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PERLMODINSTALL(1)      Perl Programmers Reference Guide	     PERLMODINSTALL(1)

NAME
       perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

DESCRIPTION
       You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of reusable Perl
       code; see perlmod for details.  Whenever anyone creates a chunk of Perl
       code that they think will be useful to the world, they register as a
       Perl developer at http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html so that they
       can then upload their code to the CPAN.	The CPAN is the Comprehensive
       Perl Archive Network and can be accessed at http://www.cpan.org/ , and
       searched at http://search.cpan.org/ .

       This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN modules and
       install them on their own computer.

   PREAMBLE
       First, are you sure that the module isn't already on your system?  Try
       "perl -MFoo -e 1".  (Replace "Foo" with the name of the module; for
       instance, "perl -MCGI::Carp -e 1".

       If you don't see an error message, you have the module.	(If you do see
       an error message, it's still possible you have the module, but that
       it's not in your path, which you can display with "perl -e "print
       qq(@INC)"".)  For the remainder of this document, we'll assume that you
       really honestly truly lack an installed module, but have found it on
       the CPAN.

       So now you have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often, .zip).	 You
       know there's a tasty module inside.  There are four steps you must now
       take:

       DECOMPRESS the file
       UNPACK the file into a directory
       BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary)
       INSTALL the module.

       Here's how to perform each step for each operating system.  This is
       <not> a substitute for reading the README and INSTALL files that might
       have come with your module!

       Also note that these instructions are tailored for installing the
       module into your system's repository of Perl modules -- but you can
       install modules into any directory you wish.  For instance, where I say
       "perl Makefile.PL", you can substitute "perl Makefile.PL
       PREFIX=/my/perl_directory" to install the modules into
       "/my/perl_directory".  Then you can use the modules from your Perl
       programs with "use lib "/my/perl_directory/lib/site_perl";" or
       sometimes just "use "/my/perl_directory";".  If you're on a system that
       requires superuser/root access to install modules into the directories
       you see when you type "perl -e "print qq(@INC)"", you'll want to
       install them into a local directory (such as your home directory) and
       use this approach.

       ·   If you're on a Unix or Unix-like system,

	   You can use Andreas Koenig's CPAN module (
	   http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/CPAN ) to automate the
	   following steps, from DECOMPRESS through INSTALL.

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

	   You can get gzip from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/

	   Or, you can combine this step with the next to save disk space:

		gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xof -

	   B. UNPACK

	   Unpack the result with "tar -xof yourmodule.tar"

	   C. BUILD

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 make test

	   or

		 perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory

	   to install it locally.  (Remember that if you do this, you'll have
	   to put "use lib "/my/perl_directory";" near the top of the program
	   that is to use this module.

	   D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		 make install

	   Make sure you have the appropriate permissions to install the
	   module in your Perl 5 library directory.  Often, you'll need to be
	   root.

	   That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic linking.
	   Most Unix systems have dynamic linking -- if yours doesn't, or if
	   for another reason you have a statically-linked perl, and the
	   module requires compilation, you'll need to build a new Perl binary
	   that includes the module.  Again, you'll probably need to be root.

       ·   If you're running ActivePerl (Win95/98/2K/NT/XP, Linux, Solaris)

	   First, type "ppm" from a shell and see whether ActiveState's PPM
	   repository has your module.	If so, you can install it with "ppm"
	   and you won't have to bother with any of the other steps here.  You
	   might be able to use the CPAN instructions from the "Unix or Linux"
	   section above as well; give it a try.  Otherwise, you'll have to
	   follow the steps below.

	      A. DECOMPRESS

	   You can use the shareware Winzip ( http://www.winzip.com ) to
	   decompress and unpack modules.

	      B. UNPACK

	   If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.

	      C. BUILD

	   You'll need the "nmake" utility, available at
	   http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe
	   or dmake, available on CPAN.	 http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/

	   Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have files that
	   end in .xs, .c, .h, .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)?  If it does, life is now
	   officially tough for you, because you have to compile the module
	   yourself -- no easy feat on Windows.	 You'll need a compiler such
	   as Visual C++.  Alternatively, you can download a pre-built PPM
	   package from ActiveState.
	   http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Downloads/ActivePerl/PPM/

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 nmake test

	      D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		 nmake install

       ·   If you're using a Macintosh with "Classic" MacOS and MacPerl,

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   First, make sure you have the latest cpan-mac distribution (
	   http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/ ), which has utilities for
	   doing all of the steps.  Read the cpan-mac directions carefully and
	   install it.	If you choose not to use cpan-mac for some reason,
	   there are alternatives listed here.

	   After installing cpan-mac, drop the module archive on the
	   untarzipme droplet, which will decompress and unpack for you.

	   Or, you can either use the shareware StuffIt Expander program (
	   http://www.aladdinsys.com/expander/ ) in combination with DropStuff
	   with Expander Enhancer ( http://www.aladdinsys.com/dropstuff/ ) or
	   the freeware MacGzip program (
	   http://persephone.cps.unizar.es/general/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html ).

	   B. UNPACK

	   If you're using untarzipme or StuffIt, the archive should be
	   extracted now.  Or, you can use the freeware suntar or Tar (
	   http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/cmp/ ).

	   C. BUILD

	   Check the contents of the distribution.  Read the module's
	   documentation, looking for reasons why you might have trouble using
	   it with MacPerl.  Look for .xs and .c files, which normally denote
	   that the distribution must be compiled, and you cannot install it
	   "out of the box."  (See "PORTABILITY".)

	   If a module does not work on MacPerl but should, or needs to be
	   compiled, see if the module exists already as a port on the MacPerl
	   Module Porters site ( http://pudge.net/mmp/ ).  For more
	   information on doing XS with MacPerl yourself, see Arved
	   Sandstrom's XS tutorial ( http://macperl.com/depts/Tutorials/ ),
	   and then consider uploading your binary to the CPAN and registering
	   it on the MMP site.

	   D. INSTALL

	   If you are using cpan-mac, just drop the folder on the installme
	   droplet, and use the module.

	   Or, if you aren't using cpan-mac, do some manual labor.

	   Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac format, not Unix
	   format.  If they are not then you might have decompressed them
	   incorrectly.	 Check your decompression and unpacking utilities
	   settings to make sure they are translating text files properly.

	   As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:

	       perl -i.bak -pe 's/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g' <filenames>

	   on the source files.

	   Then move the files (probably just the .pm files, though there may
	   be some additional ones, too; check the module documentation) to
	   their final destination: This will most likely be in
	   "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" (i.e., "HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib:").
	   You can add new paths to the default @INC in the Preferences menu
	   item in the MacPerl application ("$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" is added
	   automagically).  Create whatever directory structures are required
	   (i.e., for "Some::Module", create "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some:" and
	   put "Module.pm" in that directory).

	   Then run the following script (or something like it):

		#!perl -w
		use AutoSplit;
		my $dir = "${MACPERL}site_perl";
		autosplit("$dir:Some:Module.pm", "$dir:auto", 0, 1, 1);

       ·   If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,

	      A. DECOMPRESS

	   djtarx ( ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/v2/ ) will
	   both uncompress and unpack.

	      B. UNPACK

	   See above.

	      C. BUILD

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 make test

	   You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl
	   distribution.

	      D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		make install

	   You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl
	   distribution.

       ·   If you're on OS/2,

	   Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from either Hobbes (
	   http://hobbes.nmsu.edu ) or Leo ( http://www.leo.org ), and then
	   follow the instructions for Unix.

       ·   If you're on VMS,

	   When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a ".tgz" extension
	   instead of ".tar.gz".  All other periods in the filename should be
	   replaced with underscores.  For example, "Your-Module-1.33.tar.gz"
	   should be downloaded as "Your-Module-1_33.tgz".

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   Type

	       gzip -d Your-Module.tgz

	   or, for zipped modules, type

	       unzip Your-Module.zip

	   Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar:

	       http://www.openvms.digital.com/freeware/
	       http://www.crinoid.com/utils/

	   and their source code:

	       http://www.fsf.org/order/ftp.html

	   Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as Info-ZIP's zip/unzip
	   package.  The former is a simple compression tool; the latter
	   permits creation of multi-file archives.

	   B. UNPACK

	   If you're using VMStar:

		VMStar xf Your-Module.tar

	   Or, if you're fond of VMS command syntax:

		tar/extract/verbose Your_Module.tar

	   C. BUILD

	   Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware MMK (
	   available from MadGoat at http://www.madgoat.com ).	Then type this
	   to create the DESCRIP.MMS for the module:

	       perl Makefile.PL

	   Now you're ready to build:

	       mms test

	   Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

	   D. INSTALL

	   Type

	       mms install

	   Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

       ·   If you're on MVS,

	   Introduce the .tar.gz file into an HFS as binary; don't translate
	   from ASCII to EBCDIC.

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

	   You can get gzip from
	   http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html

	   B. UNPACK

	   Unpack the result with

		pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < yourmodule.tar

	   The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for Unix.	 Some
	   modules generate Makefiles that work better with GNU make, which is
	   available from http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/

PORTABILITY
       Note that not all modules will work with on all platforms.  See
       perlport for more information on portability issues.  Read the
       documentation to see if the module will work on your system.  There are
       basically three categories of modules that will not work "out of the
       box" with all platforms (with some possibility of overlap):

       ·   Those that should, but don't.  These need to be fixed; consider
	   contacting the author and possibly writing a patch.

       ·   Those that need to be compiled, where the target platform doesn't
	   have compilers readily available.  (These modules contain .xs or .c
	   files, usually.)  You might be able to find existing binaries on
	   the CPAN or elsewhere, or you might want to try getting compilers
	   and building it yourself, and then release the binary for other
	   poor souls to use.

       ·   Those that are targeted at a specific platform.  (Such as the
	   Win32:: modules.)  If the module is targeted specifically at a
	   platform other than yours, you're out of luck, most likely.

       Check the CPAN Testers if a module should work with your platform but
       it doesn't behave as you'd expect, or you aren't sure whether or not a
       module will work under your platform.  If the module you want isn't
       listed there, you can test it yourself and let CPAN Testers know, you
       can join CPAN Testers, or you can request it be tested.

	   http://testers.cpan.org/

HEY
       If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me know.  Please
       don't send me mail asking for help on how to install your modules.
       There are too many modules, and too few Orwants, for me to be able to
       answer or even acknowledge all your questions.  Contact the module
       author instead, or post to comp.lang.perl.modules, or ask someone
       familiar with Perl on your operating system.

AUTHOR
       Jon Orwant

       orwant@medita.mit.edu

       with invaluable help from Chris Nandor, and valuable help from Brandon
       Allbery, Charles Bailey, Graham Barr, Dominic Dunlop, Jarkko
       Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman, Tom Horsley, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tuomas J.
       Lukka, Laszlo Molnar, Alan Olsen, Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy Sarathy,
       Christoph Spalinger, Dan Sugalski, Larry Virden, and Ilya Zakharevich.

       First version July 22, 1998; last revised November 21, 2001.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1998, 2002, 2003 Jon Orwant.  All Rights Reserved.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       documentation provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
       are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       documentation under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also
       that they are marked clearly as modified versions, that the authors'
       names and title are unchanged (though subtitles and additional authors'
       names may be added), and that the entire resulting derived work is
       distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this
       one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
       documentation into another language, under the above conditions for
       modified versions.

perl v5.10.1			  2009-02-12		     PERLMODINSTALL(1)
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