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PERLEBCDIC(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide		 PERLEBCDIC(1)

NAME
       perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

DESCRIPTION
       An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers on EBCDIC
       based computers.	 We do not cover localization, internationalization,
       or multi byte character set issues other than some discussion of UTF-8
       and UTF-EBCDIC.

       Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.

COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
   ASCII
       The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII or US-
       ASCII) is a set of integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply
       character interpretation by the display and other systems of computers.
       The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
       digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".
       ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
       document ANSI X3.4-1986.	 It was also described by ISO 646:1991 (with
       localization for currency symbols).  The full ASCII set is given in the
       table below as the first 128 elements.  Languages that can be written
       adequately with the characters in ASCII include English, Hawaiian,
       Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American languages.

       There are many character sets that extend the range of integers from
       0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).  One
       common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.

   ISO 8859
       The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
       International Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which adds
       characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
       languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.

   Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
       A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
       accented Latin characters.  Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
       include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
       Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
       Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish.  Dutch is covered albeit without the
       ij ligature.  French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
       German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style quotation
       marks.  This set is based on Western European extensions to ASCII and
       is commonly encountered in world wide web work.	In IBM character code
       set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is also known as CCSID 819
       (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).

   EBCDIC
       The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a large
       collection of slightly different single and multi byte coded character
       sets that are different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1 and typically run on
       host computers.	The EBCDIC encodings derive from 8 bit byte extensions
       of Hollerith punched card encodings.  The layout on the cards was such
       that high bits were set for the upper and lower case alphabet
       characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there were gaps within each Latin
       alphabet range.

       Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
       identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers.  Leading
       zero digits in CCSID numbers within this document are insignificant.
       E.g. CCSID 0037 may be referred to as 37 in places.

       Perl can be compiled on platforms that run any of three commonly used
       EBCDIC character sets, listed below.

   The 13 variant characters
       Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that are
       often mapped to different integer values.  Those characters are known
       as the 13 "variant" characters and are:

	   \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `

       When Perl is compiled for a platform, it looks at some of these
       characters to guess which EBCDIC character set the platform uses, and
       adapts itself accordingly to that platform.  If the platform uses a
       character set that is not one of the three Perl knows about, Perl will
       either fail to compile, or mistakenly and silently choose one of the
       three.  They are:

   0037
       Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
       characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set.  0037 is used in North
       American English locales on the OS/400 operating system that runs on
       AS/400 computers.  CCSID 37 differs from ISO 8859-1 in 237 places, in
       other words they agree on only 19 code point values.

   1047
       Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
       characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set.  1047 is used under Unix
       System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition for VM/ESA.	CCSID
       1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.

   POSIX-BC
       The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
       1047 and 0037.  It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.

   Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
       In Unicode terminology a code point is the number assigned to a
       character: for example, in EBCDIC the character "A" is usually assigned
       the number 193.	In Unicode the character "A" is assigned the number
       65.  This causes a problem with the semantics of the pack/unpack "U",
       which are supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and back
       to numbers.  The problem is: which code points to use for code points
       less than 256?  (for 256 and over there's no problem: Unicode code
       points are used) In EBCDIC, for the low 256 the EBCDIC code points are
       used.  This means that the equivalences

	       pack("U", ord($character)) eq $character
	       unpack("U", $character) == ord $character

       will hold.  (If Unicode code points were applied consistently over all
       the possible code points, pack("U",ord("A")) would in EBCDIC equal A
       with acute or chr(101), and unpack("U", "A") would equal 65, or non-
       breaking space, not 193, or ord "A".)

   Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
       ·   Many of the remaining problems seem to be related to case-
	   insensitive matching

       ·   The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normalized are not
	   supported under EBCDIC, likewise for the encoding pragma.

   Unicode and UTF
       UTF stands for "Unicode Transformation Format".	UTF-8 is an encoding
       of Unicode into a sequence of 8-bit byte chunks, based on ASCII and
       Latin-1.	 The length of a sequence required to represent a Unicode code
       point depends on the ordinal number of that code point, with larger
       numbers requiring more bytes.  UTF-EBCDIC is like UTF-8, but based on
       EBCDIC.

       You may see the term "invariant" character or code point.  This simply
       means that the character has the same numeric value when encoded as
       when not.  (Note that this is a very different concept from "The 13
       variant characters" mentioned above.)  For example, the ordinal value
       of 'A' is 193 in most EBCDIC code pages, and also is 193 when encoded
       in UTF-EBCDIC.  All other code points occupy at least two bytes when
       encoded.	 In UTF-8, the code points corresponding to the lowest 128
       ordinal numbers (0 - 127: the ASCII characters) are invariant.  In UTF-
       EBCDIC, there are 160 invariant characters.  (If you care, the EBCDIC
       invariants are those characters which have ASCII equivalents, plus
       those that correspond to the C1 controls (80..9f on ASCII platforms).)

       A string encoded in UTF-EBCDIC may be longer (but never shorter) than
       one encoded in UTF-8.

   Using Encode
       Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode to
       translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points.  Encode knows about more
       EBCDIC character sets than Perl can currently be compiled to run on.

	       use Encode 'from_to';

	       my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );

	       # $a is in EBCDIC code points
	       from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
	       # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points

       and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points

	       use Encode 'from_to';

	       my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );

	       # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
	       from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
	       # $a is in EBCDIC code points

       For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features
       of PerlIO, see perluniintro.

       Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library.	This enables
       you to use different encodings per IO channel.  For example you may use

	   use Encode;
	   open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";
	   open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";
	   open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";
	   open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";

       to get four files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, CP 37 EBCDIC,
       ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) (in this example identical to ASCII since only
       ASCII characters were printed), and UTF-EBCDIC (in this example
       identical to normal EBCDIC since only characters that don't differ
       between EBCDIC and UTF-EBCDIC were printed).  See the documentation of
       Encode::PerlIO for details.

       As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO (bytes) internally, all this totally
       ignores things like the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC).

SINGLE OCTET TABLES
       The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
       the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
       C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff).	In the
       table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
       extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
       corresponding to The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0 albeit with
       substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases, s/CAPITAL
       LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/ in some other
       cases (the "charnames" pragma names unfortunately do not list explicit
       names for the C0 or C1 control characters).  The "names" of the C1
       control set (128..159 in ISO 8859-1) listed here are somewhat
       arbitrary.  The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are flagged
       with ***.  The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets are
       flagged with ###.  All ord() numbers listed are decimal.	 If you would
       rather see this table listing octal values then run the table (that is,
       the pod version of this document since this recipe may not work with a
       pod2_other_format translation) through:

       recipe 0

	   perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
	    -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
       might want to write:

       recipe 1

	   open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
	   while (<FH>) {
	       if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)  {
		   if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
		       printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
		   }
		   elsif ($7 ne '') {
		       printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
		   }
		   else {
		       printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
		   }
	       }
	   }

       If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then run
       the table through:

       recipe 2

	   perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
	    -e '{printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod

       Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:

       recipe 3

	   open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
	   while (<FH>) {
	       if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)  {
		   if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
		       printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%-2X.%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
		   }
		   elsif ($7 ne '') {
		       printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
		   }
		   else {
		       printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
		   }
	       }
	   }

									    incomp-  incomp-
					8859-1				    lete     lete
	   chr				0819	 0037	  1047	   POSIX-BC UTF-8    UTF-EBCDIC
	   ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	   <NULL>			0	 0	  0	   0	    0	     0
	   <START OF HEADING>		1	 1	  1	   1	    1	     1
	   <START OF TEXT>		2	 2	  2	   2	    2	     2
	   <END OF TEXT>		3	 3	  3	   3	    3	     3
	   <END OF TRANSMISSION>	4	 55	  55	   55	    4	     55
	   <ENQUIRY>			5	 45	  45	   45	    5	     45
	   <ACKNOWLEDGE>		6	 46	  46	   46	    6	     46
	   <BELL>			7	 47	  47	   47	    7	     47
	   <BACKSPACE>			8	 22	  22	   22	    8	     22
	   <HORIZONTAL TABULATION>	9	 5	  5	   5	    9	     5
	   <LINE FEED>			10	 37	  21	   21	    10	     21	      ***
	   <VERTICAL TABULATION>	11	 11	  11	   11	    11	     11
	   <FORM FEED>			12	 12	  12	   12	    12	     12
	   <CARRIAGE RETURN>		13	 13	  13	   13	    13	     13
	   <SHIFT OUT>			14	 14	  14	   14	    14	     14
	   <SHIFT IN>			15	 15	  15	   15	    15	     15
	   <DATA LINK ESCAPE>		16	 16	  16	   16	    16	     16
	   <DEVICE CONTROL ONE>		17	 17	  17	   17	    17	     17
	   <DEVICE CONTROL TWO>		18	 18	  18	   18	    18	     18
	   <DEVICE CONTROL THREE>	19	 19	  19	   19	    19	     19
	   <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR>	20	 60	  60	   60	    20	     60
	   <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE>	21	 61	  61	   61	    21	     61
	   <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE>		22	 50	  50	   50	    22	     50
	   <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK>	23	 38	  38	   38	    23	     38
	   <CANCEL>			24	 24	  24	   24	    24	     24
	   <END OF MEDIUM>		25	 25	  25	   25	    25	     25
	   <SUBSTITUTE>			26	 63	  63	   63	    26	     63
	   <ESCAPE>			27	 39	  39	   39	    27	     39
	   <FILE SEPARATOR>		28	 28	  28	   28	    28	     28
	   <GROUP SEPARATOR>		29	 29	  29	   29	    29	     29
	   <RECORD SEPARATOR>		30	 30	  30	   30	    30	     30
	   <UNIT SEPARATOR>		31	 31	  31	   31	    31	     31
	   <SPACE>			32	 64	  64	   64	    32	     64
	   !				33	 90	  90	   90	    33	     90
	   "				34	 127	  127	   127	    34	     127
	   #				35	 123	  123	   123	    35	     123
	   $				36	 91	  91	   91	    36	     91
	   %				37	 108	  108	   108	    37	     108
	   &				38	 80	  80	   80	    38	     80
	   '				39	 125	  125	   125	    39	     125
	   (				40	 77	  77	   77	    40	     77
	   )				41	 93	  93	   93	    41	     93
	   *				42	 92	  92	   92	    42	     92
	   +				43	 78	  78	   78	    43	     78
	   ,				44	 107	  107	   107	    44	     107
	   -				45	 96	  96	   96	    45	     96
	   .				46	 75	  75	   75	    46	     75
	   /				47	 97	  97	   97	    47	     97
	   0				48	 240	  240	   240	    48	     240
	   1				49	 241	  241	   241	    49	     241
	   2				50	 242	  242	   242	    50	     242
	   3				51	 243	  243	   243	    51	     243
	   4				52	 244	  244	   244	    52	     244
	   5				53	 245	  245	   245	    53	     245
	   6				54	 246	  246	   246	    54	     246
	   7				55	 247	  247	   247	    55	     247
	   8				56	 248	  248	   248	    56	     248
	   9				57	 249	  249	   249	    57	     249
	   :				58	 122	  122	   122	    58	     122
	   ;				59	 94	  94	   94	    59	     94
	   <				60	 76	  76	   76	    60	     76
	   =				61	 126	  126	   126	    61	     126
	   >				62	 110	  110	   110	    62	     110
	   ?				63	 111	  111	   111	    63	     111
	   @				64	 124	  124	   124	    64	     124
	   A				65	 193	  193	   193	    65	     193
	   B				66	 194	  194	   194	    66	     194
	   C				67	 195	  195	   195	    67	     195
	   D				68	 196	  196	   196	    68	     196
	   E				69	 197	  197	   197	    69	     197
	   F				70	 198	  198	   198	    70	     198
	   G				71	 199	  199	   199	    71	     199
	   H				72	 200	  200	   200	    72	     200
	   I				73	 201	  201	   201	    73	     201
	   J				74	 209	  209	   209	    74	     209
	   K				75	 210	  210	   210	    75	     210
	   L				76	 211	  211	   211	    76	     211
	   M				77	 212	  212	   212	    77	     212
	   N				78	 213	  213	   213	    78	     213
	   O				79	 214	  214	   214	    79	     214
	   P				80	 215	  215	   215	    80	     215
	   Q				81	 216	  216	   216	    81	     216
	   R				82	 217	  217	   217	    82	     217
	   S				83	 226	  226	   226	    83	     226
	   T				84	 227	  227	   227	    84	     227
	   U				85	 228	  228	   228	    85	     228
	   V				86	 229	  229	   229	    86	     229
	   W				87	 230	  230	   230	    87	     230
	   X				88	 231	  231	   231	    88	     231
	   Y				89	 232	  232	   232	    89	     232
	   Z				90	 233	  233	   233	    90	     233
	   [				91	 186	  173	   187	    91	     173      *** ###
	   \				92	 224	  224	   188	    92	     224      ###
	   ]				93	 187	  189	   189	    93	     189      ***
	   ^				94	 176	  95	   106	    94	     95	      *** ###
	   _				95	 109	  109	   109	    95	     109
	   `				96	 121	  121	   74	    96	     121      ###
	   a				97	 129	  129	   129	    97	     129
	   b				98	 130	  130	   130	    98	     130
	   c				99	 131	  131	   131	    99	     131
	   d				100	 132	  132	   132	    100	     132
	   e				101	 133	  133	   133	    101	     133
	   f				102	 134	  134	   134	    102	     134
	   g				103	 135	  135	   135	    103	     135
	   h				104	 136	  136	   136	    104	     136
	   i				105	 137	  137	   137	    105	     137
	   j				106	 145	  145	   145	    106	     145
	   k				107	 146	  146	   146	    107	     146
	   l				108	 147	  147	   147	    108	     147
	   m				109	 148	  148	   148	    109	     148
	   n				110	 149	  149	   149	    110	     149
	   o				111	 150	  150	   150	    111	     150
	   p				112	 151	  151	   151	    112	     151
	   q				113	 152	  152	   152	    113	     152
	   r				114	 153	  153	   153	    114	     153
	   s				115	 162	  162	   162	    115	     162
	   t				116	 163	  163	   163	    116	     163
	   u				117	 164	  164	   164	    117	     164
	   v				118	 165	  165	   165	    118	     165
	   w				119	 166	  166	   166	    119	     166
	   x				120	 167	  167	   167	    120	     167
	   y				121	 168	  168	   168	    121	     168
	   z				122	 169	  169	   169	    122	     169
	   {				123	 192	  192	   251	    123	     192      ###
	   |				124	 79	  79	   79	    124	     79
	   }				125	 208	  208	   253	    125	     208      ###
	   ~				126	 161	  161	   255	    126	     161      ###
	   <DELETE>			127	 7	  7	   7	    127	     7
	   <C1 0>			128	 32	  32	   32	    194.128  32
	   <C1 1>			129	 33	  33	   33	    194.129  33
	   <C1 2>			130	 34	  34	   34	    194.130  34
	   <C1 3>			131	 35	  35	   35	    194.131  35
	   <C1 4>			132	 36	  36	   36	    194.132  36
	   <C1 5>			133	 21	  37	   37	    194.133  37	      ***
	   <C1 6>			134	 6	  6	   6	    194.134  6
	   <C1 7>			135	 23	  23	   23	    194.135  23
	   <C1 8>			136	 40	  40	   40	    194.136  40
	   <C1 9>			137	 41	  41	   41	    194.137  41
	   <C1 10>			138	 42	  42	   42	    194.138  42
	   <C1 11>			139	 43	  43	   43	    194.139  43
	   <C1 12>			140	 44	  44	   44	    194.140  44
	   <C1 13>			141	 9	  9	   9	    194.141  9
	   <C1 14>			142	 10	  10	   10	    194.142  10
	   <C1 15>			143	 27	  27	   27	    194.143  27
	   <C1 16>			144	 48	  48	   48	    194.144  48
	   <C1 17>			145	 49	  49	   49	    194.145  49
	   <C1 18>			146	 26	  26	   26	    194.146  26
	   <C1 19>			147	 51	  51	   51	    194.147  51
	   <C1 20>			148	 52	  52	   52	    194.148  52
	   <C1 21>			149	 53	  53	   53	    194.149  53
	   <C1 22>			150	 54	  54	   54	    194.150  54
	   <C1 23>			151	 8	  8	   8	    194.151  8
	   <C1 24>			152	 56	  56	   56	    194.152  56
	   <C1 25>			153	 57	  57	   57	    194.153  57
	   <C1 26>			154	 58	  58	   58	    194.154  58
	   <C1 27>			155	 59	  59	   59	    194.155  59
	   <C1 28>			156	 4	  4	   4	    194.156  4
	   <C1 29>			157	 20	  20	   20	    194.157  20
	   <C1 30>			158	 62	  62	   62	    194.158  62
	   <C1 31>			159	 255	  255	   95	    194.159  255      ###
	   <NON-BREAKING SPACE>		160	 65	  65	   65	    194.160  128.65
	   <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK>	161	 170	  170	   170	    194.161  128.66
	   <CENT SIGN>			162	 74	  74	   176	    194.162  128.67   ###
	   <POUND SIGN>			163	 177	  177	   177	    194.163  128.68
	   <CURRENCY SIGN>		164	 159	  159	   159	    194.164  128.69
	   <YEN SIGN>			165	 178	  178	   178	    194.165  128.70
	   <BROKEN BAR>			166	 106	  106	   208	    194.166  128.71   ###
	   <SECTION SIGN>		167	 181	  181	   181	    194.167  128.72
	   <DIAERESIS>			168	 189	  187	   121	    194.168  128.73   *** ###
	   <COPYRIGHT SIGN>		169	 180	  180	   180	    194.169  128.74
	   <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170	 154	  154	   154	    194.170  128.81
	   <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET>	171	 138	  138	   138	    194.171  128.82
	   <NOT SIGN>			172	 95	  176	   186	    194.172  128.83   *** ###
	   <SOFT HYPHEN>		173	 202	  202	   202	    194.173  128.84
	   <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174	 175	  175	   175	    194.174  128.85
	   <MACRON>			175	 188	  188	   161	    194.175  128.86   ###
	   <DEGREE SIGN>		176	 144	  144	   144	    194.176  128.87
	   <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN>		177	 143	  143	   143	    194.177  128.88
	   <SUPERSCRIPT TWO>		178	 234	  234	   234	    194.178  128.89
	   <SUPERSCRIPT THREE>		179	 250	  250	   250	    194.179  128.98
	   <ACUTE ACCENT>		180	 190	  190	   190	    194.180  128.99
	   <MICRO SIGN>			181	 160	  160	   160	    194.181  128.100
	   <PARAGRAPH SIGN>		182	 182	  182	   182	    194.182  128.101
	   <MIDDLE DOT>			183	 179	  179	   179	    194.183  128.102
	   <CEDILLA>			184	 157	  157	   157	    194.184  128.103
	   <SUPERSCRIPT ONE>		185	 218	  218	   218	    194.185  128.104
	   <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR>	186	 155	  155	   155	    194.186  128.105
	   <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET>	187	 139	  139	   139	    194.187  128.106
	   <FRACTION ONE QUARTER>	188	 183	  183	   183	    194.188  128.112
	   <FRACTION ONE HALF>		189	 184	  184	   184	    194.189  128.113
	   <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS>	190	 185	  185	   185	    194.190  128.114
	   <INVERTED QUESTION MARK>	191	 171	  171	   171	    194.191  128.115
	   <A WITH GRAVE>		192	 100	  100	   100	    195.128  138.65
	   <A WITH ACUTE>		193	 101	  101	   101	    195.129  138.66
	   <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		194	 98	  98	   98	    195.130  138.67
	   <A WITH TILDE>		195	 102	  102	   102	    195.131  138.68
	   <A WITH DIAERESIS>		196	 99	  99	   99	    195.132  138.69
	   <A WITH RING ABOVE>		197	 103	  103	   103	    195.133  138.70
	   <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE>	198	 158	  158	   158	    195.134  138.71
	   <C WITH CEDILLA>		199	 104	  104	   104	    195.135  138.72
	   <E WITH GRAVE>		200	 116	  116	   116	    195.136  138.73
	   <E WITH ACUTE>		201	 113	  113	   113	    195.137  138.74
	   <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		202	 114	  114	   114	    195.138  138.81
	   <E WITH DIAERESIS>		203	 115	  115	   115	    195.139  138.82
	   <I WITH GRAVE>		204	 120	  120	   120	    195.140  138.83
	   <I WITH ACUTE>		205	 117	  117	   117	    195.141  138.84
	   <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		206	 118	  118	   118	    195.142  138.85
	   <I WITH DIAERESIS>		207	 119	  119	   119	    195.143  138.86
	   <CAPITAL LETTER ETH>		208	 172	  172	   172	    195.144  138.87
	   <N WITH TILDE>		209	 105	  105	   105	    195.145  138.88
	   <O WITH GRAVE>		210	 237	  237	   237	    195.146  138.89
	   <O WITH ACUTE>		211	 238	  238	   238	    195.147  138.98
	   <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		212	 235	  235	   235	    195.148  138.99
	   <O WITH TILDE>		213	 239	  239	   239	    195.149  138.100
	   <O WITH DIAERESIS>		214	 236	  236	   236	    195.150  138.101
	   <MULTIPLICATION SIGN>	215	 191	  191	   191	    195.151  138.102
	   <O WITH STROKE>		216	 128	  128	   128	    195.152  138.103
	   <U WITH GRAVE>		217	 253	  253	   224	    195.153  138.104  ###
	   <U WITH ACUTE>		218	 254	  254	   254	    195.154  138.105
	   <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		219	 251	  251	   221	    195.155  138.106  ###
	   <U WITH DIAERESIS>		220	 252	  252	   252	    195.156  138.112
	   <Y WITH ACUTE>		221	 173	  186	   173	    195.157  138.113  *** ###
	   <CAPITAL LETTER THORN>	222	 174	  174	   174	    195.158  138.114
	   <SMALL LETTER SHARP S>	223	 89	  89	   89	    195.159  138.115
	   <a WITH GRAVE>		224	 68	  68	   68	    195.160  139.65
	   <a WITH ACUTE>		225	 69	  69	   69	    195.161  139.66
	   <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		226	 66	  66	   66	    195.162  139.67
	   <a WITH TILDE>		227	 70	  70	   70	    195.163  139.68
	   <a WITH DIAERESIS>		228	 67	  67	   67	    195.164  139.69
	   <a WITH RING ABOVE>		229	 71	  71	   71	    195.165  139.70
	   <SMALL LIGATURE ae>		230	 156	  156	   156	    195.166  139.71
	   <c WITH CEDILLA>		231	 72	  72	   72	    195.167  139.72
	   <e WITH GRAVE>		232	 84	  84	   84	    195.168  139.73
	   <e WITH ACUTE>		233	 81	  81	   81	    195.169  139.74
	   <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		234	 82	  82	   82	    195.170  139.81
	   <e WITH DIAERESIS>		235	 83	  83	   83	    195.171  139.82
	   <i WITH GRAVE>		236	 88	  88	   88	    195.172  139.83
	   <i WITH ACUTE>		237	 85	  85	   85	    195.173  139.84
	   <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		238	 86	  86	   86	    195.174  139.85
	   <i WITH DIAERESIS>		239	 87	  87	   87	    195.175  139.86
	   <SMALL LETTER eth>		240	 140	  140	   140	    195.176  139.87
	   <n WITH TILDE>		241	 73	  73	   73	    195.177  139.88
	   <o WITH GRAVE>		242	 205	  205	   205	    195.178  139.89
	   <o WITH ACUTE>		243	 206	  206	   206	    195.179  139.98
	   <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		244	 203	  203	   203	    195.180  139.99
	   <o WITH TILDE>		245	 207	  207	   207	    195.181  139.100
	   <o WITH DIAERESIS>		246	 204	  204	   204	    195.182  139.101
	   <DIVISION SIGN>		247	 225	  225	   225	    195.183  139.102
	   <o WITH STROKE>		248	 112	  112	   112	    195.184  139.103
	   <u WITH GRAVE>		249	 221	  221	   192	    195.185  139.104  ###
	   <u WITH ACUTE>		250	 222	  222	   222	    195.186  139.105
	   <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX>		251	 219	  219	   219	    195.187  139.106
	   <u WITH DIAERESIS>		252	 220	  220	   220	    195.188  139.112
	   <y WITH ACUTE>		253	 141	  141	   141	    195.189  139.113
	   <SMALL LETTER thorn>		254	 142	  142	   142	    195.190  139.114
	   <y WITH DIAERESIS>		255	 223	  223	   223	    195.191  139.115

       If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
       ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:

       recipe 4

	   perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
	    -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
	    -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
	    -e '	  sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
	    -e '	  map{[$_,substr($_,42,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the digit 42
       in the last line to 51, like this:

       recipe 5

	   perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
	    -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
	    -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
	    -e '	  sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
	    -e '	  map{[$_,substr($_,51,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the digit 51
       in the last line to 60, like this:

       recipe 6

	   perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
	    -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
	    -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
	    -e '	  sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
	    -e '	  map{[$_,substr($_,60,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
       To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
       could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
       character values.  For example:

	   $is_ascii  = "A" eq chr(65);
	   $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);

       Also, "\t" is a "HORIZONTAL TABULATION" character so that:

	   $is_ascii  = ord("\t") == 9;
	   $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;

       To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of the
       characters that differ between them.  For example:

	   $is_ebcdic_37   = "\n" eq chr(37);
	   $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);

       Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any of
       the code sets, e.g.:

	   $is_ascii	       = ord('[') == 91;
	   $is_ebcdic_37       = ord('[') == 186;
	   $is_ebcdic_1047     = ord('[') == 173;
	   $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;

       However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:

	   $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13);	 #  WRONG
	   $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10);	 #  ILL ADVISED

       Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII
       platforms from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC
       platform since "\r" eq chr(13) under all of those coded character sets.
       But note too that because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the
       MacIntosh (which is an ASCII platform) the second $is_ascii test will
       lead to trouble there.

       To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC code page
       you can use the Config module like so:

	   use Config;
	   $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';

CONVERSIONS
   tr///
       In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
       another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
       above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
       The data in the table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns
       provide easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
       reversed.

       For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the output of the
       second column from the output of recipe 0 (modified to add \\
       characters) and use it in tr/// like so:

	   $cp_037 =
	   '\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017' .
	   '\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037' .
	   '\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007' .
	   '\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032' .
	   '\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174' .
	   '\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254' .
	   '\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077' .
	   '\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042' .
	   '\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261' .
	   '\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244' .
	   '\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256' .
	   '\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327' .
	   '\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365' .
	   '\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377' .
	   '\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325' .
	   '\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237' ;

	   my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
	   eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';

       To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
       arguments like so:

	   my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
	   eval '$ascii_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';

       Similarly one could take the output of the third column from recipe 0
       to obtain a $cp_1047 table.  The fourth column of the output from
       recipe 0 could provide a $cp_posix_bc table suitable for transcoding as
       well.

   iconv
       XPG operability often implies the presence of an iconv utility
       available from the shell or from the C library.	Consult your system's
       documentation for information on iconv.

       On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage.  One way to invoke the
       iconv shell utility from within perl would be to:

	   # OS/390 or z/OS example
	   $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`

       or the inverse map:

	   # OS/390 or z/OS example
	   $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`

       For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on
       CPAN.

   C RTL
       The OS/390 and z/OS C run time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa()
       functions.

OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
       The ".." range operator treats certain character ranges with care on
       EBCDIC platforms.  For example the following array will have twenty six
       elements on either an EBCDIC platform or an ASCII platform:

	   @alphabet = ('A'..'Z');   #	$#alphabet == 25

       The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results when
       operating on string or character data in a perl program running on an
       EBCDIC platform than when run on an ASCII platform.  Here is an example
       adapted from the one in perlop:

	   # EBCDIC-based examples
	   print "j p \n" ^ " a h";			 # prints "JAPH\n"
	   print "JA" | "  ph\n";			 # prints "japh\n"
	   print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277";	 # prints "japh\n";
	   print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n";			 # prints "Perl\n";

       An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters in the ASCII
       table is that they can "literally" be constructed as control characters
       in perl, e.g. "(chr(0) eq "\c@")" "(chr(1) eq "\cA")", and so on.  Perl
       on EBCDIC platforms has been ported to take "\c@" to chr(0) and "\cA"
       to chr(1) as well, but the thirty three characters that result depend
       on which code page you are using.  The table below uses the character
       names from the previous table but with substitutions such as s/START
       OF/S.O./; s/END OF /E.O./; s/TRANSMISSION/TRANS./; s/TABULATION/TAB./;
       s/VERTICAL/VERT./; s/HORIZONTAL/HORIZ./; s/DEVICE CONTROL/D.C./;
       s/SEPARATOR/SEP./; s/NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE/NEG. ACK./;.  The POSIX-BC
       and 1047 sets are identical throughout this range and differ from the
       0037 set at only one spot (21 decimal).	Note that the "LINE FEED"
       character may be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII platforms but by "\cU" on
       1047 or POSIX-BC platforms and cannot be generated as a "\c.letter."
       control character on 0037 platforms.  Note also that "\c\\" maps to two
       characters not one.

	   chr	 ord  8859-1		   0037		       1047 && POSIX-BC
	   ------------------------------------------------------------------------
	   "\c?" 127  <DELETE>		   "		       "	      ***><
	   "\c@"   0  <NULL>		   <NULL>	       <NULL>	      ***><
	   "\cA"   1  <S.O. HEADING>	   <S.O. HEADING>      <S.O. HEADING>
	   "\cB"   2  <S.O. TEXT>	   <S.O. TEXT>	       <S.O. TEXT>
	   "\cC"   3  <E.O. TEXT>	   <E.O. TEXT>	       <E.O. TEXT>
	   "\cD"   4  <E.O. TRANS.>	   <C1 28>	       <C1 28>
	   "\cE"   5  <ENQUIRY>		   <HORIZ. TAB.>       <HORIZ. TAB.>
	   "\cF"   6  <ACKNOWLEDGE>	   <C1 6>	       <C1 6>
	   "\cG"   7  <BELL>		   <DELETE>	       <DELETE>
	   "\cH"   8  <BACKSPACE>	   <C1 23>	       <C1 23>
	   "\cI"   9  <HORIZ. TAB.>	   <C1 13>	       <C1 13>
	   "\cJ"  10  <LINE FEED>	   <C1 14>	       <C1 14>
	   "\cK"  11  <VERT. TAB.>	   <VERT. TAB.>	       <VERT. TAB.>
	   "\cL"  12  <FORM FEED>	   <FORM FEED>	       <FORM FEED>
	   "\cM"  13  <CARRIAGE RETURN>	   <CARRIAGE RETURN>   <CARRIAGE RETURN>
	   "\cN"  14  <SHIFT OUT>	   <SHIFT OUT>	       <SHIFT OUT>
	   "\cO"  15  <SHIFT IN>	   <SHIFT IN>	       <SHIFT IN>
	   "\cP"  16  <DATA LINK ESCAPE>   <DATA LINK ESCAPE>  <DATA LINK ESCAPE>
	   "\cQ"  17  <D.C. ONE>	   <D.C. ONE>	       <D.C. ONE>
	   "\cR"  18  <D.C. TWO>	   <D.C. TWO>	       <D.C. TWO>
	   "\cS"  19  <D.C. THREE>	   <D.C. THREE>	       <D.C. THREE>
	   "\cT"  20  <D.C. FOUR>	   <C1 29>	       <C1 29>
	   "\cU"  21  <NEG. ACK.>	   <C1 5>	       <LINE FEED>    ***
	   "\cV"  22  <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE>   <BACKSPACE>	       <BACKSPACE>
	   "\cW"  23  <E.O. TRANS. BLOCK>  <C1 7>	       <C1 7>
	   "\cX"  24  <CANCEL>		   <CANCEL>	       <CANCEL>
	   "\cY"  25  <E.O. MEDIUM>	   <E.O. MEDIUM>       <E.O. MEDIUM>
	   "\cZ"  26  <SUBSTITUTE>	   <C1 18>	       <C1 18>
	   "\c["  27  <ESCAPE>		   <C1 15>	       <C1 15>
	   "\c\\" 28  <FILE SEP.>\	   <FILE SEP.>\	       <FILE SEP.>\
	   "\c]"  29  <GROUP SEP.>	   <GROUP SEP.>	       <GROUP SEP.>
	   "\c^"  30  <RECORD SEP.>	   <RECORD SEP.>       <RECORD SEP.>  ***><
	   "\c_"  31  <UNIT SEP.>	   <UNIT SEP.>	       <UNIT SEP.>    ***><

FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
       chr()   chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a
	       desired character return value on an EBCDIC platform.  For
	       example:

		   $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);

       ord()   ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC
	       platform.  For example:

		   $the_number_193 = ord("A");

       pack()  The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character
	       set encoding.  Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:

		   $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
		   # $foo eq "ABCD"
		   $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
		   # same thing

		   $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
		   # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"

       print() One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
	       print that contain ASCII encodings.  One common place for this
	       to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for CGI
	       script writing.	For example, many perl programming guides
	       recommend something similar to:

		   print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
		   # this may be wrong on EBCDIC

	       Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for
	       example you should instead write that as:

		   print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia

	       That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done by
	       the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate
	       for the Macintosh however).  Consult your web server's
	       documentation for further details.

       printf()
	       The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice
	       versa will be different from their ASCII counterparts when
	       executed on an EBCDIC platform.	Examples include:

		   printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195);  # prints ABC

       sort()  EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results
	       especially for mixed case strings.  This is discussed in more
	       detail below.

       sprintf()
	       See the discussion of printf() above.  An example of the use of
	       sprintf would be:

		   $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);

       unpack()
	       See the discussion of pack() above.

REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
       As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression such as [A-Z]
       and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap characters.
       For example, characters such as o "o WITH CIRCUMFLEX" that lie between
       I and J would not be matched by the regular expression range "/[H-K]/".
       This works in the other direction, too, if either of the range end
       points is explicitly numeric: "[\x89-\x91]" will match "\x8e", even
       though "\x89" is "i" and "\x91 " is "j", and "\x8e" is a gap character
       from the alphabetic viewpoint.

       If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
       regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such as "/\313/"
       on EBCDIC or "/\364/" on ASCII platforms to have your regular
       expression match "o WITH CIRCUMFLEX".

       Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
       octal constants in regular expressions.	Consider the following set of
       subs:

	   sub is_c0 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
	   }

	   sub is_print_ascii {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
	   }

	   sub is_delete {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char eq "\177";
	   }

	   sub is_c1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
	   }

	   sub is_latin_1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
	   }

       The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code
       points.	However, the concern may be with characters rather than code
       points and on an EBCDIC platform it may be desirable for constructs
       such as "if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable
       character\n";}" to print out the expected message.  One way to
       represent the above collection of character classification subs that is
       capable of working across the four coded character sets discussed in
       this document is as follows:

	   sub Is_c0 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
		   return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
		   return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
	       }
	   }

	   sub Is_print_ascii {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
	   }

	   sub Is_delete {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char eq "\177";
	       }
	       else  {		    # ebcdic
		   return $char eq "\007";
	       }
	   }

	   sub Is_c1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
		   return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
		   return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
		   return $char =~
		     /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
	       }
	   }

	   sub Is_latin_1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
		   return $char =~
		     /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
		   return $char =~
		     /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
		   return $char =~
		     /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
	       }
	   }

       Note however that only the "Is_ascii_print()" sub is really independent
       of coded character set.	Another way to write "Is_latin_1()" would be
       to use the characters in the range explicitly:

	   sub Is_latin_1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXAAAA~AeAaCEEEEeIIIIe‐N~OOOO~OeXOUUUUeYPssaaaa~aeaaaeceeeeeiiiie`n~oooo~oeXouuuueypye]/;
	   }

       Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
       presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.

SOCKETS
       Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
       byte order.  Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a host web
       server where the server may take care of translation for you.  Most
       host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
       output.

SORTING
       One big difference between ASCII based character sets and EBCDIC ones
       are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
       letters compared to the digits.	If sorted on an ASCII based platform
       the two letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
       for drive, that is:

	   @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.));	 # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
					 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC

       The property of lower case before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is even
       carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.  An example
       would be that Ee "E WITH DIAERESIS" (203) comes before ee "e WITH
       DIAERESIS" (235) on an ASCII platform, but the latter (83) comes before
       the former (115) on an EBCDIC platform.	(Astute readers will note that
       the upper case version of ss "SMALL LETTER SHARP S" is simply "SS" and
       that the upper case version of ye "y WITH DIAERESIS" is not in the
       0..255 range but it is at U+x0178 in Unicode, or "\x{178}" in a Unicode
       enabled Perl).

       The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on ASCII
       platforms versus EBCDIC platforms.  What follows are some suggestions
       on how to deal with these differences.

   Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
       This is the least computationally expensive strategy.  It may require
       some user education.

   MONO CASE then sort data.
       In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test try to
       "tr///" towards the character set case most employed within the data.
       If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply
       tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/ then sort().  If the data are primarily lowercase non
       Latin 1 then apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting.  If the data are
       primarily UPPERCASE and include Latin-1 characters then apply:

	   tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
	   tr/[aaaa~aeaaaeceeeeeiiiie`n~oooo~oeouuuueyp]/[AAAA~AeAaCEEEEeIIIIe‐N~OOOO~OeOUUUUeYP]/;
	   s/ss/SS/g;

       then sort().  Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
       address the ye "y WITH DIAERESIS" character that will remain at code
       point 255 on ASCII platforms, but 223 on most EBCDIC platforms where it
       will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals.  With a Unicode
       enabled Perl you might try:

	   tr/^?/\x{178}/;

       The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the
       case of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.

   Convert, sort data, then re convert.
       This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
       connection.

   Perform sorting on one type of platform only.
       This strategy can employ a network connection.  As such it would be
       computationally expensive.

TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
       There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra
       character set mapping that serve a variety of purposes.	Sorting was
       discussed in the previous section and a few of the other more popular
       mapping techniques are discussed next.

   URL decoding and encoding
       Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
       attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues.  For
       example the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the
       form:

	   http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/

       may also be expressed as either of:

	   http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/

	   http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/

       where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'.  Here is an
       example of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:

	   $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
	   # this array assumes code page 1047
	   my @a2e_1047 = (
		 0,  1,	 2,  3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22,  5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
		16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
		64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
	       240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
	       124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
	       215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
	       121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
	       151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161,  7,
		32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37,	 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44,  9, 10, 27,
		48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54,  8, 56, 57, 58, 59,	 4, 20, 62,255,
		65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
	       144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
	       100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
	       172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
		68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
	       140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
	   );
	   $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;

       Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such a
       URL under the 1047 code page:

	   $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
	   # this array assumes code page 1047
	   my @e2a_1047 = (
		 0,  1,	 2,  3,156,  9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
		16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10,	 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
	       128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140,  5,	 6,  7,
	       144,145, 22,147,148,149,150,  4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
		32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
		38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
		45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
	       248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
	       216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
	       176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
	       181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
	       172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
	       123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
	       125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
		92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
		48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
	   );
	   # The following regular expression does not address the
	   # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
	   $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;

       where a more complete solution would split the URL into components and
       apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.

       In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed but the
       assignment will not be shown explicitly.	 For code page 1047 you could
       use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.

   uu encoding and decoding
       The "u" template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in
       EBCDIC characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts.  For example,
       the following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC
       computer:

	   $all_byte_chrs = '';
	   for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
	   $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
	   ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
	   M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
	   M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
	   M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
	   MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
	   MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
	   ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
	   ENDOFHEREDOC
	   if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
	       print "Yes ";
	   }
	   $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
	   if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
	       print "indeed\n";
	   }

       Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided that
       the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:

	   #!/usr/local/bin/perl
	   @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
		  );
	   $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
	   open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
	   while(<>) {
	       last if /^end/;
	       next if /[a-z]/;
	       next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
		   int(length() / 4);
	       print OUT unpack("u", $_);
	   }
	   close(OUT);
	   chmod oct($mode), $file;

   Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
       On ASCII encoded platforms it is possible to strip characters outside
       of the printable set using:

	   # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
	   $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;

       Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
       would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
       array is omitted for brevity):

	   if (ord('A') == 65) {    # ASCII
	       $delete = "\x7F";    # ASCII
	       @e2a = (0 .. 255)    # ASCII to ASCII identity map
	   }
	   else {		    # EBCDIC
	       $delete = "\x07";    # EBCDIC
	       @e2a =		    # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
	   }
	   $qp_string =~
	     s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;

       (although in production code the substitutions might be done in the
       EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the ASCII branch
       without the expense of the identity map).

       Such QP strings can be decoded with:

	   # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
	   $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
	   $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;

       Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
       would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is omitted
       for brevity):

	   $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
	   $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;

   Caesarian ciphers
       The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for
       encipherment dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed
       by Gaius Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars text.	A single alphabet
       shift is sometimes referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is
       given as a number $n after the string 'rot' or "rot$n".	Rot0 and rot26
       would designate identity maps on the 26 letter English version of the
       Latin alphabet.	Rot13 has the interesting property that alternate
       subsequent invocations are identity maps (thus rot13 is its own non-
       trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet rotations).	Hence the
       following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will work on ASCII and
       EBCDIC platforms:

	   #!/usr/local/bin/perl

	   while(<>){
	       tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
	       print;
	   }

       In one-liner form:

	   perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'

Hashing order and checksums
       To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on hashing
       order there may be differences between hashes as stored on an ASCII
       based platform and hashes stored on an EBCDIC based platform.  XXX

I18N AND L10N
       Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are supported at
       least in principle even on EBCDIC platforms.  The details are system
       dependent and discussed under the "OS ISSUES" in perlebcdic section
       below.

MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
       Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide
       characters on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it
       works with the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.

       Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.

OS ISSUES
       There may be a few system dependent issues of concern to EBCDIC Perl
       programmers.

   OS/400
       PASE    The PASE environment is runtime environment for OS/400 that can
	       run executables built for PowerPC AIX in OS/400, see perlos400.
	       PASE is ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-based as the ILE.

       IFS access
	       XXX.

   OS/390, z/OS
       Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.

       chcp    chcp is supported as a shell utility for displaying and
	       changing one's code page.  See also chcp.

       dataset access
	       For sequential data set access try:

		   my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;

	       or:

		   my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;

	       See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.

       OS/390, z/OS iconv
	       iconv is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
	       See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.

       locales On OS/390 or z/OS see locale for information on locales.	 The
	       L10N files are in /usr/nls/locale.  $Config{d_setlocale} is
	       'define' on OS/390 or z/OS.

   VM/ESA?
       XXX.

   POSIX-BC?
       XXX.

BUGS
       This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
       translation difficulties.  In particular one popular nroff
       implementation was known to strip accented characters to their
       unaccented counterparts while attempting to view this document through
       the pod2man program (for example, you may see a plain "y" rather than
       one with a diaeresis as in ye).	Another nroff truncated the resultant
       manpage at the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.

       Not all shells will allow multiple "-e" string arguments to perl to be
       concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might seem
       to imply.

SEE ALSO
       perllocale, perlfunc, perlunicode, utf8.

REFERENCES
       <http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps>

       <http://www.unicode.org/>

       <http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/>

       <http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/> ASCII: American Standard Code for
       Information Infiltration Tom Jennings, September 1999.

       The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0 The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore
       ed., ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February
       2000.

       CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture - Reference and
       Registry, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.

       "Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing &
       Technology, #26 Vol. 10 Issue 4, August/September 1999; ISSN 1523-0309;
       Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.

       Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication Fred B.
       Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 1998.

       <http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM> IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The
       biggest Computer Goof Ever Robert Bemer.

HISTORY
       15 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.

AUTHOR
       Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000 with CCSID 0819
       and 0037 help from Chris Leach and Andre Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as
       well as POSIX-BC help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
       Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and Joe
       Smith.  Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and registered
       service marks used in this document are the property of their
       respective owners.

perl v5.10.1			  2009-04-11			 PERLEBCDIC(1)
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