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ncurses(3X)							   ncurses(3X)

NAME
       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

SYNOPSIS
       #include <curses.h>

DESCRIPTION
       The  ncurses  library  routines	give  the  user a terminal-independent
       method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable	 optimization.
       This  implementation  is	 ``new	curses'' (ncurses) and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.

       The ncurses routines emulate the curses(3X) library of System V Release
       4  UNIX,	 and  the  XPG4	 curses	 standard (XSI curses) but the ncurses
       library is freely redistributable in source form.  Differences from the
       SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections below
       and described in detail in the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections of individ‐
       ual man pages.

       A  program  using  these	 routines  must	 be  linked with the -lncurses
       option, or (if it  has  been  generated)	 with  the  debugging  library
       -lncurses_g.   (Your  system  integrator	 may also have installed these
       libraries under the names  -lcurses  and	 -lcurses_g.)	The  ncurses_g
       library	generates  trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
       directory) that describe curses actions.

       The ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad  manipula‐
       tion;  output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control over
       terminal and curses input and output options;  environment  query  rou‐
       tines;  color  manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo capabili‐
       ties; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       To initialize the routines, the routine	initscr	 or  newterm  must  be
       called  before  any  of	the  other routines that deal with windows and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin must be  called  before  exiting.
       To  get	character-at-a-time  input  without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence  should  be
       used:

	     initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

	     nonl();
	     intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
	     keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
       set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be	output.	  This
       can be done by executing the tput init command after the shell environ‐
       ment variable TERM has been exported.  tset(1) is  usually  responsible
       for doing this.	[See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses  library  permits  manipulation of data structures, called
       windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays  of  charac‐
       ters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default window called
       stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.	Others
       may be created with newwin.

       Note  that  curses  does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
       the panel(3X) library. This means that you can  either  use  stdscr  or
       divide  the screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all. Mix‐
       ing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.  These  data
       structures  are	manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
       in the ncurses manual pages.  Among which the most basic	 routines  are
       move  and  addch.  More general versions of these routines are included
       with names beginning with w, allowing the user  to  specify  a  window.
       The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.)

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
       curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The  characters
       in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data)
       so that other information about the character may also be  stored  with
       each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose  contents
       need  not  be completely displayed.  See curs_pad(3X) for more informa‐
       tion.

       In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video  attributes  and
       colors  may  be	supported,  causing  the characters to show up in such
       modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color  on  terminals  that
       support	such  display  enhancements.   Line  drawing characters may be
       specified to be output.	On input, curses is  also  able	 to  translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val‐
       ues.  The video attributes, line drawing characters, and	 input	values
       use  names,  defined  in	 <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and
       KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the  pro‐
       gram  is executing in a window environment, line and column information
       in the environment will override information read  by  terminfo.	  This
       would effect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where
       the size of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If the environment variable TERMINFO  is	 defined,  any	program	 using
       curses  checks  for  a local terminal definition before checking in the
       standard place.	For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the  com‐
       piled terminal definition is found in

	     /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424.

       (The  a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However,  if	 TERMINFO  is  set  to	$HOME/myterms,
       curses first checks

	     $HOME/myterms/a/att4424,

       and if that fails, it then checks

	     /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424.

       This  is	 useful	 for developing experimental definitions or when write
       permission in /usr/share/terminfo is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will
       be  filled  in  by  initscr with the size of the screen.	 The constants
       TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr  which  is
       used  for  certain  low-level  operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a  few  rou‐
       tines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many  curses routines have two or more versions.	 The routines prefixed
       with w require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require
       a pad argument.	Those without a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The  routines  prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call
       to  move before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate y always
       refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to  the  column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The  routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
       coordinates.  The window argument is always specified before the	 coor‐
       dinates.

       In  each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected;
       win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the  value  TRUE
       or  FALSE; bf is always of type bool.  The variables ch and attrs below
       are always of type chtype.  The types WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and	chtype
       are  defined  in <curses.h>.  The type TERMINAL is defined in <term.h>.
       All other arguments are integers.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the  man‐
       ual  page  on  which  it	 is  described.	 Routines flagged with `*' are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

		     curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
		     ────────────────────────────────────────────
		     COLOR_PAIR		     curs_color(3X)
		     PAIR_NUMBER	     curs_attr(3X)
		     _nc_tracebits	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechar		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracedump		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracef		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracemouse	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     add_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     addch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     addchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     addstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
		     attr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_on		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     baudrate		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     beep		     curs_beep(3X)
		     bkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     bkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     border		     curs_border(3X)
		     box		     curs_border(3X)
		     can_change_color	     curs_color(3X)

		     cbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     chgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     clear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clearok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     clrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     color_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     color_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     copywin		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     curs_set		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     curses_version	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     def_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     def_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     define_key		     define_key(3X)*
		     del_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     delay_output	     curs_util(3X)
		     delch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     deleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     delscreen		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     delwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     derwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     doupdate		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     dupwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     echo		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     echo_wchar		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     echochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     endwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     erase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     erasechar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     filter		     curs_util(3X)
		     flash		     curs_beep(3X)
		     flushinp		     curs_util(3X)
		     getbegyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     getcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     getch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     getmaxyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     getnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getparyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     getwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     getyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     halfdelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     has_colors		     curs_color(3X)
		     has_ic		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     has_il		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     has_key		     curs_getch(3X)*
		     hline		     curs_border(3X)
		     idcok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     idlok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     immedok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     inch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     inchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     inchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     init_color		     curs_color(3X)
		     init_pair		     curs_color(3X)
		     initscr		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     innstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     insch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     insdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     insstr		     curs_insstr(3X)

		     instr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     intrflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     is_linetouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     is_wintouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     isendwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     keybound		     keybound(3X)*
		     keyname		     curs_util(3X)
		     keyok		     keyok(3X)*
		     keypad		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     killchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     leaveok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     longname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     mcprint		     curs_print(3X)*
		     meta		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     mouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mouseinterval	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mousemask		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     move		     curs_move(3X)
		     mvadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvcur		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     mvdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvderwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvinchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     mvscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvwaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvwaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddchstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvwdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvwgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvwgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvwinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvwinchnstr	     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvwinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)

		     mvwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvwvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     napms		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     newpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     newterm		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     newwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     nl			     curs_outopts(3X)
		     nocbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nodelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noecho		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nonl		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     noqiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noraw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     notimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     overlay		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     overwrite		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     pair_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     pechochar		     curs_pad(3X)
		     pnoutrefresh	     curs_pad(3X)
		     prefresh		     curs_pad(3X)
		     printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     putp		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     putwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     qiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     raw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     redrawwin		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     refresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     reset_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     reset_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resizeterm		     resizeterm(3X)*
		     restartterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     ripoffline		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     savetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     scr_dump		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_init		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_restore	     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_set		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scroll		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scrollok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     set_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     set_term		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     setcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     setscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     setsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     setterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     setupterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     slk_attr		     curs_slk(3X)*
		     slk_attr_off	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_on	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_set	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attroff	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attron		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attrset	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_clear		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_color		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_init		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_label		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_noutrefresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_refresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_restore	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_set		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_touch		     curs_slk(3X)

		     standend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     standout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     start_color	     curs_color(3X)
		     subpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     subwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     syncok		     curs_window(3X)
		     termattrs		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     termname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     tgetent		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetflag		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetnum		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetstr		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgoto		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tigetflag		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetnum		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetstr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     timeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     touchline		     curs_touch(3X)
		     touchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     tparm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     trace		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     typeahead		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     unctrl		     curs_util(3X)
		     ungetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     ungetmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     untouchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     use_default_colors	     default_colors(3X)*
		     use_env		     curs_util(3X)
		     use_extended_names	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     vidattr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vidputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vline		     curs_border(3X)
		     vw_printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vw_scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     vwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     waddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     waddchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     waddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     wattr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_on		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wbkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wborder		     curs_border(3X)
		     wchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wclear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wcolor_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wcursyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     wdeleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     wecho_wchar	     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     wechochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     wenclose		     curs_mouse(3X)*

		     werase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     wgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     wgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     whline		     curs_border(3X)
		     winch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     winchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     winsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     winsdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     wmouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     wmove		     curs_move(3X)
		     wnoutrefresh	     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     wredrawln		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wrefresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wresize		     wresize(3X)*
		     wscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wscrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     wsetscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     wstandend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wstandout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wsyncdown		     curs_window(3X)
		     wsyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wtimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     wtouchln		     curs_touch(3X)
		     wvline		     curs_border(3X)

RETURN VALUE
       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an  integer
       value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       All macros return  the  value  of  the  w  version,  except  setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, getmaxyx.  The return values of setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and getmaxyx are  undefined	 (i.e.,	 these
       should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

ENVIRONMENT
       The  following  environment symbols are useful for customizing the run‐
       time behavior of the ncurses library.  The  most	 important  ones  have
       been already discussed in detail.

       BAUDRATE
	    The	 debugging  library  checks  this  environment symbol when the
	    application has redirected output to a file.  The symbol's numeric
	    value is used for the baudrate.  If no value is found ncurses uses
	    9600.  This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that
	    take into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When  set,	change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the
	    cmdch capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the  value  of
	    this symbol.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

       COLUMNS
	    Specify  the width of the screen in characters.  Applications run‐
	    ning in a windowing environment usually are	 able  to  obtain  the
	    width  of  the window in which they are executing.	If neither the
	    $COLUMNS value  nor	 the  terminal's  screen  size	is  available,
	    ncurses uses the size which may be specified in the terminfo data‐
	    base (i.e., the cols capability).

	    It is important that your application use a correct size  for  the
	    screen.   However, this is not always possible because your appli‐
	    cation may be running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negoti‐
	    ations  About Window Size), or because you are temporarily running
	    as another user.

	    Either COLUMNS or LINES symbols may	 be  specified	independently.
	    This is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal
	    descriptions, e.g., xterm  which  commonly	specifies  a  65  line
	    screen.   For best results, lines and cols should not be specified
	    in a terminal description for terminals which are  run  as	emula‐
	    tions.

	    Use the use_env function to disable this feature.

       ESCDELAY
	    Specifies  the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will
	    await a character sequence, e.g., a	 function  key.	  The  default
	    value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough for most uses.	However, it is
	    made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

	    The most common instance where you may wish to change  this	 value
	    is	to  work  with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.	If the
	    host cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the  same
	    effect  as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.
	    The library will still see a timeout.

	    Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
	    received  from  the xterm.	If your application makes heavy use of
	    multiple-clicking, you may wish to	lengthen  this	default	 value
	    because  the  timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as
	    well as the individual clicks.

       HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory is.	 That is where it  may
	    read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:

	    $HOME/.termcap
	    $HOME/.terminfo

       LINES
	    Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See
	    COLUMNS for a detailed description.

       MOUSE_BUTTONS_123
	    This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of
	    buttons  on	 the  mouse.   OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsis‐
	    tently from other platforms:

	    1 = left
	    2 = right
	    3 = middle.

	    This symbol lets you customize the	mouse.	 The  symbol  must  be
	    three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is
	    not specified, ncurses uses 132.

       NCURSES_NO_PADDING
	    Most of the terminal descriptions in  the  terminfo	 database  are
	    written  for  real "hardware" terminals.  Many people use terminal
	    emulators which run in a windowing	environment  and  use  curses-
	    based  applications.   Terminal emulators can duplicate all of the
	    important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the
	    same  limitations.	 The  chief  limitation of a hardware terminal
	    from the standpoint of  your  application  is  the	management  of
	    dataflow,  i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced
	    into a terminal concentrator (which does  flow  control),  it  (or
	    your  application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns.  The
	    cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for	 your  program	to  do
	    this  by  pausing  after operations that the terminal does slowly,
	    such as clearing the display.

	    As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
	    delay times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but
	    not want to pay the performance penalty.

	    Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING symbol to  disable  all	but  mandatory
	    padding.   Mandatory  padding is used as a part of special control
	    sequences such as flash.

       NCURSES_NO_SETBUF
	    Normally ncurses enables buffered output during terminal  initial‐
	    ization.   This  is	 done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance rea‐
	    sons.  For testing purposes, both of ncurses and certain  applica‐
	    tions, this feature is made optional.  Setting the NCURSES_NO_SET‐
	    BUF variable disables output buffering, leaving the output in  the
	    original (usually line buffered) mode.

       NCURSES_TRACE
	    During  initialization,  the  ncurses debugging library checks the
	    NCURSES_TRACE symbol.  If it  is  defined,	to  a  numeric	value,
	    ncurses  calls  the	 trace function, using that value as the argu‐
	    ment.

	    The argument values, which are defined in curses.h,	 provide  sev‐
	    eral types of information.	When running with traces enabled, your
	    application will write the file trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes your terminal  type.   Each	 terminal  type	 is  distinct,
	    though many are similar.

       TERMCAP
	    If	the  ncurses library has been configured with termcap support,
	    ncurses will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if
	    it is not available in the terminfo database.

	    The	 TERMCAP  symbol  contains either a terminal description (with
	    newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the  informa‐
	    tion  denoted  by the TERM symbol exists.  In either case, setting
	    it directs ncurses to ignore the usual place for this information,
	    e.g., /etc/termcap.

       TERMINFO
	    Overrides  the directory in which ncurses searches for your termi‐
	    nal description.  This is the simplest, but not the	 only  way  to
	    change  the list of directories.  The complete list of directories
	    in order follows:

	    -  the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is  searched
	       first.

	    -  the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol

	    -  $HOME/.terminfo

	    -  directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol

	    -  one or more directories whose names are configured and compiled
	       into the ncurses library, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo

       TERMINFO_DIRS
	    Specifies a list of directories to search  for  terminal  descrip‐
	    tions.  The list is separated by colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semi‐
	    colons on OS/2 EMX.	 All of the terminal descriptions are in  ter‐
	    minfo  form, which makes a subdirectory named for the first letter
	    of the terminal names therein.

       TERMPATH
	    If TERMCAP does not hold a	file  name  then  ncurses  checks  the
	    TERMPATH  symbol.  This is a list of filenames separated by spaces
	    or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on  OS/2	EMX.   If  the
	    TERMPATH  symbol is not set, ncurses looks in the files /etc/term‐
	    cap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
       the  current  user  is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
       setuid or setgid permissions: $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH,  as
       well as $HOME.

FILES
       /usr/share/tabset
	    directory  containing  initialization files for the terminal capa‐
	    bility database /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database

SEE ALSO
       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin	"curs_"	 for  detailed
       routine descriptions.

EXTENSIONS
       The  ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that
       falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file  if  the  terminal	 setup
       code  cannot  find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use of this
       feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire	 term‐
       cap  compiler  in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in core
       and startup cycles.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse  events  on
       certain terminals (including xterm). See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page
       for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window resiz‐
       ing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See the resizeterm(3X) and
       wresize(3X) manual pages for details.  In addition, the library may  be
       configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The  ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
       of terminals by allowing the application designer to define  additional
       key  sequences at runtime.  See the define_key(3X) and keyok(3X) manual
       pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the  capabilities  of  terminals	 which
       implement  the  ISO-6429	 SGR  39  and  SGR 49 controls, which allow an
       application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and	 back‐
       ground colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is able to
       draw colored text on a background whose	color  is  set	independently,
       providing  better  control  over color contrasts.  See the default_col‐
       ors(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing application  out‐
       put   to	  a   printer  attached	 to  the  terminal  device.   See  the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

PORTABILITY
       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level	 conformant  with  the
       XSI Curses standard.  Certain portions of the EXTENDED XSI Curses func‐
       tionality (including  color  support)  are  supported.	The  following
       EXTENDED XSI Curses calls in support of wide (multibyte) characters are
       not  yet	 implemented:  add_wchnstr,  add_wchstr,  addnwstr,   addwstr,
       bkgrnd,	bkgrndset, border_set, box_set, erasewchar, get_wch, get_wstr,
       getbkgrnd,  getn_wstr,  getwchtype,  hline_set,	 in_wch,   in_wchnstr,
       in_wchstr,  innwstr, ins_nwstr, ins_wch, ins_wstr, inwchnstr, inwchstr,
       inwstr, key_name, killwchar, mvadd_wchnstr,  mvadd_wchstr,  mvaddnwstr,
       mvaddwstr,  mvget_wch,  mvget_wstr, mvgetn_wstr, mvhline_set, mvin_wch,
       mvinnwstr, mvins_nwstr, mvins_wch, mvins_wstr, mvinwchnstr, mvinwchstr,
       mvinwchstr,   mvinwstr,	 mvvline_set,  mvwadd_wchnstr,	mvwadd_wchstr,
       mvwaddnwstr,   mvwaddwstr,    mvwget_ch,	   mvwget_wch,	  mvwget_wstr,
       mvwgetn_wstr,  mvwhline_set,  mvwin_wch,	 mvwin_wchnstr,	 mvwin_wchstr,
       mvwinnwstr,  mvwins_nwstr,   mvwins_wch,	  mvwins_wstr,	 mvwinwchnstr.
       mvwinwstr,  mvwvline_set, pecho_wchar, slk_wset, term_attrs, unget_wch,
       vhline_set, vid_attr, vid_puts, vline_set,  wadd_wchnstr,  wadd_wchstr,
       waddnwstr,  waddwstr,  waddwstr, wbkgrnd, wbkgrndset, wbkgrndset, wbor‐
       der_set,	 wget_wch,  wget_wstr,	wgetbkgrnd,  wgetn_wstr,   whline_set,
       win_wch,	  win_wchnstr,	win_wchstr,  winnwstr,	wins_nwstr,  wins_wch,
       wins_wstr, winwchnstr, winwchstr, winwstr, wunctrl, wvline_set,

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual  differences
       between	the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY
       sections of the library man pages.

       The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is	it  present  in	 SVr4.
       See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       The  routine  slk_attr  is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
       See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval,  and  wen‐
       close  relating to mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor are they
       present in SVr4.	 See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.

       The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses  implementa‐
       tion.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The  routine  wresize  is  not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
       See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in	the  capabilities  cr,
       ind,  cub1,  ff	and tab activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by NUL	sends.
       This  method  is	 slightly more expensive, but narrows the interface to
       the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the	package's  portability
       correspondingly.

       In  the XSI standard and SVr4 manual pages, many entry points have pro‐
       totype arguments of the for char *const (or cchar_t *const, or  wchar_t
       *const, or void *const).	 Depending on one's interpretation of the ANSI
       C standard (see section 3.5.4.1), these	declarations  are  either  (a)
       meaningless,  or	 (b)  meaningless  and illegal.	 The declaration const
       char *x is a modifiable pointer to unmodifiable data, but  char	*const
       x'  is an unmodifiable pointer to modifiable data.  Given that C passes
       arguments by value, <type> *const as a formal type is at best  dubious.
       Some compilers choke on the prototypes.	Therefore, in this implementa‐
       tion, they have been changed to const <type> * globally.

NOTES
       The header file <curses.h>  automatically  includes  the	 header	 files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If  standard  output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something
       which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard	error.
       This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.

AUTHORS
       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.

								   ncurses(3X)
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