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PCAP-FILTER(7)							PCAP-FILTER(7)

NAME
       pcap-filter - packet filter syntax

DESCRIPTION
       pcap_compile()  is used to compile a string into a filter program.  The
       resulting filter program can then be applied to some stream of  packets
       to  determine  which packets will be supplied to pcap_loop(), pcap_dis‐
       patch(), pcap_next(), or pcap_next_ex().

       The filter expression consists of one or more  primitives.   Primitives
       usually consist of an id (name or number) preceded by one or more qual‐
       ifiers.	There are three different kinds of qualifier:

       type   qualifiers say what kind of thing the id name or	number	refers
	      to.   Possible  types are host, net , port and portrange.	 E.g.,
	      `host foo', `net 128.3', `port 20', `portrange  6000-6008'.   If
	      there is no type qualifier, host is assumed.

       dir    qualifiers  specify  a  particular  transfer direction to and/or
	      from id.	Possible directions are src, dst, src or dst, src  and
	      dst,  addr1, addr2, addr3, and addr4.  E.g., `src foo', `dst net
	      128.3', `src or dst port ftp-data'.  If there is no  dir	quali‐
	      fier, src or dst is assumed.  The addr1, addr2, addr3, and addr4
	      qualifiers are only valid for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN link lay‐
	      ers.   For  some	link  layers,  such as SLIP and the ``cooked''
	      Linux capture mode used for the  ``any''	device	and  for  some
	      other  device  types, the inbound and outbound qualifiers can be
	      used to specify a desired direction.

       proto  qualifiers restrict the match to a particular protocol.	Possi‐
	      ble  protos are: ether, fddi, tr, wlan, ip, ip6, arp, rarp, dec‐
	      net, tcp and udp.	 E.g., `ether src foo', `arp net 128.3',  `tcp
	      port  21',  `udp portrange 7000-7009', `wlan addr2 0:2:3:4:5:6'.
	      If there is no proto qualifier, all  protocols  consistent  with
	      the  type	 are  assumed.	 E.g.,	`src foo' means `(ip or arp or
	      rarp) src foo' (except the latter is  not	 legal	syntax),  `net
	      bar'  means  `(ip	 or  arp or rarp) net bar' and `port 53' means
	      `(tcp or udp) port 53'.

       [`fddi' is actually an alias for `ether'; the parser treats them	 iden‐
       tically	as meaning ``the data link level used on the specified network
       interface.''  FDDI headers contain Ethernet-like source and destination
       addresses,  and	often  contain	Ethernet-like packet types, so you can
       filter on these FDDI fields just as with the analogous Ethernet fields.
       FDDI  headers  also  contain  other  fields,  but  you cannot name them
       explicitly in a filter expression.

       Similarly, `tr' and `wlan' are aliases for `ether'; the previous	 para‐
       graph's	statements  about  FDDI	 headers  also apply to Token Ring and
       802.11 wireless LAN  headers.   For  802.11  headers,  the  destination
       address	is  the	 DA  field and the source address is the SA field; the
       BSSID, RA, and TA fields aren't tested.]

       In addition to the above, there are some special	 `primitive'  keywords
       that  don't  follow  the pattern: gateway, broadcast, less, greater and
       arithmetic expressions.	All of these are described below.

       More complex filter expressions are built up by using the words and, or
       and  not	 to  combine primitives.  E.g., `host foo and not port ftp and
       not port ftp-data'.  To save typing, identical qualifier lists  can  be
       omitted.	 E.g., `tcp dst port ftp or ftp-data or domain' is exactly the
       same as `tcp dst port ftp or tcp dst port  ftp-data  or	tcp  dst  port
       domain'.

       Allowable primitives are:

       dst host host
	      True  if	the  IPv4/v6  destination field of the packet is host,
	      which may be either an address or a name.

       src host host
	      True if the IPv4/v6 source field of the packet is host.

       host host
	      True if either the IPv4/v6 source or destination of  the	packet
	      is host.

	      Any of the above host expressions can be prepended with the key‐
	      words, ip, arp, rarp, or ip6 as in:
		   ip host host
	      which is equivalent to:
		   ether proto \ip and host host
	      If host is a name with multiple IP addresses, each address  will
	      be checked for a match.

       ether dst ehost
	      True if the Ethernet destination address is ehost.  Ehost may be
	      either a name from /etc/ethers or a number (see  ethers(3N)  for
	      numeric format).

       ether src ehost
	      True if the Ethernet source address is ehost.

       ether host ehost
	      True  if	either	the  Ethernet source or destination address is
	      ehost.

       gateway host
	      True if the packet used host as a gateway.  I.e.,	 the  Ethernet
	      source or destination address was host but neither the IP source
	      nor the IP destination was host.	Host must be a name  and  must
	      be  found	 both by the machine's host-name-to-IP-address resolu‐
	      tion mechanisms (host name file, DNS,  NIS,  etc.)  and  by  the
	      machine's	  host-name-to-Ethernet-address	 resolution  mechanism
	      (/etc/ethers, etc.).  (An equivalent expression is
		   ether host ehost and not host host
	      which can be used with  either  names  or	 numbers  for  host  /
	      ehost.)  This syntax does not work in IPv6-enabled configuration
	      at this moment.

       dst net net
	      True if the IPv4/v6 destination address of the packet has a net‐
	      work  number of net.  Net may be either a name from the networks
	      database (/etc/networks, etc.) or a  network  number.   An  IPv4
	      network	number	 can  be  written  as  a  dotted  quad	(e.g.,
	      192.168.1.0), dotted triple (e.g., 192.168.1), dotted pair (e.g,
	      172.16),	 or   single   number	(e.g.,	10);  the  netmask  is
	      255.255.255.255 for a dotted quad (which means that it's	really
	      a	 host  match),	255.255.255.0 for a dotted triple, 255.255.0.0
	      for a dotted pair, or 255.0.0.0 for a single  number.   An  IPv6
	      network  number  must  be	 written  out  fully;  the  netmask is
	      ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, so IPv6 "network"  matches  are	really
	      always  host  matches,  and  a  network match requires a netmask
	      length.

       src net net
	      True if the IPv4/v6 source address of the packet has  a  network
	      number of net.

       net net
	      True  if either the IPv4/v6 source or destination address of the
	      packet has a network number of net.

       net net mask netmask
	      True if the IPv4 address matches net with the specific  netmask.
	      May  be qualified with src or dst.  Note that this syntax is not
	      valid for IPv6 net.

       net net/len
	      True if the IPv4/v6 address matches net with a netmask len  bits
	      wide.  May be qualified with src or dst.

       dst port port
	      True if the packet is ip/tcp, ip/udp, ip6/tcp or ip6/udp and has
	      a destination port value of port.	 The port can be a number or a
	      name used in /etc/services (see tcp(4P) and udp(4P)).  If a name
	      is used, both the port number and protocol are  checked.	 If  a
	      number  or  ambiguous  name  is  used,  only  the port number is
	      checked (e.g., dst port 513 will print  both  tcp/login  traffic
	      and  udp/who traffic, and port domain will print both tcp/domain
	      and udp/domain traffic).

       src port port
	      True if the packet has a source port value of port.

       port port
	      True if either the source or destination port of the  packet  is
	      port.

       dst portrange port1-port2
	      True if the packet is ip/tcp, ip/udp, ip6/tcp or ip6/udp and has
	      a destination port value between port1  and  port2.   port1  and
	      port2  are interpreted in the same fashion as the port parameter
	      for port.

       src portrange port1-port2
	      True if the packet has a source port  value  between  port1  and
	      port2.

       portrange port1-port2
	      True  if	either the source or destination port of the packet is
	      between port1 and port2.

	      Any of the above port or port range expressions can be prepended
	      with the keywords, tcp or udp, as in:
		   tcp src port port
	      which matches only tcp packets whose source port is port.

       less length
	      True  if	the  packet has a length less than or equal to length.
	      This is equivalent to:
		   len <= length.

       greater length
	      True if the packet has a length greater than or equal to length.
	      This is equivalent to:
		   len >= length.

       ip proto protocol
	      True  if	the  packet is an IPv4 packet (see ip(4P)) of protocol
	      type protocol.  Protocol can be a number or  one	of  the	 names
	      icmp,  icmp6, igmp, igrp, pim, ah, esp, vrrp, udp, or tcp.  Note
	      that the identifiers tcp, udp, and icmp are  also	 keywords  and
	      must  be	escaped via backslash (\), which is \\ in the C-shell.
	      Note that this primitive does  not  chase	 the  protocol	header
	      chain.

       ip6 proto protocol
	      True  if the packet is an IPv6 packet of protocol type protocol.
	      Note that this primitive does  not  chase	 the  protocol	header
	      chain.

       ip6 protochain protocol
	      True  if the packet is IPv6 packet, and contains protocol header
	      with type protocol in its protocol header chain.	For example,
		   ip6 protochain 6
	      matches any IPv6 packet with TCP protocol header in the protocol
	      header  chain.  The packet may contain, for example, authentica‐
	      tion  header,  routing  header,  or  hop-by-hop  option  header,
	      between  IPv6  header  and  TCP header.  The BPF code emitted by
	      this primitive is complex and cannot be  optimized  by  the  BPF
	      optimizer code, so this can be somewhat slow.

       ip protochain protocol
	      Equivalent to ip6 protochain protocol, but this is for IPv4.

       ether broadcast
	      True  if	the packet is an Ethernet broadcast packet.  The ether
	      keyword is optional.

       ip broadcast
	      True if the packet is an IPv4 broadcast packet.  It  checks  for
	      both  the	 all-zeroes  and  all-ones  broadcast conventions, and
	      looks up the subnet mask on the interface on which  the  capture
	      is being done.

	      If  the  subnet  mask  of	 the interface on which the capture is
	      being done is not available, either  because  the	 interface  on
	      which  capture  is being done has no netmask or because the cap‐
	      ture is being done on the Linux "any" interface, which can  cap‐
	      ture  on	more than one interface, this check will not work cor‐
	      rectly.

       ether multicast
	      True if the packet is an Ethernet multicast packet.   The	 ether
	      keyword is optional.  This is shorthand for `ether[0] & 1 != 0'.

       ip multicast
	      True if the packet is an IPv4 multicast packet.

       ip6 multicast
	      True if the packet is an IPv6 multicast packet.

       ether proto protocol
	      True if the packet is of ether type protocol.  Protocol can be a
	      number or one of the names ip, ip6, arp, rarp, atalk, aarp, dec‐
	      net,  sca,  lat,	mopdl, moprc, iso, stp, ipx, or netbeui.  Note
	      these identifiers are also keywords  and	must  be  escaped  via
	      backslash (\).

	      [In  the	case  of  FDDI (e.g., `fddi protocol arp'), Token Ring
	      (e.g., `tr protocol arp'), and IEEE 802.11 wireless LANS	(e.g.,
	      `wlan  protocol arp'), for most of those protocols, the protocol
	      identification comes from the 802.2 Logical Link	Control	 (LLC)
	      header, which is usually layered on top of the FDDI, Token Ring,
	      or 802.11 header.

	      When filtering for most  protocol	 identifiers  on  FDDI,	 Token
	      Ring, or 802.11, the filter checks only the protocol ID field of
	      an LLC header in so-called SNAP format  with  an	Organizational
	      Unit Identifier (OUI) of 0x000000, for encapsulated Ethernet; it
	      doesn't check whether the packet is in SNAP format with  an  OUI
	      of 0x000000.  The exceptions are:

	      iso    the  filter  checks  the DSAP (Destination Service Access
		     Point) and SSAP (Source Service Access Point)  fields  of
		     the LLC header;

	      stp and netbeui
		     the filter checks the DSAP of the LLC header;

	      atalk  the filter checks for a SNAP-format packet with an OUI of
		     0x080007 and the AppleTalk etype.

	      In the case of Ethernet, the filter  checks  the	Ethernet  type
	      field for most of those protocols.  The exceptions are:

	      iso, stp, and netbeui
		     the  filter checks for an 802.3 frame and then checks the
		     LLC header as it does for FDDI, Token Ring, and 802.11;

	      atalk  the filter checks both for the AppleTalk etype in an Eth‐
		     ernet  frame  and for a SNAP-format packet as it does for
		     FDDI, Token Ring, and 802.11;

	      aarp   the filter checks for the AppleTalk ARP etype  in	either
		     an	 Ethernet  frame or an 802.2 SNAP frame with an OUI of
		     0x000000;

	      ipx    the filter checks for the IPX etype in an Ethernet frame,
		     the  IPX  DSAP  in the LLC header, the 802.3-with-no-LLC-
		     header encapsulation of IPX, and the IPX etype in a  SNAP
		     frame.

       decnet src host
	      True  if	the  DECNET  source  address  is host, which may be an
	      address of the form ``10.123'', or a DECNET host name.   [DECNET
	      host  name  support is only available on ULTRIX systems that are
	      configured to run DECNET.]

       decnet dst host
	      True if the DECNET destination address is host.

       decnet host host
	      True if either the DECNET source or destination address is host.

       ifname interface
	      True if the packet was  logged  as  coming  from	the  specified
	      interface	 (applies only to packets logged by OpenBSD's or Free‐
	      BSD's pf(4)).

       on interface
	      Synonymous with the ifname modifier.

       rnr num
	      True if the packet was logged as matching the specified PF  rule
	      number (applies only to packets logged by OpenBSD's or FreeBSD's
	      pf(4)).

       rulenum num
	      Synonymous with the rnr modifier.

       reason code
	      True if the packet was logged with the specified PF reason code.
	      The known codes are: match, bad-offset, fragment, short, normal‐
	      ize, and memory (applies only to packets logged by OpenBSD's  or
	      FreeBSD's pf(4)).

       rset name
	      True if the packet was logged as matching the specified PF rule‐
	      set name of an anchored ruleset (applies only to packets	logged
	      by OpenBSD's or FreeBSD's pf(4)).

       ruleset name
	      Synonomous with the rset modifier.

       srnr num
	      True  if the packet was logged as matching the specified PF rule
	      number of an anchored ruleset (applies only to packets logged by
	      OpenBSD's or FreeBSD's pf(4)).

       subrulenum num
	      Synonomous with the srnr modifier.

       action act
	      True if PF took the specified action when the packet was logged.
	      Known actions are: pass and block and, with  later  versions  of
	      pf(4)),  nat,  rdr,  binat  and  scrub  (applies only to packets
	      logged by OpenBSD's or FreeBSD's pf(4)).

       wlan addr1 ehost
	      True if the first IEEE 802.11 address is ehost.

       wlan addr2 ehost
	      True if the second IEEE 802.11 address, if  present,  is	ehost.
	      The  second  address  field is used in all frames except for CTS
	      (Clear To Send) and ACK (Acknowledgment) control frames.

       wlan addr3 ehost
	      True if the third IEEE 802.11 address,  if  present,  is	ehost.
	      The  third  address field is used in management and data frames,
	      but not in control frames.

       wlan addr4 ehost
	      True if the fourth IEEE 802.11 address, if  present,  is	ehost.
	      The  fourth address field is only used for WDS (Wireless Distri‐
	      bution System) frames.

       ip, ip6, arp, rarp, atalk, aarp, decnet, iso, stp, ipx, netbeui
	      Abbreviations for:
		   ether proto p
	      where p is one of the above protocols.

       lat, moprc, mopdl
	      Abbreviations for:
		   ether proto p
	      where p is one of the above protocols.  Note that not all appli‐
	      cations  using  pcap(3) currently know how to parse these proto‐
	      cols.

       type wlan_type
	      True if  the  IEEE  802.11  frame	 type  matches	the  specified
	      wlan_type.  Valid wlan_types are: mgt, ctl and data.

       type wlan_type subtype wlan_subtype
	      True  if	the  IEEE  802.11  frame  type	matches	 the specified
	      wlan_type and frame subtype matches the specified wlan_subtype.

	      If the specified wlan_type is mgt, then valid wlan_subtypes are:
	      assoc-req,  assoc-resp,  reassoc-req,  reassoc-resp,  probe-req,
	      probe-resp, beacon, atim, disassoc, auth and deauth.

	      If the specified wlan_type is ctl, then valid wlan_subtypes are:
	      ps-poll, rts, cts, ack, cf-end and cf-end-ack.

	      If  the  specified  wlan_type  is data, then valid wlan_subtypes
	      are: data, data-cf-ack,  data-cf-poll,  data-cf-ack-poll,	 null,
	      cf-ack,  cf-poll,	 cf-ack-poll,  qos-data, qos-data-cf-ack, qos-
	      data-cf-poll, qos-data-cf-ack-poll, qos, qos-cf-poll and qos-cf-
	      ack-poll.

       subtype wlan_subtype
	      True  if	the  IEEE  802.11  frame subtype matches the specified
	      wlan_subtype and frame has  the  type  to	 which	the  specified
	      wlan_subtype belongs.

       dir dir
	      True  if	the  IEEE 802.11 frame direction matches the specified
	      dir.  Valid directions are: nods, tods,  fromds,	dstods,	 or  a
	      numeric value.

       vlan [vlan_id]
	      True  if the packet is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN packet.  If [vlan_id]
	      is specified, only true if the packet has the specified vlan_id.
	      Note  that  the  first  vlan  keyword  encountered in expression
	      changes the decoding offsets for the remainder of expression  on
	      the  assumption  that  the  packet  is  a VLAN packet.  The vlan
	      [vlan_id] expression may be used more than once,	to  filter  on
	      VLAN  hierarchies.   Each	 use of that expression increments the
	      filter offsets by 4.

	      For example:
		   vlan 100 && vlan 200
	      filters on VLAN 200 encapsulated within VLAN 100, and
		   vlan && vlan 300 && ip
	      filters IPv4 protocols encapsulated  in  VLAN  300  encapsulated
	      within any higher order VLAN.

       mpls [label_num]
	      True  if the packet is an MPLS packet.  If [label_num] is speci‐
	      fied, only true is the packet has the specified label_num.  Note
	      that  the	 first	mpls keyword encountered in expression changes
	      the decoding offsets for the  remainder  of  expression  on  the
	      assumption  that	the  packet  is a MPLS-encapsulated IP packet.
	      The mpls [label_num] expression may be used more than  once,  to
	      filter  on MPLS hierarchies.  Each use of that expression incre‐
	      ments the filter offsets by 4.

	      For example:
		   mpls 100000 && mpls 1024
	      filters packets with an outer label of 100000 and an inner label
	      of 1024, and
		   mpls && mpls 1024 && host 192.9.200.1
	      filters  packets	to  or from 192.9.200.1 with an inner label of
	      1024 and any outer label.

       pppoed True if the packet is a PPP-over-Ethernet Discovery packet (Eth‐
	      ernet type 0x8863).

       pppoes True if the packet is a PPP-over-Ethernet Session packet (Ether‐
	      net type 0x8864).	 Note that the first  pppoes  keyword  encoun‐
	      tered in expression changes the decoding offsets for the remain‐
	      der of expression on the assumption that the packet is  a	 PPPoE
	      session packet.

	      For example:
		   pppoes && ip
	      filters IPv4 protocols encapsulated in PPPoE.

       tcp, udp, icmp
	      Abbreviations for:
		   ip proto p or ip6 proto p
	      where p is one of the above protocols.

       iso proto protocol
	      True  if	the packet is an OSI packet of protocol type protocol.
	      Protocol can be a number or one of  the  names  clnp,  esis,  or
	      isis.

       clnp, esis, isis
	      Abbreviations for:
		   iso proto p
	      where p is one of the above protocols.

       l1, l2, iih, lsp, snp, csnp, psnp
	      Abbreviations for IS-IS PDU types.

       vpi n  True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris, with
	      a virtual path identifier of n.

       vci n  True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris, with
	      a virtual channel identifier of n.

       lane   True  if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris, and
	      is an ATM LANE packet.  Note that the first lane keyword encoun‐
	      tered  in	 expression changes the tests done in the remainder of
	      expression on the assumption that the packet is  either  a  LANE
	      emulated	Ethernet  packet or a LANE LE Control packet.  If lane
	      isn't specified, the tests are done under	 the  assumption  that
	      the packet is an LLC-encapsulated packet.

       llc    True  if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris, and
	      is an LLC-encapsulated packet.

       oamf4s True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris,  and
	      is a segment OAM F4 flow cell (VPI=0 & VCI=3).

       oamf4e True  if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris, and
	      is an end-to-end OAM F4 flow cell (VPI=0 & VCI=4).

       oamf4  True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris,  and
	      is  a  segment  or end-to-end OAM F4 flow cell (VPI=0 & (VCI=3 |
	      VCI=4)).

       oam    True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris,  and
	      is  a  segment  or end-to-end OAM F4 flow cell (VPI=0 & (VCI=3 |
	      VCI=4)).

       metac  True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris,  and
	      is on a meta signaling circuit (VPI=0 & VCI=1).

       bcc    True  if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris, and
	      is on a broadcast signaling circuit (VPI=0 & VCI=2).

       sc     True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris,  and
	      is on a signaling circuit (VPI=0 & VCI=5).

       ilmic  True  if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris, and
	      is on an ILMI circuit (VPI=0 & VCI=16).

       connectmsg
	      True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris,  and
	      is  on  a signaling circuit and is a Q.2931 Setup, Call Proceed‐
	      ing, Connect, Connect Ack, Release, or Release Done message.

       metaconnect
	      True if the packet is an ATM packet, for SunATM on Solaris,  and
	      is  on a meta signaling circuit and is a Q.2931 Setup, Call Pro‐
	      ceeding, Connect, Release, or Release Done message.

       expr relop expr
	      True if the relation holds, where relop is one of >, <, >=,  <=,
	      =,  !=, and expr is an arithmetic expression composed of integer
	      constants (expressed in standard C syntax),  the	normal	binary
	      operators	 [+,  -,  *,  /, &, |, <<, >>], a length operator, and
	      special packet data accessors.  Note that	 all  comparisons  are
	      unsigned,	 so that, for example, 0x80000000 and 0xffffffff are >
	      0.  To access data inside the packet, use the following syntax:
		   proto [ expr : size ]
	      Proto is one of ether, fddi, tr, wlan, ppp, slip, link, ip, arp,
	      rarp,  tcp,  udp, icmp, ip6 or radio, and indicates the protocol
	      layer for the index operation.  (ether,  fddi,  wlan,  tr,  ppp,
	      slip  and	 link all refer to the link layer. radio refers to the
	      "radio header" added to some 802.11 captures.)  Note  that  tcp,
	      udp and other upper-layer protocol types only apply to IPv4, not
	      IPv6 (this will be fixed in the future).	The byte offset, rela‐
	      tive to the indicated protocol layer, is given by expr.  Size is
	      optional and indicates the number	 of  bytes  in	the  field  of
	      interest;	 it  can  be either one, two, or four, and defaults to
	      one.  The length operator, indicated by the keyword  len,	 gives
	      the length of the packet.

	      For  example, `ether[0] & 1 != 0' catches all multicast traffic.
	      The expression `ip[0] & 0xf != 5' catches all IPv4 packets  with
	      options.	 The  expression  `ip[6:2]  & 0x1fff = 0' catches only
	      unfragmented IPv4 datagrams and frag  zero  of  fragmented  IPv4
	      datagrams.   This check is implicitly applied to the tcp and udp
	      index operations.	 For instance, tcp[0] always means  the	 first
	      byte  of	the  TCP  header, and never means the first byte of an
	      intervening fragment.

	      Some offsets and field values may be expressed as	 names	rather
	      than  as	numeric	 values.   The following protocol header field
	      offsets are available:  icmptype	(ICMP  type  field),  icmpcode
	      (ICMP code field), and tcpflags (TCP flags field).

	      The following ICMP type field values are available: icmp-echore‐
	      ply, icmp-unreach, icmp-sourcequench, icmp-redirect,  icmp-echo,
	      icmp-routeradvert,   icmp-routersolicit,	 icmp-timxceed,	 icmp-
	      paramprob, icmp-tstamp, icmp-tstampreply,	 icmp-ireq,  icmp-ire‐
	      qreply, icmp-maskreq, icmp-maskreply.

	      The  following  TCP  flags  field values are available: tcp-fin,
	      tcp-syn, tcp-rst, tcp-push, tcp-ack, tcp-urg.

       Primitives may be combined using:

	      A parenthesized group of primitives and  operators  (parentheses
	      are special to the Shell and must be escaped).

	      Negation (`!' or `not').

	      Concatenation (`&&' or `and').

	      Alternation (`||' or `or').

       Negation	 has  highest  precedence.  Alternation and concatenation have
       equal precedence and associate left to right.  Note that	 explicit  and
       tokens, not juxtaposition, are now required for concatenation.

       If an identifier is given without a keyword, the most recent keyword is
       assumed.	 For example,
	    not host vs and ace
       is short for
	    not host vs and host ace
       which should not be confused with
	    not ( host vs or ace )

EXAMPLES
       To select all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
	      host sundown

       To select traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
	      host helios and \( hot or ace \)

       To select all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
	      ip host ace and not helios

       To select all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
	      net ucb-ether

       To select all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup:
	      gateway snup and (port ftp or ftp-data)

       To select traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts (if
       you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never make it onto your
       local net).
	      ip and not net localnet

       To select the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets)  of  each
       TCP conversation that involves a non-local host.
	      tcp[tcpflags] & (tcp-syn|tcp-fin) != 0 and not src and dst net localnet

       To  select  all	IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only
       packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and  FIN  packets  and
       ACK-only packets.  (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the reader.)
	      tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)

       To select IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
	      gateway snup and ip[2:2] > 576

       To select IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Eth‐
       ernet broadcast or multicast:
	      ether[0] & 1 = 0 and ip[16] >= 224

       To select all ICMP packets that are not	echo  requests/replies	(i.e.,
       not ping packets):
	      icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echo and icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echoreply

SEE ALSO
       pcap(3)

AUTHORS
       The original authors are:

       Van  Jacobson,  Craig  Leres  and  Steven  McCanne, all of the Lawrence
       Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

       It is currently being maintained by tcpdump.org.

       The current version of libpcap is available via http:

	      http://www.tcpdump.org/

       The original distribution is available via anonymous ftp:

	      ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/tcpdump.tar.Z

BUGS
       Please send problems, bugs, questions, desirable enhancements, etc. to:

	      tcpdump-workers@lists.tcpdump.org

       Filter expressions on fields other than those  in  Token	 Ring  headers
       will not correctly handle source-routed Token Ring packets.

       Filter  expressions  on	fields other than those in 802.11 headers will
       not correctly handle 802.11 data packets with both To DS	 and  From  DS
       set.

       ip6  proto  should  chase header chain, but at this moment it does not.
       ip6 protochain is supplied for this behavior.

       Arithmetic expression against transport	layer  headers,	 like  tcp[0],
       does not work against IPv6 packets.  It only looks at IPv4 packets.

				6 January 2008			PCAP-FILTER(7)
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