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NETSNIFF-NG(8)		      netsniff-ng toolkit		NETSNIFF-NG(8)

       netsniff-ng - the packet sniffing beast

       netsniff-ng { [options] [filter-expression] }

       netsniff-ng is a fast, minimal tool to analyze network packets, capture
       pcap files, replay pcap files, and redirect traffic between  interfaces
       with  the  help	of  zero-copy packet(7) sockets. netsniff-ng uses both
       Linux specific RX_RING and TX_RING  interfaces  to  perform  zero-copy.
       This  is to avoid copy and system call overhead between kernel and user
       address space. When we started  working	on  netsniff-ng,  the  pcap(3)
       library did not use this zero-copy facility.

       netsniff-ng  is	Linux  specific, meaning there is no support for other
       operating systems. Therefore we can keep the code footprint quite mini‐
       mal  and	 to  the  point.  Linux	 packet(7) sockets and its RX_RING and
       TX_RING interfaces bypass the normal packet processing path through the
       networking  stack.   This is the fastest capturing or transmission per‐
       formance one can get from user space out of the box, without having  to
       load unsupported or non-mainline third-party kernel modules. We explic‐
       itly refuse to build netsniff-ng on top of ntop/PF_RING. Not because we
       do  not	like  it  (we do find it interesting), but because of the fact
       that it is not part of the mainline kernel. Therefore, the ntop project
       has  to	maintain  and  sync out-of-tree drivers to adapt them to their
       DNA. Eventually, we went for untainted Linux kernel, since its code has
       a higher rate of review, maintenance, security and bug fixes.

       netsniff-ng  also supports early packet filtering in the kernel. It has
       support for low-level and high-level packet filters that are translated
       into Berkeley Packet Filter instructions.

       netsniff-ng  can	 capture  pcap files in several different pcap formats
       that are interoperable with other tools.	 It  has  different  pcap  I/O
       methods	supported (scatter-gather, mmap(2), read(2), and write(2)) for
       efficient to-disc capturing.  netsniff-ng is also able to  rotate  pcap
       files  based  on	 data size or time intervals, thus, making it a useful
       backend tool for subsequent traffic analysis.

       netsniff-ng itself also supports analysis, replaying,  and  dumping  of
       raw  802.11  frames.  For online or offline analysis, netsniff-ng has a
       built-in packet dissector for the  current  802.3  (Ethernet),  802.11*
       (WLAN),	ARP, MPLS, 802.1Q (VLAN), 802.1QinQ, LLDP, IPv4, IPv6, ICMPv4,
       ICMPv6, IGMP, TCP and UDP, including  GeoIP  location  analysis.	 Since
       netsniff-ng  does  not establish any state or perform reassembly during
       packet dissection, its memory footprint is quite low, thus, making net‐
       sniff-ng	 quite	efficient  for offline analysis of large pcap files as

       Note that netsniff-ng is currently  not	multithreaded.	However,  this
       does  not prevent you from starting multiple netsniff-ng instances that
       are pinned to different, non-overlapping CPUs and f.e.  have  different
       BPF  filters attached.  Likely that at some point in time your harddisc
       might become a bottleneck assuming you do not rotate such pcaps in  ram
       (and  from there periodically scheduled move to slower medias). You can
       then use mergecap(1) to transform all pcaps into a single  large	 pcap.
       Thus, netsniff-ng then works multithreaded eventually.

       netsniff-ng can also be used to debug netlink traffic.

   -i <dev|pcap|->, -d <dev|pcap|->, --in <dev|pcap|->, --dev <dev|pcap|->
       Defines an input device. This can either be a networking device, a pcap
       file or stdin (“-”). In case of	a  pcap	 file,	the  pcap  type	 (“-D”
       option)	is determined automatically by the pcap file magic. In case of
       stdin, it is assumed that the input stream is a pcap file.

   -o <dev|pcap|dir|cfg|->, --out <dev|pcap|dir|cfg|->
       Defines the output device. This can either be a	networking  device,  a
       pcap  file,  a folder, a trafgen(8) configuration file or stdout (“-”).
       In the case of a pcap file that should not have the default  pcap  type
       (0xa1b2c3d4),  the additional option “-T” must be provided. If a direc‐
       tory is given, then, instead of a single pcap file, multiple pcap files
       are  generated  with  rotation  based  on  maximum file size or a given
       interval (“-F” option). A trafgen configuration file can currently only
       be  specified if the input device is a pcap file. If stdout is given as
       a device, then a trafgen configuration will be written to stdout if the
       input  device  is  a pcap file, or a pcap file if the input device is a
       networking device.

   -f, --filter <bpf-file|expr>
       Specifies to not dump all traffic, but to  filter  the  network	packet
       haystack.  As a filter, either a bpfc(8) compiled file can be passed as
       a parameter or a	 tcpdump(1)-like  filter  expression  in  quotes.  For
       details	regarding  the	bpf-file  have	a look at bpfc(8), for details
       regarding a tcpdump(1)-like filter have a look at section “filter exam‐
       ple”  or	 at  pcap-filter(7). A filter expression may also be passed to
       netsniff-ng without option “-f” in case there is no  subsequent	option
       following after the command-line filter expression.

   -t, --type <type>
       This  defines some sort of filtering mechanisms in terms of addressing.
       Possible values for type are “host”  (to	 us),  “broadcast”  (to	 all),
       “multicast” (to group), “others” (promiscuous mode) or “outgoing” (from

   -F, --interval <size|time>
       If the output device is a folder, with “-F”, it is possible  to	define
       the  pcap file rotation interval either in terms of size or time. Thus,
       when the interval limit has been reached,  a  new  pcap	file  will  be
       started.	  As   size  parameter,	 the  following	 values	 are  accepted
       “<num>KiB/MiB/GiB”; As time parameter, it can be “<num>s/sec/min/hrs”.

   -J, --jumbo-support
       By default, in pcap replay or redirect mode, netsniff-ng's ring	buffer
       frames  are  a  fixed  size  of	2048 bytes. This means that if you are
       expecting jumbo frames or even super jumbo frames to pass through  your
       network, then you need to enable support for that by using this option.
       However, this has the disadvantage of  performance  degradation	and  a
       bigger  memory  footprint  for  the ring buffer. Note that this doesn't
       affect (pcap) capturing mode, since tpacket in version 3 is used!

   -R, --rfraw
       In case the input or output networking device is a wireless device,  it
       is  possible with netsniff-ng to turn this into monitor mode and create
       a mon<X> device that  netsniff-ng  will	be  listening  on  instead  of
       wlan<X>,	 for  instance.	 This enables netsniff-ng to analyze, dump, or
       even replay raw 802.11 frames.

   -n <0|uint>, --num <0|uint>
       Process a number of packets and then exit. If the number of packets  is
       0,  then	 this is equivalent to infinite packets resp. processing until
       interrupted.  Otherwise, a number given as  an  unsigned	 integer  will
       limit processing.

   -P <name>, --prefix <name>
       When  dumping  pcap  files  into	 a  folder,  a file name prefix can be
       defined with this option. If not otherwise specified, the default  pre‐
       fix  is	“dump-” followed by a Unix timestamp. Use “--prefex ""” to set
       filename as seconds since the Unix Epoch e.g. 1369179203.pcap

   -T <pcap-magic>, --magic <pcap-magic>
       Specify a pcap type for storage. Different pcap types with their	 vari‐
       ous meta data capabilities are shown with option “-D”. If not otherwise
       specified, the pcap-magic 0xa1b2c3d4, also known as a standard tcpdump-
       capable	pcap  format,  is used. Pcap files with swapped endianness are
       also supported.

   -D, --dump-pcap-types
       Dump all available pcap types with their capabilities and magic numbers
       that can be used with option “-T” to stdout and exit.

   -B, --dump-bpf
       If a Berkeley Packet Filter is given, for example via option “-f”, then
       dump the BPF disassembly to stdout during ring setup. This only	serves
       for informative or verification purposes.

   -r, --rand
       If  the	input and output device are both networking devices, then this
       option will randomize packet order in the output ring buffer.

   -M, --no-promisc
       The networking interface will not be  put  into	promiscuous  mode.  By
       default, promiscuous mode is turned on.

   -A, --no-sock-mem
       On  startup and shutdown, netsniff-ng tries to increase socket read and
       write buffers if appropriate. This option will prevent netsniff-ng from
       doing so.

   -m, --mmap
       Use  mmap(2)  as pcap file I/O. This is the default when replaying pcap

   -G, --sg
       Use scatter-gather as pcap file I/O. This is the default when capturing
       pcap files.

   -c, --clrw
       Use  slower read(2) and write(2) I/O. This is not the default case any‐
       where, but in some situations it could be preferred as it has  a	 lower
       latency on write-back to disc.

   -S <size>, --ring-size <size>
       Manually	 define	 the RX_RING resp. TX_RING size in “<num>KiB/MiB/GiB”.
       By default, the size is determined based on  the	 network  connectivity

   -k <uint>, --kernel-pull <uint>
       Manually	 define	 the interval in micro-seconds where the kernel should
       be triggered to batch process the ring buffer frames. By default, it is
       every 10us, but it can manually be prolonged, for instance.

   -b <cpu>, --bind-cpu <cpu>
       Pin  netsniff-ng to a specific CPU and also pin resp. migrate the NIC's
       IRQ CPU affinity to this CPU. This option should be preferred in combi‐
       nation with “-s” in case a middle to high packet rate is expected.

   -u <uid>, --user <uid> resp. -g <gid>, --group <gid>
       After ring setup drop privileges to a non-root user/group combination.

   -H, --prio-high
       Set  this  process  as  a  high	priority process in order to achieve a
       higher scheduling rate resp. CPU time. This is however not the  default
       setting,	 since	it  could  lead	 to starvation of other processes, for
       example low priority kernel threads.

   -Q, --notouch-irq
       Do not reassign the NIC's IRQ CPU affinity settings.

   -s, --silent
       Do not enter the packet dissector at all and do not  print  any	packet
       information  to	the  terminal. Just shut up and be silent. This option
       should be preferred in combination with pcap recording or replay, since
       it  will not flood your terminal which causes a significant performance

   -q, --less
       Print a less verbose one-line information for each packet to the termi‐

   -X, --hex
       Only dump packets in hex format to the terminal.

   -l, --ascii
       Only display ASCII printable characters.

   -U, --update
       If geographical IP location is used, the built-in database update mech‐
       anism will be invoked to get Maxmind's latest  database.	 To  configure
       search  locations  for  databases, the file /etc/netsniff-ng/geoip.conf
       contains possible addresses. Thus, to save bandwidth or	for  mirroring
       of  Maxmind's databases (to bypass their traffic limit policy), differ‐
       ent hosts or IP addresses can be placed into geoip.conf, separated by a

   -V, --verbose
       Be  more	 verbose during startup i.e. show detailed ring setup informa‐

   -v, --version
       Show version information and exit.

   -h, --help
       Show user help and exit.

       The most simple command is to just run “netsniff-ng”. This  will	 start
       listening  on  all available networking devices in promiscuous mode and
       dump the packet dissector output to the	terminal.  No  files  will  be

   netsniff-ng --in eth0 --out dump.pcap -s -T 0xa1e2cb12 -b 0 tcp or udp
       Capture	TCP  or	 UDP  traffic from the networking device eth0 into the
       pcap file named dump.pcap, which has netsniff-ng specific  pcap	exten‐
       sions  (see  “netsniff-ng -D” for capabilities). Also, do not print the
       content to the terminal and pin the process and NIC IRQ affinity to CPU
       0. The pcap write method is scatter-gather I/O.

   netsniff-ng --in wlan0 --rfraw --out dump.pcap --silent --bind-cpu 0
       Put  the	 wlan0	device into monitoring mode and capture all raw 802.11
       frames into the file dump.pcap. Do not dissect and print the content to
       the  terminal  and  pin	the process and NIC IRQ affinity to CPU 0. The
       pcap write method is scatter-gather I/O.

   netsniff-ng --in dump.pcap --mmap --out eth0 -k1000 --silent --bind-cpu 0
       Replay the pcap file dump.pcap which is read through  mmap(2)  I/O  and
       send the packets out via the eth0 networking device. Do not dissect and
       print the content to the terminal and  pin  the	process	 and  NIC  IRQ
       affinity	 to  CPU 0.  Also, trigger the kernel every 1000us to traverse
       the TX_RING instead of every 10us. Note that the	 pcap  magic  type  is
       detected automatically from the pcap file header.

   netsniff-ng --in eth0 --out eth1 --silent --bind-cpu 0 --type host -r
       Redirect	 network  traffic  from the networking device eth0 to eth1 for
       traffic that is destined for our host, thus ignore broadcast, multicast
       and  promiscuous traffic. Randomize the order of packets for the outgo‐
       ing device and do not print any packet contents to the terminal.	 Also,
       pin the process and NIC IRQ affinity to CPU 0.

   netsniff-ng --in team0 --out /opt/probe/ -s -m --interval 100MiB -b 0
       Capture	on an aggregated team0 networking device and dump packets into
       multiple pcap files that are split into 100MiB each. Use mmap(2) I/O as
       a  pcap	write method, support for super jumbo frames is built-in (does
       not need to be configured here), and do not print the captured data  to
       the  terminal.  Pin  netsniff-ng	 and  NIC  IRQ	affinity to CPU 0. The
       default pcap magic type is 0xa1b2c3d4 (tcpdump-capable pcap).

   netsniff-ng --in vlan0 --out dump.pcap -c -u `id -u bob` -g `id -g bob`
       Capture network traffic	on  device  wlan0  into	 a  pcap  file	called
       dump.pcap  by  using  normal  read(2),  write(2)	 I/O for the pcap file
       (slower but less latency). Also, after setting up the RX_RING for  cap‐
       ture, drop privileges from root to the user and group “bob”. Invoke the
       packet dissector and print packet contents to the terminal for  further

   netsniff-ng --in any --filter http.bpf -B --ascii -V
       Capture	from  all  available  networking interfaces and install a low-
       level filter that was previously compiled by bpfc(8) into  http.bpf  in
       order  to  filter  HTTP traffic. Super jumbo frame support is automati‐
       cally enabled and only print human readable packet data to  the	termi‐
       nal,  and also be more verbose during setup phase. Moreover, dump a BPF
       disassembly of http.bpf.

   netsniff-ng --in dump.pcap --out dump.cfg --silent
       Convert the pcap file dump.pcap into a  trafgen(8)  configuration  file
       dump.cfg.  Do not print pcap contents to the terminal.

   netsniff-ng -i dump.pcap -f beacon.bpf -o -
       Convert	the  pcap  file dump.pcap into a trafgen(8) configuration file
       and write it to stdout. However, do not dump all of  its	 content,  but
       only  the one that passes the low-level filter for raw 802.11 from bea‐
       con.bpf. The BPF engine here is invoked in user space  inside  of  net‐
       sniff-ng, so Linux extensions are not available.

   cat foo.pcap | netsniff-ng -i - -o -
       Read a pcap file from stdin and convert it into a trafgen(8) configura‐
       tion file to stdout.

   modprobe nlmon
   ip link add type nlmon
   ip link set nlmon0 up
   netsniff-ng -i nlmon0 -o dump.pcap -s
   ip link set nlmon0 down
   ip link del dev nlmon0
   rmmod nlmon
       In this example, netlink traffic is  being  captured.  If  not  already
       done,  a	 netlink monitoring device needs to be set up before it can be
       used to capture netlink socket buffers (iproute2's ip(1)	 commands  are
       given  for  nlmon device setup and teardown). netsniff-ng can then make
       use of the nlmon device as an input device. In this example a pcap file
       with netlink traffic is being recorded.

       Files  under  /etc/netsniff-ng/ can be modified to extend netsniff-ng's

	   * oui.conf - OUI/MAC vendor database
	   * ether.conf - Ethernet type descriptions
	   * tcp.conf - TCP port/services map
	   * udp.conf - UDP port/services map
	   * geoip.conf - GeoIP database mirrors

       netsniff-ng supports both, low-level and high-level  filters  that  are
       attached	 to  its  packet(7) socket. Low-level filters are described in
       the bpfc(8) man page.

       Low-level filters can be used with netsniff-ng in the following way:

	   1. bpfc foo > bar
	   2. netsniff-ng -f bar

       Here, foo is the bpfc program that will be translated into a  netsniff-
       ng  readable  “opcodes”	file  and passed to netsniff-ng through the -f

       Similarly, high-level filter  can  be  either  passed  through  the  -f
       option,	e.g.  -f "tcp or udp" or at the end of all options without the

       The filter syntax is the same as in tcpdump(8), which is	 described  in
       the man page pcap-filter(7). Just to quote some examples from pcap-fil‐

   host sundown
       To select all packets arriving at or departing from sundown.

   host helios and hot or ace
       To select traffic between helios and either hot or ace.

   ip host ace and not helios
       To select all IP packets between ace and any host except helios.

   net ucb-ether
       To select all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley.

   gateway snup and (port ftp or ftp-data)
       To select all FTP traffic through Internet gateway snup.

   ip and not net localnet
       To select traffic neither sourced from, nor destined for, local	hosts.
       If  you	have  a	 gateway to another network, this traffic should never
       make it onto your local network.

   tcp[tcpflags] & (tcp-syn|tcp-fin) != 0 and not src and dst net localnet
       To select the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets)  of  each
       TCP conversation that involve a non-local host.

   tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)
       To  select  all	IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, that is to say,
       print only packets that contain data, not, for  example,	 SYN  and  FIN
       packets	and  ACK-only  packets.	  (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the

   gateway snup and ip[2:2] > 576
       To select IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup.

   ether[0] & 1 = 0 and ip[16] >= 224
       To select IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Eth‐
       ernet broadcast or multicast.

   icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echo and icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echoreply
       To  select all ICMP packets that are not echo requests or replies (that
       is to say, not "ping" packets).

       netsniff-ng supports a couple of pcap formats, visible  through	``net‐
       sniff-ng -D'':

   tcpdump-capable pcap (default)
       Pcap  magic number is encoded as 0xa1b2c3d4 resp. 0xd4c3b2a1. As packet
       meta data this format contains the timeval in microseconds, the	origi‐
       nal packet length and the captured packet length.

   tcpdump-capable pcap with ns resolution
       Pcap  magic number is encoded as 0xa1b23c4d resp. 0x4d3cb2a1. As packet
       meta data this format contains the timeval in nanoseconds, the original
       packet length and the captured packet length.

   Alexey Kuznetzov's pcap
       Pcap  magic number is encoded as 0xa1b2cd34 resp. 0x34cdb2a1. As packet
       meta data this format contains the timeval in microseconds, the	origi‐
       nal  packet  length,  the  captured  packet length, the interface index
       (sll_ifindex), the packet's protocol  (sll_protocol),  and  the	packet
       type (sll_pkttype).

   netsniff-ng pcap
       Pcap  magic number is encoded as 0xa1e2cb12 resp. 0x12cbe2a1. As packet
       meta data this format contains the timeval in nanoseconds, the original
       packet  length, the captured packet length, the timestamp hw/sw source,
       the interface index (sll_ifindex), the  packet's	 protocol  (sll_proto‐
       col), the packet type (sll_pkttype) and the hardware type (sll_hatype).

       For  further  implementation details or format support in your applica‐
       tion, have a look at pcap_io.h.

       For introducing bit errors, delays with random variation and more while
       replaying pcaps, make use of tc(8) with its disciplines such as netem.

       netsniff-ng  does  only	some  basic,  architecture  generic  tuning on
       startup. If you are considering to do high performance  capturing,  you
       need  to carefully tune your machine, both hardware and software.  Sim‐
       ply letting netsniff-ng run without thinking about your underlying sys‐
       tem  might  not necessarily give you the desired performance. Note that
       tuning your system is always a tradeoff and fine-grained balancing  act
       (throughput versus latency). You should know what you are doing!

       One recommendation for software-based tuning is tuned(8). Besides that,
       there are many other things to consider. Just to throw you a few things
       that  you might want to look at: NAPI networking drivers, tickless ker‐
       nel, I/OAT DMA engine, Direct Cache  Access,  RAM-based	file  systems,
       multi-queues,  and  many	 more things. Also, you might want to read the
       kernel's Documentation/networking/scaling.txt file regarding  technolo‐
       gies  such  as  RSS, RPS, RFS, aRFS and XPS. Also check your ethtool(8)
       settings, for example regarding offloading or Ethernet pause frames.

       Moreover, to get a deeper understanding of  netsniff-ng	internals  and
       how  it interacts with the Linux kernel, the kernel documentation under
       Documentation/networking/{packet_mmap.txt, filter.txt,  multiqueue.txt}
       might be of interest.

       How  do you sniff in a switched environment? I rudely refer to dSniff's
       documentation that says:

       The easiest route is simply to impersonate the local gateway,  stealing
       client  traffic	en  route  to  some remote destination. Of course, the
       traffic must be forwarded by your attacking machine, either by enabling
       kernel  IP  forwarding or with a userland program that accomplishes the
       same (fragrouter -B1).

       Several people have reportedly destroyed connectivity on their  LAN  to
       the outside world by ARP spoofing the gateway, and forgetting to enable
       IP forwarding on the attacking machine. Do not do this. You  have  been

       A  safer option than ARP spoofing would be to use a "port mirror" func‐
       tion if your switch hardware supports it and if you have access to  the

       If  you	do not need to dump all possible traffic, you have to consider
       running netsniff-ng with a BPF filter for the ingress  path.  For  that
       purpose, read the bpfc(8) man page.

       Also,  to  aggregate  multiple  NICs  that  you want to capture on, you
       should consider using team devices, further explained in libteam	 resp.

       The  following netsniff-ng pcap magic numbers are compatible with other
       tools, at least tcpdump or Wireshark:

	   0xa1b2c3d4 (tcpdump-capable pcap)
	   0xa1b23c4d (tcpdump-capable pcap with ns resolution)
	   0xa1b2cd34 (Alexey Kuznetzov's pcap)

       Pcap files with different meta data endianness are  supported  by  net‐
       sniff-ng as well.

       When  replaying pcap files, the timing information from the pcap packet
       header is currently ignored.

       Also, when replaying pcap files, demultiplexing traffic among  multiple
       networking interfaces does not work. Currently, it is only sent via the
       interface that is given by the --out parameter.

       When performing traffic capture on the  Ethernet	 interface,  the  pcap
       file  is	 created and packets are received but without a 802.1Q header.
       When one uses tshark, all headers are visible, but netsniff-ng  removes
       802.1Q headers. Is that normal behavior?

       Yes  and	 no.  The way VLAN headers are handled in PF_PACKET sockets by
       the kernel is somewhat “problematic” [1]. The problem in the Linux ker‐
       nel is that some drivers already handle VLANs, others do not. Those who
       handle it can have different implementations, such as hardware acceler‐
       ation and so on.	 So in some cases the VLAN tag is even stripped before
       entering the protocol stack, in some cases  probably  not.  The	bottom
       line  is that a "hack" was introduced in PF_PACKET so that a VLAN ID is
       visible in some helper data  structure  that  is	 accessible  from  the

       Then  it	 gets  really  messy in the user space to artificially put the
       VLAN header back into the right place. Not  to  mention	the  resulting
       performance  implications on all of libpcap(3) tools since parts of the
       packet need to be copied for reassembly via memmove(3).

       A user reported the following, just  to	demonstrate  this  mess:  some
       tests  were made with two machines, and it seems that results depend on
       the driver ...

	     ethtool -k eth0 gives "rx-vlan-offload: on"
	     - wireshark gets the vlan header
	     - netsniff-ng doesn't get the vlan header
	     ethtool -K eth0 rxvlan off
	     - wireshark gets a QinQ header even though noone sent QinQ
	     - netsniff-ng gets the vlan header

	     ethtool -k eth0 gives "rx-vlan-offload: on"
	     - wireshark gets the vlan header
	     - netsniff-ng doesn't get the vlan header
	     ethtool -K eth0 rxvlan off
	     - wireshark gets the vlan header
	     - netsniff-ng doesn't get the vlan header

       Even if we agreed on doing the same workaround  as  libpcap,  we	 still
       will  not  be able to see QinQ, for instance, due to the fact that only
       one VLAN tag is stored in the kernel helper data	 structure.  We	 think
       that  there  should  be a good consensus on the kernel space side about
       what gets transferred to userland first.

       Update (28.11.2012): the Linux kernel and  also	bpfc(8)	 has  built-in
       support for hardware accelerated VLAN filtering, even though tags might
       not be visible in the payload itself as	reported  here.	 However,  the
       filtering for VLANs works reliable if your NIC supports it. See bpfc(8)
       for an example.


       netsniff-ng is licensed under the GNU GPL version 2.0.

       netsniff-ng was originally  written  for	 the  netsniff-ng  toolkit  by
       Daniel  Borkmann.  Bigger  contributions were made by Emmanuel Roullit,
       Markus Amend, Tobias Klauser and	 Christoph  Jaeger.  It	 is  currently
       maintained  by Tobias Klauser <> and Daniel Borkmann

       trafgen(8),  mausezahn(8),  ifpps(8),  bpfc(8),	flowtop(8),  astracer‐
       oute(8), curvetun(8)

       Manpage was written by Daniel Borkmann.

       This  page is part of the Linux netsniff-ng toolkit project. A descrip‐
       tion of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found

Linux				 03 March 2013			NETSNIFF-NG(8)

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