size are reset to default values  before  each  paragraph,
       and after processing font and size setting macros.

       .B [ text... ]
		   Sets	 text  text in boldface.  If no text is specified, the
		   next text line is set in boldface.

       .BI word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in boldface, word2 in an	italic	typeface,  and
		   then	 alternates  between these two fonts for the remaining
		   words, up to six words.  Blanks between words are  stripped
		   unless the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .BR word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in boldface, word2 in a roman typeface, and then
		   alternates between these two fonts for the remaining words,
		   up  to six words.  Blanks between words are stripped unless
		   the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .CT character
		   Prints the keyboard control character indicator . For exam‐
		   ple, prints as .

       .CW	   Sets	 text  in  a  constant	width  font until another font
		   change is encountered.

       .De	   Ends an unfilled display block (started by Also ends	 auto‐
		   matic centering, if it was in effect.

       .Ds	   Starts  an  unfilled	 display  block.   Text between and is
		   printed in a roman typeface, with `no fill' mode (no	 wrap‐
		   ping and blank lines allowed) in effect.  The display block
		   is set flush left.

       .DT	   Restores default tabs.  Default tabs are set to .5  inches,
		   starting with .5i, 1i, ... .

       .EE	   Ends	 an  example  and  restores  basic  text  defaults and
		   indents.

       .EX [ i ]   Starts an example.  Text between and is printed in  a  con‐
		   stant width font with `no fill' mode (no wrapping and blank
		   lines allowed) in effect.  The example is  set  flush  left
		   unless an indent i is specified.  Units of i are ens.

       .G [ text... ]
		   Sets	 text  in a sans-serif typeface.  If no text is speci‐
		   fied, the next text line is set in a sans-serif typeface.

       .GL [ text... ]
		   Sets text in a sans-serif italic typeface.  If no  text  is
		   specified, the next text line is set in a sans-serif italic
		   typeface.

       .HB [ words... ]
		   Sets the text in underline mode or  in  a  sans-serif  bold
		   typeface, depending on the type of text formatter or If the
		   text formatter is of type the next 999 input lines are for‐
		   matted  in underline mode italic mode), or all the lines up
		   to a font change are formatted in underline mode, depending
		   on which limit is encountered first.	 If the text formatter
		   is of type text is set in a sans-serif bold typeface	 until
		   a font change is encountered.  Up to nine words can also be
		   specified as arguments.

       .HP [i]	   Begins a paragraph with a hanging indent of i ens.

       .I [ text... ]
		   Sets text in an italic typeface.  If no text is  specified,
		   the next text line is set in an italic typeface.

       .I1 word	   Sets	 a  temporary  indent  to  the length of the specified
		   word.

       .I2 word	   Reverses one line and then sets a temporary indent  to  the
		   length of the specified word.

       .IB word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets	 word1	in  an italic typeface, word2 in boldface, and
		   then alternates between these two fonts for	the  remaining
		   words,  up to six words.  Blanks between words are stripped
		   unless the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .IP x [i]   Sets the prevailing indent to i.  Then begins the  indented
		   paragraph  with  a hanging tag given by the next text line.
		   If the tag does not fit, the macro places the next text  on
		   a separate line.  Tag x appears in bold typeface.

       .IR word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets	 word1	in  an italic typeface, word2 in a roman type‐
		   face, and then alternates between these two fonts  for  the
		   remaining words, up to six words.  Blanks between words are
		   stripped unless the string is enclosed in  quotation	 marks
		   (" ").

       .LP	   Same as the macro.  This macro is obsolete, but is provided
		   for backwards compatibility.

       .MS reference_page section_subsection [ punctuation ]
		   Sets reference_page immediately followed by section_subsec‐
		   tion in parentheses followed by optional punctuation, using
		   fonts that distinguish this reference page  reference  from
		   ordinary text.  For example,

       .NE	   Ends	 a note. Also cancels automatic centering if it was in
		   effect.

       .NT [ header1 ] [ C ]
       .NT [ C ] [ header2 ]
		   Starts a note.  If no arguments are specified, the  default
		   header  for	the  note is `Note'.  If the first argument is
		   the letter `C', all text in the note is centered,  for  the
		   next	 99 text lines or until the macro is called, whichever
		   comes first.	 If the first argument is not `C', it  becomes
		   the	header of the note, even if header2 is also specified.
		   The header2 argument becomes the header of the note if  the
		   first argument is `C'.

       .PD [ v ]   Sets	 the  interparagraph  distance	to  v vertical spaces.
		   Resets the distance to the default value if v is omitted.

       .PN x [ y ] Sets x in an italic or constant width  typeface  (depending
		   on  the  formatter  type)  and then reverts to the previous
		   typeface.  The optional argument y is appended to x with no
		   space,  but	printed in the previous typeface.  The x argu‐
		   ment is usually a path name; y is usually punctuation.

       .Pn x y [ z ]
		   Sets x in the current typeface, sets y in an italic or con‐
		   stant  width typeface (depending on the formatter type) and
		   appends it to x, and finally reverts to the previous	 type‐
		   face.   The	optional  argument  z  is  appended  to y, but
		   printed in  the  previous  typeface.	  Spaces  are  removed
		   between  x, y, and z, unless quotation marks (" ") are used
		   to enclose strings with spaces.  The x argument is  usually
		   a fixed path name; y is usually a variable path name; and z
		   is usually punctuation.

       .PP	   Starts a block paragraph.  Sets the	prevailing  indent  to
		   .5i for and four picas for text formatters.

       .R	   Sets the text in a roman typeface until another font change
		   is encountered.  Also ends underline	 mode  if  it  was  in
		   effect.

       .RB word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in a roman typeface, word2 in boldface, and then
		   alternates between these two fonts for the remaining words,
		   up  to six words.  Blanks between words are stripped unless
		   the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .RE [ k ]   Returns to the  kth	relative  right	 shift	indent	level.
		   (Restores  the left margin to the position prior to the kth
		   call).  Specifying k=0 is equivalent to specifying k=1.  If
		   k  is  omitted, restores the left margin to the most recent
		   previous position.  When  k=1  or  0,  the  default	indent
		   increment is restored.

       .RI word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets	 word1	in  a roman typeface, word2 in an italic type‐
		   face, and then alternates between these two fonts  for  the
		   remaining words, up to six words.  Blanks between words are
		   stripped unless the string is enclosed in  quotation	 marks
		   (" ").

       .RN	   Prints the return character indicator, .

       .RS [ i ]   Shifts the left margin to the right (relatively) the amount
		   of i ens. The macro calls can be nested up to nine  levels.
		   If  i  is  not  specified  for the first call, the relative
		   right shift increases .5 inch for and four picas  for  text
		   formatters.	 Nested calls increment the relative indent by
		   i ens, or by .2 inch for or by 2 picas for text formatters.

       .SH text	   Creates a section header.

       .SM [ text ]
		   Sets text to be two points smaller than the	current	 point
		   size.   If  no text is specified, the next text line is set
		   in the smaller point size.

       .SS text	   Creates a subsection header.

       .TB [ words... ]
		   Same as the macro.  This macro is obsolete, but is provided
		   for backwards compatibility.

       .TH n c[s] [ a ] [ f ] [ x ]
		   Begins  a new reference page and sets the page title.  Also
		   sets up headers and footers for output pages, sets  up  all
		   defaults  and  traps,  and calls the and macros.  The title
		   appears as a header on all pages of the formatted reference
		   page.  The  n  argument  is the reference page name.	 The c
		   argument is the primary section number or  letter.	The  s
		   argument  is the subsection, if any.	 The a argument is for
		   an optional machine architecture specific label; for	 exam‐
		   ple ``VAX''.	 The f argument optionally alters a portion of
		   the page footer.  The x argument is for optional extra com‐
		   mentary; for example ``Unsupported''.

		   Fields  n, c, and s appear together at the top of each out‐
		   put page (see the top of this page for an example).	 These
		   fields  alternate  between  the right top and left top of a
		   page header, corresponding to odd and  even	page  numbers.
		   Field  a  appears opposing the page name in the header when
		   formatted with but appears as a bleed  tab  when  formatted
		   with	 text  formatters.  The f argument appears in the page
		   footer on the inside edge of the page (left	for  odd  page
		   numbers,  right  for	 even).	 The x argument appears under‐
		   neath the page name in the header.

		   The last three fields are optional.	To skip a field, spec‐
		   ify	a  pair	 of  quotation	marks  ("") in the field to be
		   skipped.

       .TP [i]	   Sets the prevailing indent to i.  Then begins the  indented
		   paragraph  with  a hanging tag given by the next text line.
		   If the tag does not fit, the macro places the next text  on
		   a separate line.

       .VE	   End a vertical margin bar.

       .VS [ 4 ]   Starts  a  vertical margin bar, if `4' is specified; other‐
		   wise, the macro does nothing.

   Macros That Cause Line Breaks
       The following macros cause line breaks:

	      De   Ds	EE   EX	  HP   IP
	      LP   PP	RE   SH	  SS   TH

	      TP

   Macros That Need Text Lines
       The following macros affect the following line  of  text	 if  they  are
       specified in the input without arguments:

	      B	   BI	BR   G	  GL   I
	      IB   IR	RI   RB	  SH   SS
	      SM

	  Defaults
	      Automatic	 hyphenation  is  turned on. However, last lines (ones
	      that will cause a trap) are not  hyphenated  and	the  last  and
	      first two characters of a word are not split off.

       Characters  printed  from  the  Special Font are artificially bolded by
       three units whenever the current font is `3'.

       The default page width is 80 columns output and 8.5 inches  for	output
       generated  by text formatters.  The text area is horizontally placed on
       the page so that the effective page margin is .3	 inches	 for  and  7.5
       picas for text formatters.

       The  default  page length is unlimited (unpaginated) for output, but is
       11 inches for output generated by text formatters.

       The macro sets up the following defaults:

       ·   Text is set in ``noadjust'' mode; the right margin is ragged.

       ·   The default interparagraph distance is 1v for and .5v for text for‐
	   matters.

       ·   The basic text indent is .5 inches for and four picas for text for‐
	   matters, from the left margin.

       ·   The maximum text line length is 7.4 inches for  and	36  picas  for
	   text formatters.

       ·   Sets tab stops every .5 inches.

       ·   The basic text point size is 11 points, with line spacing set to 12
	   points.

       ·   The basic text font is ``R'' (a roman typeface).

       ·   Reference page headers, section headers, and subsection headers are
	   set in a sans-serif bold typeface.

       The  default section number, which apepras like a ``chapter'' number in
       page footers is 0 for output.  There are no page footers for output.

Options
       -nN	   Numbers the first generated page as N.

       -rl1	   Turns on line double-spacing mode.

       -rpS	   Sets the section number fo S.  Section  numbers  appear  in
		   output page footers as S-N (chapter-page-number).

Restrictions
   Predefined Registers
       The  following registers are predefined by the macro package and should
       not be changed:

       PO	   Page offset and page margin

       IN	   Left margin indent relative to the section headers

       LL	   Line length including

       PL	   Page length

       The register `l' is predefined when you specify the option. Its default
       value is 0.  The command does not use this option.

       The register `p' is predefined when you specify the option. Its default
       value is 0.  The command does not use this option.

   Reserved Registers
       The following registers are reserved for internal use by the and	 macro
       packages:

	      A1   DX	EX   l	 p   p#
	      PF

       In  addition, registers beginning with the characters `)', `]', and `}'
       are also reserved for internal use.

       Registers predefined by the commands, and the  and  text	 preprocessors
       and formatters should not be redefined.

   Predefined Strings
       The  following  strings	are predefined by the macro package and should
       not be changed:

       lq	   “ if `` if

       rq	   ” if '' if

       S	   Command string to change type size to 10 points.

   Reserved Strings and Macros
       The following string and macro names are reserved for internal  use  by
       the and macro packages:

	      ##   A1	BD   BK	  CD   D
	      DE   DS	HH   ID	  LD   NO
	      NX   P	UF   ya	  yn   yl
	      ys

       In  addition, names beginning with the characters `)', `]', and `}' are
       also reserved for internal use.

       Names predefined by the commands, and the and  text  preprocessors  and
       formatters should not be redefined.

   .TH Macro Restrictions
       The  section  number  should only be 1-8, `n', `l', `o', or `p'.	 Other
       values might not be recognized by the or commands.

       Sections 6, 7, `n', `l', `o', and `p' do	 not  currently	 have  subsec‐
       tions, so subsections should not be specified.

       The  architecture field (a) should not exceed four characters.  A value
       longer than four characters might print outside the right page margin.

       Reference pages containing commands should be preprocessed by  an  text
       preprocessor before being installed on the system.

       Reference  pages	 containing  commands  must not be preprocessed before
       being installed on the system.

   The Name Section
       The command assumes the Name section of a reference page has  the  fol‐
       lowing format:
       name[, name, name ...] \- explanatory text
       There  should  be at least one space after any comma and only one space
       following the ``backslash hyphen'' (\-).	 There should not be any  com‐
       mands  in  the explanatory text.	 The explanatory text should be brief.
       The command combines information in the Name section with parameters of
       the  macro  to  create  an entry in a database searched by the and com‐
       mands.

Portability Considerations
       The ULTRIX macro packages contain extensions and enhancements  borrowed
       from other macro packages.  If you have a need to write portable refer‐
       ence pages, you should not use the following macros:

	      CT   CW	De   Ds	  EE   EX
	      G	   GL	HB   I1	  I2   LP
	      MS   NE	NT   PN	  Pn   R
	      RN   TB	UF

       The and macros are obsolete.

       The ULTRIX macro differs from other implementations of the macro.   The
       primary	differences  are in the placement of the page title, and third
       and fifth fields in the output.	The page title (the page name and sec‐
       tion  number)  is  commonly  placed on both sides of the page header in
       other implementations.  The more common placement of the third field is
       in  the	center	of  the page footer.  The more common placement of the
       fifth field is in the center of the page header.

       The macro permits the use of the percent (%) character in  any  of  its
       fields.	 The  presence of the percent character may cause problems for
       other implementations of this macro.

       Use of the and commands should be avoided, because the version  of  the
       command	in  some  other implementations might not preprocess reference
       pages through the command.  The commands also might not be installed.

Files
       The			  macro package file

See Also
       col(1), man(1), nroff(1), tbl(1), man(7), man.repro(7), catman(8)

								 man.nopage(7)
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