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OPENSSL(1)			    OpenSSL			    OPENSSL(1)

NAME
       openssl - OpenSSL command line tool

SYNOPSIS
       openssl command [ command_opts ] [ command_args ]

       openssl [ list-standard-commands ⎪ list-message-digest-commands ⎪ list-
       cipher-commands ]

       openssl no-XXX [ arbitrary options ]

DESCRIPTION
       OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer
       (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and
       related cryptography standards required by them.

       The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various cryp‐
       tography functions of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell.  It can
       be used for

	o  Creation of RSA, DH and DSA key parameters
	o  Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs
	o  Calculation of Message Digests
	o  Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers
	o  SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests
	o  Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail

COMMAND SUMMARY
       The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the
       SYNOPSIS above), each of which often has a wealth of options and argu‐
       ments (command_opts and command_args in the SYNOPSIS).

       The pseudo-commands list-standard-commands, list-message-digest-com‐
       mands, and list-cipher-commands output a list (one entry per line) of
       the names of all standard commands, message digest commands, or cipher
       commands, respectively, that are available in the present openssl util‐
       ity.

       The pseudo-command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name
       is available.  If no command named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success)
       and prints no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX.  In both
       cases, the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.
       Additional command line arguments are always ignored.  Since for each
       cipher there is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way
       for shell scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the
       openssl program.	 (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as
       quit, list-...-commands, or no-XXX itself.)

       STANDARD COMMANDS

       asn1parse Parse an ASN.1 sequence.

       ca	 Certificate Authority (CA) Management.

       ciphers	 Cipher Suite Description Determination.

       crl	 Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management.

       crl2pkcs7 CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion.

       dgst	 Message Digest Calculation.

       dh	 Diffie-Hellman Parameter Management.  Obsoleted by dhparam.

       dsa	 DSA Data Management.

       dsaparam	 DSA Parameter Generation.

       enc	 Encoding with Ciphers.

       errstr	 Error Number to Error String Conversion.

       dhparam	 Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.

       gendh	 Generation of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.  Obsoleted by
		 dhparam.

       gendsa	 Generation of DSA Parameters.

       genrsa	 Generation of RSA Parameters.

       ocsp	 Online Certificate Status Protocol utility.

       passwd	 Generation of hashed passwords.

       pkcs12	 PKCS#12 Data Management.

       pkcs7	 PKCS#7 Data Management.

       rand	 Generate pseudo-random bytes.

       req	 X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management.

       rsa	 RSA Data Management.

       rsautl	 RSA utility for signing, verification, encryption, and
		 decryption.

       s_client	 This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish
		 a transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS.
		 It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only
		 rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses
		 mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.

       s_server	 This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts con‐
		 nections from remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended
		 for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary
		 interface functionality but internally uses mostly all func‐
		 tionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.	It provides both an
		 own command line oriented protocol for testing SSL functions
		 and a simple HTTP response facility to emulate an
		 SSL/TLS-aware webserver.

       s_time	 SSL Connection Timer.

       sess_id	 SSL Session Data Management.

       smime	 S/MIME mail processing.

       speed	 Algorithm Speed Measurement.

       verify	 X.509 Certificate Verification.

       version	 OpenSSL Version Information.

       x509	 X.509 Certificate Data Management.

       MESSAGE DIGEST COMMANDS

       md2	 MD2 Digest

       md5	 MD5 Digest

       mdc2	 MDC2 Digest

       rmd160	 RMD-160 Digest

       sha	 SHA Digest

       sha1	 SHA-1 Digest

       ENCODING AND CIPHER COMMANDS

       base64	 Base64 Encoding

       bf bf-cbc bf-cfb bf-ecb bf-ofb
		 Blowfish Cipher

       cast cast-cbc
		 CAST Cipher

       cast5-cbc cast5-cfb cast5-ecb cast5-ofb
		 CAST5 Cipher

       des des-cbc des-cfb des-ecb des-ede des-ede-cbc des-ede-cfb des-ede-ofb
       des-ofb
		 DES Cipher

       des3 desx des-ede3 des-ede3-cbc des-ede3-cfb des-ede3-ofb
		 Triple-DES Cipher

       idea idea-cbc idea-cfb idea-ecb idea-ofb
		 IDEA Cipher

       rc2 rc2-cbc rc2-cfb rc2-ecb rc2-ofb
		 RC2 Cipher

       rc4	 RC4 Cipher

       rc5 rc5-cbc rc5-cfb rc5-ecb rc5-ofb
		 RC5 Cipher

PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
       Several commands accept password arguments, typically using -passin and
       -passout for input and output passwords respectively. These allow the
       password to be obtained from a variety of sources. Both of these
       options take a single argument whose format is described below. If no
       password argument is given and a password is required then the user is
       prompted to enter one: this will typically be read from the current
       terminal with echoing turned off.

       pass:password
		 the actual password is password. Since the password is visi‐
		 ble to utilities (like 'ps' under Unix) this form should only
		 be used where security is not important.

       env:var	 obtain the password from the environment variable var. Since
		 the environment of other processes is visible on certain
		 platforms (e.g. ps under certain Unix OSes) this option
		 should be used with caution.

       file:pathname
		 the first line of pathname is the password. If the same path‐
		 name argument is supplied to -passin and -passout arguments
		 then the first line will be used for the input password and
		 the next line for the output password. pathname need not
		 refer to a regular file: it could for example refer to a
		 device or named pipe.

       fd:number read the password from the file descriptor number. This can
		 be used to send the data via a pipe for example.

       stdin	 read the password from standard input.

SEE ALSO
       asn1parse(1), ca(1), config(5), crl(1), crl2pkcs7(1), dgst(1),
       dhparam(1), dsa(1), dsaparam(1), enc(1), gendsa(1), genrsa(1), nseq(1),
       openssl(1), passwd(1), pkcs12(1), pkcs7(1), pkcs8(1), rand(1), req(1),
       rsa(1), rsautl(1), s_client(1), s_server(1), s_time(1), smime(1),
       spkac(1), verify(1), version(1), x509(1), crypto(3), ssl(3)

HISTORY
       The openssl(1) document appeared in OpenSSL 0.9.2.  The list-XXX-com‐
       mands pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.3; the no-XXX pseudo-
       commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.5a.  For notes on the availability
       of other commands, see their individual manual pages.

0.9.7d				  2004-05-17			    OPENSSL(1)
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