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MERGEMASTER(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		MERGEMASTER(8)

NAME
     mergemaster — merge configuration files, et al during an upgrade

SYNOPSIS
     mergemaster [-scrvhpCP] [-a|iFU] [-m /path/to/sources]
		 [-t /path/to/temp/root] [-d] [-u N] [-w N]
		 [-A Target architecture] [-D /destdir/path]

DESCRIPTION
     The mergemaster utility is a Bourne shell script which is designed to aid
     you in updating the various configuration and other files associated with
     FreeBSD.  It is HIGHLY recommended that you back up your /etc directory
     before beginning this process.

     The script uses /usr/src/Makefile to build a temporary root environment
     from / down, populating that environment with the various files.  You can
     specify a different source directory with the -m command line option, or
     specify the destination directory with the -D option.  It then compares
     each file in that environment to its installed counterpart.  When the
     script finds a change in the new file, or there is no installed version
     of the new file it gives you four options to deal with it.	 You can
     install the new file as is, delete the new file, merge the old and new
     files (as appropriate) using sdiff(1) or leave the file in the temporary
     root environment to merge by hand later.

     By default it creates the temporary root in /var/tmp/temproot and com‐
     pares the Version Control System (VCS) Id strings ($FreeBSD) for files
     that have them, deleting the temporary file if the strings match.	If
     there is no Id string, or if the strings are different it compares the
     files themselves.	You can also specify that the script ignore the Id
     strings and compare every file with the -s option.	 Using the -F option
     mergemaster will install the new file for you if they differ only by VCS
     strings.

     The merge menu option is designed to let you easily combine your cus‐
     tomizations from the old version of a file into the new one.  While you
     can use the merge function to incorporate changes from files that you
     have not customized, it is not recommended.

     The mergemaster utility checks your umask and issues a warning for any‐
     thing other than 022.  While it is not mandatory to grant world read per‐
     missions for most configuration files, you may run into problems without
     them.  If you choose a umask other than 022 and experience trouble later
     this could be the cause.  /etc/master.passwd is treated as a special
     case.  If you choose to install this file or a merged version of it the
     file permissions are always 600 (rw-------) for security reasons.	After
     installing an updated version of this file you should probably run
     pwd_mkdb(8) with the -p option to rebuild your password databases and
     recreate /etc/passwd.

     The script uses the owner and group ids that the files are created with
     by /usr/src/etc/Makefile, and file permissions as specified by the umask.
     Unified diffs are used by default to display any differences unless you
     choose context diffs.

     The mergemaster utility will source scripts that you specify right before
     it starts the comparison, and after it is done running.  The easiest way
     to handle this is to place the path to the script(s) in the appropriate
     variables in your .mergemasterrc file.  The script sourced before compar‐
     ison is named in MM_PRE_COMPARE_SCRIPT, and the one sourced after the
     script is done is MM_EXIT_SCRIPT.	This is the recommended way to specify
     local modifications, or files that you want to give special handling to.
     This includes files that you want to be deleted without being compared.
     Because the named scripts are sourced from within mergemaster, all of the
     script's variables are available for use in your custom script.  You can
     also use /etc/mergemaster.rc which will be read before .mergemasterrc.
     Options specified on the command line are updated last, and therefore can
     override both files.

     When the comparison is done if there are any files remaining in the temp‐
     root directory they will be listed, and if the -a option is not in use
     the user will be given the option of deleting the temproot directory.  If
     there are no files remaining in the temproot directory it will be
     deleted.

     The options are as follows:

     -s		 Perform a strict comparison, diffing every pair of files.
		 This comparison is performed line by line, without regard to
		 VCS Ids.

     -c		 Use context diffs instead of unified diffs.

     -r		 Re-run mergemaster on a previously cleaned directory, skip‐
		 ping the creation of the temporary root environment.  This
		 option is compatible with all other options.

     -v		 Be more verbose about the process.  You should probably use
		 this option the first time you run mergemaster.  This option
		 also gives you a list of files that exist only in the
		 installed version of /etc.

     -a		 Run automatically.  This option will leave all the files that
		 differ from the installed versions in the temporary directory
		 to be dealt with by hand.  If the temproot directory exists,
		 it creates a new one in a previously non-existent directory.
		 This option unsets the verbose flag, and is not compatible
		 with -i, -F, or -U.  Setting -a makes -w superfluous.

     -h		 Display usage and help information.

     -i		 Automatically install any files that do not exist in the des‐
		 tination directory.

     -p		 Pre-buildworld mode.  Compares only files known to be essen‐
		 tial to the success of {build|install}world, including
		 /etc/make.conf.

     -F		 If the files differ only by VCS Id ($FreeBSD) install the new
		 file.

     -C		 After a standard mergemaster run, compares your
		 rc.conf[.local] options to the defaults.

     -P		 Preserve files that you replace in
		 /var/tmp/mergemaster/preserved-files-<date>, or another
		 directory you specify in your mergemaster rc file.

     -U		 Attempt to auto upgrade files that have not been user modi‐
		 fied.

     -m /path/to/sources
		 Specify the path to the directory where you want to do the
		 make(1).  (In other words, where your sources are, but -s was
		 already taken.)  In previous versions of mergemaster you
		 needed to specify the path all the way to src/etc.  Starting
		 with r186678 you only need to specify the path to src.
		 mergemaster will convert the path for you if you use the old
		 method.

     -t /path/to/temp/root
		 Create the temporary root environment in /path/to/temp/root
		 instead of the default /var/tmp/temproot.

     -d		 Add the date and time to the name of the temporary root
		 directory.  If -t is specified, this option must follow it if
		 you want the date added too.

     -u N	 Specify a numeric umask.  The default is 022.

     -w N	 Supply an alternate screen width to the sdiff(1) command in
		 numbers of columns.  The default is 80.

     -A Target architecture
		 Specify an alternative TARGET_ARCH architecture name.

     -D /path	 Specify the destination directory for the installed files.

ENVIRONMENT
     The mergemaster utility uses the PAGER environment variable if set.  Oth‐
     erwise it uses more(1).  If PAGER specifies a program outside its limited
     PATH without specifying the full path, mergemaster prompts you with
     options on how to proceed.	 The MM_PRE_COMPARE_SCRIPT and MM_EXIT_SCRIPT
     variables are used as described above.  Other variables that are used by
     the script internally can be specified in .mergemasterrc as described in
     more detail below.

FILES
     /etc/mergemaster.rc
     $HOME/.mergemasterrc

     The mergemaster utility will . (source) these files if they exist.	 Com‐
     mand line options will override rc file options.  $HOME/.mergemasterrc
     overrides /etc/mergemaster.rc.  Here is an example with all values com‐
     mented out:

     # These are options for mergemaster, with their default values listed
     # The following options have command line overrides
     #
     # The target architecture (-A, unset by default)
     #ARCHSTRING='TARGET_ARCH=<foo>'
     #
     # Sourcedir is the directory to do the 'make' in (-m)
     #SOURCEDIR='/usr/src'
     #
     # Directory to install the temporary root environment into (-t)
     #TEMPROOT='/var/tmp/temproot'
     #
     # Specify the destination directory for the installed files (-D)
     #DESTDIR=
     #
     # Strict comparison skips the VCS Id test and compares every file (-s)
     #STRICT=no
     #
     # Type of diff, such as unified, context, etc. (-c)
     #DIFF_FLAG='-u'
     #
     # Install the new file if it differs only by VCS Id ($FreeBSD, -F)
     #FREEBSD_ID=
     #
     # Verbose mode includes more details and additional checks (-v)
     #VERBOSE=
     #
     # Automatically install files that do not exist on the system already (-i)
     #AUTO_INSTALL=
     #
     # Automatically upgrade files that have not been user modified (-U)
     #AUTO_UPGRADE=
     #
     # Compare /etc/rc.conf[.local] to /etc/defaults/rc.conf (-C)
     #COMP_CONFS=
     #
     # Preserve files that you replace (-P)
     #PRESERVE_FILES=
     #PRESERVE_FILES_DIR=/var/tmp/mergemaster/preserved-files-`date +%y%m%d-%H%M%S`
     #
     # The umask for mergemaster to compare the default file's modes to (-u)
     #NEW_UMASK=022
     #
     # The following options have no command line overrides
     #
     # Files to always avoid comparing
     #IGNORE_FILES='/etc/motd /etc/printcap foo bar'
     #
     # Additional options for diff.  This will get unset when using -s.
     #DIFF_OPTIONS='-Bb'     # Ignore changes in whitespace
     #
     # Location to store the list of mtree values for AUTO_UPGRADE purposes
     #MTREEDB='/var/db'
     #
     # For those who just cannot stand including the full path to PAGER
     #DONT_CHECK_PAGER=
     #
     # If you set 'yes' above, make sure to include the PATH to your pager
     #PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin
     #
     # Delete stale files in /etc/rc.d without prompting
     #DELETE_STALE_RC_FILES=
     #
     # Specify the path to scripts to run before the comparison starts,
     # and/or after the script has finished its work
     #MM_PRE_COMPARE_SCRIPT=
     #MM_EXIT_SCRIPT=

EXIT STATUS
     Exit status is 0 on successful completion, or if the user bails out manu‐
     ally at some point during execution.

     Exit status is 1 if it fails for one of the following reasons:

     Invalid command line option

     Failure to create the temporary root environment

     Failure to populate the temporary root

     Presence of the 'nodev' option in <DESTDIR>/etc/fstab

     Failure to install a file

EXAMPLES
     Typically all you will need to do is type mergemaster at the prompt and
     the script will do all the work for you.

     To use context diffs and have mergemaster explain more things as it goes
     along, use:

	   # mergemaster -cv

     To specify that mergemaster put the temporary root environment in
     /usr/tmp/root, use:

	   # mergemaster -t /usr/tmp/root

     To specify a 110 column screen with a strict comparison, use:

	   # mergemaster -sw 110

SEE ALSO
     diff(1), make(1), more(1), sdiff(1), pwd_mkdb(8)

     /usr/src/etc/Makefile

     Nik Clayton, The Cutting Edge (using make world),
     http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/makeworld.html.

HISTORY
     The mergemaster utility was first publicly available on one of my web
     pages in a much simpler form under the name comproot on 13 March 1998.
     The idea for creating the temporary root environment comes from Nik Clay‐
     ton's make world tutorial which is referenced above.

AUTHORS
     This manual page and the script itself were written by Douglas Barton
     ⟨DougB@FreeBSD.org⟩.

BUGS
     There are no known bugs.  Please report any problems, comments or sugges‐
     tions to the author.  Several of the improvements to this program have
     come from user suggestions.  Thank you.

BSD				March 13, 2010				   BSD
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