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OD(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 OD(1)

     od — octal, decimal, hex, ASCII dump

     od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOosvXx] [-A base] [-j skip] [-N length] [-t type]
	[[+]offset[.][Bb]] [file ...]

     The od utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or stan‐
     dard input if no files are specified, in a user specified format.

     The options are as follows:

     -A base	 Specify the input address base.  The argument base may be one
		 of d, o, x or n, which specify decimal, octal, hexadecimal
		 addresses or no address, respectively.

     -a		 Output named characters.  Equivalent to -t a.

     -B, -o	 Output octal shorts.  Equivalent to -t o2.

     -b		 Output octal bytes.  Equivalent to -t o1.

     -c		 Output C-style escaped characters.  Equivalent to -t c.

     -D		 Output unsigned decimal ints.	Equivalent to -t u4.

     -d		 Output unsigned decimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t u2.

     -e, -F	 Output double-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent
		 to -t fD.

     -f		 Output single-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent
		 to -t fF.

     -H, -X	 Output hexadecimal ints.  Equivalent to -t x4.

     -h, -x	 Output hexadecimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t x2.

     -I, -L, -l	 Output signed decimal longs.  Equivalent to -t dL.

     -i		 Output signed decimal ints.  Equivalent to -t dI.

     -j skip	 Skip skip bytes of the combined input before dumping.	The
		 number may be followed by one of b, k or m which specify the
		 units of the number as blocks (512 bytes), kilobytes and
		 megabytes, respectively.

     -N length	 Dump at most length bytes of input.

     -O		 Output octal ints.  Equivalent to -t o4.

     -s		 Output signed decimal shorts.	Equivalent to -t d2.

     -t type	 Specify the output format.  The type argument is a string
		 containing one or more of the following kinds of type speci‐

		 a	 Named characters (ASCII).  Control characters are
			 displayed using the following names:

			 000 NUL 001 SOH 002 STX 003 ETX 004 EOT 005 ENQ
			 006 ACK 007 BEL 008 BS	 009 HT	 00a NL	 00b VT
			 00c FF	 00d CR	 00e SO	 00f SI	 010 DLE 011 DC1
			 012 DC2 013 DC3 014 DC4 015 NAK 016 SYN 017 ETB
			 018 CAN 019 EM	 01a SUB 01b ESC 01c FS	 01d GS
			 01e RS	 01f US	 020 SP	 07f DEL

		 c	 Characters in the default character set.  Non-print‐
			 ing characters are represented as 3-digit octal char‐
			 acter codes, except the following characters, which
			 are represented as C escapes:

			 NUL		  \0
			 alert		  \a
			 backspace	  \b
			 newline	  \n
			 carriage-return  \r
			 tab		  \t
			 vertical tab	  \v

			 Multi-byte characters are displayed in the area cor‐
			 responding to the first byte of the character.	 The
			 remaining bytes are shown as ‘**’.

			 Signed decimal (d), octal (o), unsigned decimal (u)
			 or hexadecimal (x).  Followed by an optional size
			 specifier, which may be either C (char), S (short), I
			 (int), L (long), or a byte count as a decimal inte‐

			 Floating-point number.	 Followed by an optional size
			 specifier, which may be either F (float), D (double)
			 or L (long double).

     -v		 Write all input data, instead of replacing lines of duplicate
		 values with a ‘*’.

     Multiple options that specify output format may be used; the output will
     contain one line for each format.

     If no output format is specified, -t oS is assumed.

     The LANG, LC_ALL and LC_CTYPE environment variables affect the execution
     of od as described in environ(7).

     The od utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     The traditional -s option to extract string constants is not supported;
     consider using strings(1) instead.

     hexdump(1), strings(1)

     The od utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (“POSIX.1”).

     An od command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BSD			       February 18, 2010			   BSD

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