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MTREE(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		      MTREE(8)

     mtree — map a directory hierarchy

     mtree [-LPUcdeinqruxw] [-f spec] [-K keywords] [-k keywords] [-p path]
	   [-s seed] [-X exclude-list]

     The mtree utility compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current
     directory against a specification read from the standard input.  Messages
     are written to the standard output for any files whose characteristics do
     not match the specifications, or which are missing from either the file
     hierarchy or the specification.

     The options are as follows:

     -L	   Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.

     -P	   Do not follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead con‐
	   sider the symbolic link itself in any comparisons.  This is the

     -U	   Modify the owner, group, permissions, and modification time of
	   existing files to match the specification and create any missing
	   directories or symbolic links.  User, group and permissions must
	   all be specified for missing directories to be created.  Corrected
	   mismatches are not considered errors.

     -c	   Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard out‐

     -d	   Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -e	   Do not complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not
	   in the specification.

     -i	   Indent the output 4 spaces each time a directory level is descended
	   when creating a specification with the -c option.  This does not
	   affect either the /set statements or the comment before each direc‐
	   tory.  It does however affect the comment before the close of each

     -n	   Do not emit pathname comments when creating a specification.	 Nor‐
	   mally a comment is emitted before each directory and before the
	   close of that directory when using the -c option.

     -q	   Quiet mode.	Do not complain when a “missing” directory cannot be
	   created because it already exists.  This occurs when the directory
	   is a symbolic link.

     -r	   Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in
	   the specification.

     -u	   Same as -U except a status of 2 is returned if the file hierarchy
	   did not match the specification.

     -w	   Make some errors non-fatal warnings.

     -x	   Do not descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.

     -f file
	   Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard

	   If this option is specified twice, the two specifications are com‐
	   pared to each other rather than to the file hierarchy.  The speci‐
	   fications will be sorted like output generated using -c.  The out‐
	   put format in this case is somewhat remniscent of comm(1), having
	   "in first spec only", "in second spec only", and "different" col‐
	   umns, prefixed by zero, one and two TAB characters respectively.
	   Each entry in the "different" column occupies two lines, one from
	   each specification.

     -K keywords
	   Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the
	   current set of keywords.

     -k keywords
	   Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma
	   separated) keywords instead of the current set of keywords.

     -p path
	   Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current

     -s seed
	   Display a single checksum to the standard error output that repre‐
	   sents all of the files for which the keyword cksum was specified.
	   The checksum is seeded with the specified value.

     -X exclude-list
	   The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to
	   be excluded from the specification, one to a line.  If the pattern
	   contains a ‘/’ character, it will be matched against entire path‐
	   names (relative to the starting directory); otherwise, it will be
	   matched against basenames only.  No comments are allowed in the
	   exclude-list file.

     Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e., strings that
     specify values relating to files.	No keywords have default values, and
     if a keyword has no value set, no checks based on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum	 The checksum of the file using the default algorithm speci‐
		 fied by the cksum(1) utility.

     flags	 The file flags as a symbolic name.  See chflags(1) for infor‐
		 mation on these names.	 If no flags are to be set the string
		 “none” may be used to override the current default.

     ignore	 Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.

     gid	 The file group as a numeric value.

     gname	 The file group as a symbolic name.

     md5digest	 The MD5 message digest of the file.

     sha1digest	 The FIPS 160-1 (“SHA-1”) message digest of the file.

		 The FIPS 180-2 (“SHA-256”) message digest of the file.

		 The RIPEMD160 message digest of the file.

     mode	 The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or sym‐
		 bolic value.

     nlink	 The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     nochange	 Make sure this file or directory exists but otherwise ignore
		 all attributes.

     optional	 The file is optional; do not complain about the file if it is
		 not in the file hierarchy.

     uid	 The file owner as a numeric value.

     uname	 The file owner as a symbolic name.

     size	 The size, in bytes, of the file.

     link	 The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.

     time	 The last modification time of the file, in seconds and
		 nanoseconds.  The value should include a period character and
		 exactly nine digits after the period.

     type	 The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:

		 block	     block special device
		 char	     character special device
		 dir	     directory
		 fifo	     fifo
		 file	     regular file
		 link	     symbolic link
		 socket	     socket

     The default set of keywords are flags, gid, mode, nlink, size, link,
     time, and uid.

     There are four types of lines in a specification.

     The first type of line sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of
     the string ``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of key‐
     word/value pairs, separated by whitespace.	 Keyword/value pairs consist
     of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed by a value,
     without whitespace characters.  Once a keyword has been set, its value
     remains unchanged until either reset or unset.

     The second type of line unsets keywords and consists of the string
     ``/unset'', followed by whitespace, followed by one or more keywords,
     separated by whitespace.

     The third type of line is a file specification and consists of a file
     name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace sepa‐
     rated keyword/value pairs.	 The file name may be preceded by whitespace
     characters.  The file name may contain any of the standard file name
     matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``?'' or ``*''), in which case files
     in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that they

     Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an
     equals sign (``=''), followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace
     characters.  These values override, without changing, the global value of
     the corresponding keyword.

     All paths are relative.  Specifying a directory will cause subsequent
     files to be searched for in that directory hierarchy.  Which brings us to
     the last type of line in a specification: a line containing only the
     string “..” causes the current directory path to ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark
     (``#'') are ignored.

     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error
     occurred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.  A
     status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the -U option is used.

     /etc/mtree	 system specification directory

     The mtree utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recom‐
     mended that mtree -K sha256digest be run on the file systems, and a copy
     of the results stored on a different machine, or, at least, in encrypted
     form.  The output file itself should be digested using the sha256(1)
     utility.  Then, periodically, mtree and sha256(1) should be run against
     the on-line specifications.  While it is possible for the bad guys to
     change the on-line specifications to conform to their modified binaries,
     it is believed to be impractical for them to create a modified specifica‐
     tion which has the same SHA-256 digest as the original.

     The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory
     hierarchies for distributions and other such things; the files in
     /etc/mtree were used to create almost all directories in this FreeBSD

     To create an /etc/mtree style BSD.*.dist file, use mtree -c -d -i -n -k

     chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), md5(1), stat(2), fts(3),
     md5(3), chown(8)

     The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.	 The MD5 digest capability was
     added in FreeBSD 2.1, in response to the widespread use of programs which
     can spoof cksum(1).  The SHA-1 and RIPEMD160 digests were added in
     FreeBSD 4.0, as new attacks have demonstrated weaknesses in MD5.  The
     SHA-256 digest was added in FreeBSD 6.0.  Support for file flags was
     added in FreeBSD 4.0, and mostly comes from NetBSD.

BSD				 June 16, 2007				   BSD

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