perlmodlib man page on FreeBSD

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   9747 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
FreeBSD logo
[printable version]

PERLMODLIB(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide		 PERLMODLIB(1)

NAME
       perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
       Many modules are included in the Perl distribution.  These are
       described below, and all end in .pm.  You may discover compiled library
       files (usually ending in .so) or small pieces of modules to be
       autoloaded (ending in .al); these were automatically generated by the
       installation process.  You may also discover files in the library
       directory that end in either .pl or .ph.	 These are old libraries
       supplied so that old programs that use them still run.  The .pl files
       will all eventually be converted into standard modules, and the .ph
       files made by h2ph will probably end up as extension modules made by
       h2xs.  (Some .ph values may already be available through the POSIX,
       Errno, or Fcntl modules.)  The pl2pm file in the distribution may help
       in your conversion, but it's just a mechanical process and therefore
       far from bulletproof.

   Pragmatic Modules
       They work somewhat like compiler directives (pragmata) in that they
       tend to affect the compilation of your program, and thus will usually
       work well only when used within a "use", or "no".  Most of these are
       lexically scoped, so an inner BLOCK may countermand them by saying:

	   no integer;
	   no strict 'refs';
	   no warnings;

       which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.

       Some pragmas are lexically scoped--typically those that affect the $^H
       hints variable.	Others affect the current package instead, like "use
       vars" and "use subs", which allow you to predeclare a variables or
       subroutines within a particular file rather than just a block.  Such
       declarations are effective for the entire file for which they were
       declared.  You cannot rescind them with "no vars" or "no subs".

       The following pragmas are defined (and have their own documentation).

       attributes  Get/set subroutine or variable attributes

       attrs	   Set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)

       autodie	   Replace functions with ones that succeed or die with
		   lexical scope

       autodie::exception
		   Exceptions from autodying functions.

       autodie::exception::system
		   Exceptions from autodying system().

       autodie::hints
		   Provide hints about user subroutines to autodie

       autouse	   Postpone load of modules until a function is used

       base	   Establish an ISA relationship with base classes at compile
		   time

       bigint	   Transparent BigInteger support for Perl

       bignum	   Transparent BigNumber support for Perl

       bigrat	   Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl

       blib	   Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

       bytes	   Force byte semantics rather than character semantics

       charnames   Define character names for "\N{named}" string literal
		   escapes

       constant	   Declare constants

       diagnostics Produce verbose warning diagnostics

       encoding	   Allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8

       encoding::warnings
		   Warn on implicit encoding conversions

       feature	   Enable new syntactic features

       fields	   Compile-time class fields

       filetest	   Control the filetest permission operators

       if	   "use" a Perl module if a condition holds

       integer	   Use integer arithmetic instead of floating point

       less	   Request less of something

       lib	   Manipulate @INC at compile time

       locale	   Use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

       mro	   Method Resolution Order

       open	   Set default PerlIO layers for input and output

       ops	   Restrict unsafe operations when compiling

       overload	   Package for overloading Perl operations

       overloading Lexically control overloading

       parent	   Establish an ISA relationship with base classes at compile
		   time

       re	   Alter regular expression behaviour

       sigtrap	   Enable simple signal handling

       sort	   Control sort() behaviour

       strict	   Restrict unsafe constructs

       subs	   Predeclare sub names

       threads	   Perl interpreter-based threads

       threads::shared
		   Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads

       utf8	   Enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code

       vars	   Predeclare global variable names (obsolete)

       version	   Perl extension for Version Objects

       vmsish	   Control VMS-specific language features

       warnings	   Control optional warnings

       warnings::register
		   Warnings import function

   Standard Modules
       Standard, bundled modules are all expected to behave in a well-defined
       manner with respect to namespace pollution because they use the
       Exporter module.	 See their own documentation for details.

       It's possible that not all modules listed below are installed on your
       system. For example, the GDBM_File module will not be installed if you
       don't have the gdbm library.

       AnyDBM_File Provide framework for multiple DBMs

       App::Prove  Implements the "prove" command.

       App::Prove::State
		   State storage for the "prove" command.

       App::Prove::State::Result
		   Individual test suite results.

       App::Prove::State::Result::Test
		   Individual test results.

       Archive::Extract
		   A generic archive extracting mechanism

       Archive::Tar
		   Module for manipulations of tar archives

       Archive::Tar::File
		   A subclass for in-memory extracted file from Archive::Tar

       Attribute::Handlers
		   Simpler definition of attribute handlers

       AutoLoader  Load subroutines only on demand

       AutoSplit   Split a package for autoloading

       B	   The Perl Compiler

       B::Concise  Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops

       B::Debug	   Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops

       B::Deparse  Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

       B::Lint	   Perl lint

       B::Lint::Debug
		   Adds debugging stringification to B::

       B::Showlex  Show lexical variables used in functions or files

       B::Terse	   Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops

       B::Xref	   Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs

       Benchmark   Benchmark running times of Perl code

       CGI	   Handle Common Gateway Interface requests and responses

       CGI::Apache Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm

       CGI::Carp   CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log

       CGI::Cookie Interface to Netscape Cookies

       CGI::Fast   CGI Interface for Fast CGI

       CGI::Pretty Module to produce nicely formatted HTML code

       CGI::Push   Simple Interface to Server Push

       CGI::Switch Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch

       CGI::Util   Internal utilities used by CGI module

       CORE	   Pseudo-namespace for Perl's core routines

       CPAN	   Query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites

       CPAN::API::HOWTO
		   A recipe book for programming with CPAN.pm

       CPAN::Distroprefs
		   Read and match distroprefs

       CPAN::FirstTime
		   Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization

       CPAN::Kwalify
		   Interface between CPAN.pm and Kwalify.pm

       CPAN::Nox   Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module

       CPAN::Version
		   Utility functions to compare CPAN versions

       CPANPLUS	   API & CLI access to the CPAN mirrors

       CPANPLUS::Dist::Base
		   Base class for custom distribution classes

       CPANPLUS::Dist::Build
		   CPANPLUS plugin to install packages that use Build.PL

       CPANPLUS::Dist::Build::Constants
		   Constants for CPANPLUS::Dist::Build

       CPANPLUS::Dist::Sample
		   Sample code to create your own Dist::* plugin

       CPANPLUS::Internals::Source::Memory
		   In memory implementation

       CPANPLUS::Internals::Source::SQLite
		   SQLite implementation

       CPANPLUS::Shell::Classic
		   CPAN.pm emulation for CPANPLUS

       CPANPLUS::Shell::Default::Plugins::HOWTO
		   Documentation on how to write your own plugins

       Carp	   Warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

       Carp::Heavy Heavy machinery, no user serviceable parts inside

       Class::ISA  Report the search path for a class's ISA tree

       Class::Struct
		   Declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

       Compress::Raw::Bzip2
		   Low-Level Interface to bzip2 compression library

       Compress::Raw::Bzip2::FAQ
		   Frequently Asked Questions about Compress::Raw::Bzip2

       Compress::Raw::Zlib
		   Low-Level Interface to zlib compression library

       Compress::Raw::Zlib::FAQ
		   Frequently Asked Questions about Compress::Raw::Zlib

       Compress::Zlib
		   Interface to zlib compression library

       Config	   Access Perl configuration information

       Cwd	   Get pathname of current working directory

       DB	   Programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API

       DBM_Filter  Filter DBM keys/values

       DBM_Filter::compress
		   Filter for DBM_Filter

       DBM_Filter::encode
		   Filter for DBM_Filter

       DBM_Filter::int32
		   Filter for DBM_Filter

       DBM_Filter::null
		   Filter for DBM_Filter

       DBM_Filter::utf8
		   Filter for DBM_Filter

       DB_File	   Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

       Data::Dumper
		   Stringified perl data structures, suitable for both
		   printing and "eval"

       Devel::DProf
		   A Perl code profiler

       Devel::InnerPackage
		   Find all the inner packages of a package

       Devel::PPPort
		   Perl/Pollution/Portability

       Devel::Peek A data debugging tool for the XS programmer

       Devel::SelfStubber
		   Generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

       Digest	   Modules that calculate message digests

       Digest::MD5 Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm

       Digest::SHA Perl extension for SHA-1/224/256/384/512

       Digest::base
		   Digest base class

       Digest::file
		   Calculate digests of files

       DirHandle   Supply object methods for directory handles

       Dumpvalue   Provides screen dump of Perl data.

       DynaLoader  Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

       Encode	   Character encodings

       Encode::Alias
		   Alias definitions to encodings

       Encode::Byte
		   Single Byte Encodings

       Encode::CJKConstants
		   Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*

       Encode::CN  China-based Chinese Encodings

       Encode::CN::HZ
		   Internally used by Encode::CN

       Encode::Config
		   Internally used by Encode

       Encode::EBCDIC
		   EBCDIC Encodings

       Encode::Encoder
		   Object Oriented Encoder

       Encode::Encoding
		   Encode Implementation Base Class

       Encode::GSM0338
		   ESTI GSM 03.38 Encoding

       Encode::Guess
		   Guesses encoding from data

       Encode::JP  Japanese Encodings

       Encode::JP::H2Z
		   Internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*

       Encode::JP::JIS7
		   Internally used by Encode::JP

       Encode::KR  Korean Encodings

       Encode::KR::2022_KR
		   Internally used by Encode::KR

       Encode::MIME::Header
		   MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding

       Encode::MIME::Name
		   Internally used by Encode

       Encode::PerlIO
		   A detailed document on Encode and PerlIO

       Encode::Supported
		   Encodings supported by Encode

       Encode::Symbol
		   Symbol Encodings

       Encode::TW  Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings

       Encode::Unicode
		   Various Unicode Transformation Formats

       Encode::Unicode::UTF7
		   UTF-7 encoding

       English	   Use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation
		   variables

       Env	   Perl module that imports environment variables as scalars
		   or arrays

       Errno	   System errno constants

       Exporter	   Implements default import method for modules

       Exporter::Heavy
		   Exporter guts

       ExtUtils::CBuilder
		   Compile and link C code for Perl modules

       ExtUtils::CBuilder::Platform::Windows
		   Builder class for Windows platforms

       ExtUtils::Command
		   Utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.

       ExtUtils::Command::MM
		   Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles

       ExtUtils::Constant
		   Generate XS code to import C header constants

       ExtUtils::Constant::Base
		   Base class for ExtUtils::Constant objects

       ExtUtils::Constant::Utils
		   Helper functions for ExtUtils::Constant

       ExtUtils::Constant::XS
		   Generate C code for XS modules' constants.

       ExtUtils::Embed
		   Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications

       ExtUtils::Install
		   Install files from here to there

       ExtUtils::Installed
		   Inventory management of installed modules

       ExtUtils::Liblist
		   Determine libraries to use and how to use them

       ExtUtils::MM
		   OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass

       ExtUtils::MM_AIX
		   AIX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Any
		   Platform-agnostic MM methods

       ExtUtils::MM_BeOS
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_DOS
		   DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Darwin
		   Special behaviors for OS X

       ExtUtils::MM_MacOS
		   Once produced Makefiles for MacOS Classic

       ExtUtils::MM_NW5
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_OS2
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_QNX
		   QNX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_UWIN
		   U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Unix
		   Methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_VMS
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_VOS
		   VOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Win32
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_Win95
		   Method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X

       ExtUtils::MY
		   ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker
		   Create a module Makefile

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Config
		   Wrapper around Config.pm

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ
		   Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial
		   Writing a module with MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::Manifest
		   Utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

       ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap
		   Make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

       ExtUtils::Mksymlists
		   Write linker options files for dynamic extension

       ExtUtils::Packlist
		   Manage .packlist files

       ExtUtils::ParseXS
		   Converts Perl XS code into C code

       ExtUtils::XSSymSet
		   Keep sets of symbol names palatable to the VMS linker

       ExtUtils::testlib
		   Add blib/* directories to @INC

       Fatal	   Replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die

       Fcntl	   Load the C Fcntl.h defines

       File::Basename
		   Parse file paths into directory, filename and suffix.

       File::CheckTree
		   Run many filetest checks on a tree

       File::Compare
		   Compare files or filehandles

       File::Copy  Copy files or filehandles

       File::DosGlob
		   DOS like globbing and then some

       File::Fetch A generic file fetching mechanism

       File::Find  Traverse a directory tree.

       File::Glob  Perl extension for BSD glob routine

       File::GlobMapper
		   Extend File Glob to Allow Input and Output Files

       File::Path  Create or remove directory trees

       File::Spec  Portably perform operations on file names

       File::Spec::Cygwin
		   Methods for Cygwin file specs

       File::Spec::Epoc
		   Methods for Epoc file specs

       File::Spec::Functions
		   Portably perform operations on file names

       File::Spec::Mac
		   File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)

       File::Spec::OS2
		   Methods for OS/2 file specs

       File::Spec::Unix
		   File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules

       File::Spec::VMS
		   Methods for VMS file specs

       File::Spec::Win32
		   Methods for Win32 file specs

       File::Temp  Return name and handle of a temporary file safely

       File::stat  By-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions

       FileCache   Keep more files open than the system permits

       FileHandle  Supply object methods for filehandles

       Filter::Simple
		   Simplified source filtering

       Filter::Util::Call
		   Perl Source Filter Utility Module

       FindBin	   Locate directory of original perl script

       GDBM_File   Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

       Getopt::Long
		   Extended processing of command line options

       Getopt::Std Process single-character switches with switch clustering

       Hash::Util  A selection of general-utility hash subroutines

       Hash::Util::FieldHash
		   Support for Inside-Out Classes

       I18N::Collate
		   Compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale

       I18N::LangTags
		   Functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags

       I18N::LangTags::Detect
		   Detect the user's language preferences

       I18N::LangTags::List
		   Tags and names for human languages

       I18N::Langinfo
		   Query locale information

       IO	   Load various IO modules

       IO::Compress::Base
		   Base Class for IO::Compress modules

       IO::Compress::Bzip2
		   Write bzip2 files/buffers

       IO::Compress::Deflate
		   Write RFC 1950 files/buffers

       IO::Compress::FAQ
		   Frequently Asked Questions about IO::Compress

       IO::Compress::Gzip
		   Write RFC 1952 files/buffers

       IO::Compress::RawDeflate
		   Write RFC 1951 files/buffers

       IO::Compress::Zip
		   Write zip files/buffers

       IO::Dir	   Supply object methods for directory handles

       IO::File	   Supply object methods for filehandles

       IO::Handle  Supply object methods for I/O handles

       IO::Pipe	   Supply object methods for pipes

       IO::Poll	   Object interface to system poll call

       IO::Seekable
		   Supply seek based methods for I/O objects

       IO::Select  OO interface to the select system call

       IO::Socket  Object interface to socket communications

       IO::Socket::INET
		   Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

       IO::Socket::UNIX
		   Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

       IO::Uncompress::AnyInflate
		   Uncompress zlib-based (zip, gzip) file/buffer

       IO::Uncompress::AnyUncompress
		   Uncompress gzip, zip, bzip2 or lzop file/buffer

       IO::Uncompress::Base
		   Base Class for IO::Uncompress modules

       IO::Uncompress::Bunzip2
		   Read bzip2 files/buffers

       IO::Uncompress::Gunzip
		   Read RFC 1952 files/buffers

       IO::Uncompress::Inflate
		   Read RFC 1950 files/buffers

       IO::Uncompress::RawInflate
		   Read RFC 1951 files/buffers

       IO::Uncompress::Unzip
		   Read zip files/buffers

       IO::Zlib	   IO:: style interface to Compress::Zlib

       IPC::Cmd	   Finding and running system commands made easy

       IPC::Msg	   SysV Msg IPC object class

       IPC::Open2  Open a process for both reading and writing

       IPC::Open3  Open a process for reading, writing, and error handling

       IPC::Semaphore
		   SysV Semaphore IPC object class

       IPC::SharedMem
		   SysV Shared Memory IPC object class

       IPC::SysV   System V IPC constants and system calls

       List::Util  A selection of general-utility list subroutines

       List::Util::XS
		   Indicate if List::Util was compiled with a C compiler

       Locale::Constants
		   Constants for Locale codes

       Locale::Country
		   ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)

       Locale::Currency
		   ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO
		   4217)

       Locale::Language
		   ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)

       Locale::Maketext
		   Framework for localization

       Locale::Maketext::Simple
		   Simple interface to Locale::Maketext::Lexicon

       Locale::Maketext::TPJ13
		   Article about software localization

       Locale::Script
		   ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)

       Log::Message
		   A generic message storing mechanism;

       Log::Message::Config
		   Configuration options for Log::Message

       Log::Message::Handlers
		   Message handlers for Log::Message

       Log::Message::Item
		   Message objects for Log::Message

       MIME::Base64
		   Encoding and decoding of base64 strings

       MIME::QuotedPrint
		   Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings

       Math::BigFloat
		   Arbitrary size floating point math package

       Math::BigInt
		   Arbitrary size integer/float math package

       Math::BigInt::Calc
		   Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt

       Math::BigInt::CalcEmu
		   Emulate low-level math with BigInt code

       Math::BigInt::FastCalc
		   Math::BigInt::Calc with some XS for more speed

       Math::BigRat
		   Arbitrary big rational numbers

       Math::Complex
		   Complex numbers and associated mathematical functions

       Math::Trig  Trigonometric functions

       Memoize	   Make functions faster by trading space for time

       Memoize::AnyDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::Expire
		   Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values

       Memoize::ExpireFile
		   Test for Memoize expiration semantics

       Memoize::ExpireTest
		   Test for Memoize expiration semantics

       Memoize::NDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::SDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::Storable
		   Store Memoized data in Storable database

       Module::Build
		   Build and install Perl modules

       Module::Build::API
		   API Reference for Module Authors

       Module::Build::Authoring
		   Authoring Module::Build modules

       Module::Build::Base
		   Default methods for Module::Build

       Module::Build::Compat
		   Compatibility with ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       Module::Build::ConfigData
		   Configuration for Module::Build

       Module::Build::Cookbook
		   Examples of Module::Build Usage

       Module::Build::ModuleInfo
		   Gather package and POD information from a perl module file

       Module::Build::Notes
		   Configuration for $module_name

       Module::Build::PPMMaker
		   Perl Package Manager file creation

       Module::Build::Platform::Amiga
		   Builder class for Amiga platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::Default
		   Stub class for unknown platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::EBCDIC
		   Builder class for EBCDIC platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::MPEiX
		   Builder class for MPEiX platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::MacOS
		   Builder class for MacOS platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::RiscOS
		   Builder class for RiscOS platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::Unix
		   Builder class for Unix platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::VMS
		   Builder class for VMS platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::VOS
		   Builder class for VOS platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::Windows
		   Builder class for Windows platforms

       Module::Build::Platform::aix
		   Builder class for AIX platform

       Module::Build::Platform::cygwin
		   Builder class for Cygwin platform

       Module::Build::Platform::darwin
		   Builder class for Mac OS X platform

       Module::Build::Platform::os2
		   Builder class for OS/2 platform

       Module::Build::YAML
		   Provides just enough YAML support so that Module::Build
		   works even if YAML.pm is not installed

       Module::CoreList
		   What modules shipped with versions of perl

       Module::Load
		   Runtime require of both modules and files

       Module::Load::Conditional
		   Looking up module information / loading at runtime

       Module::Loaded
		   Mark modules as loaded or unloaded

       Module::Pluggable
		   Automatically give your module the ability to have plugins

       Module::Pluggable::Object
		   Automatically give your module the ability to have plugins

       NDBM_File   Tied access to ndbm files

       NEXT	   Provide a pseudo-class NEXT (et al) that allows method
		   redispatch

       Net::Cmd	   Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)

       Net::Config Local configuration data for libnet

       Net::Domain Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and
		   domain

       Net::FTP	   FTP Client class

       Net::NNTP   NNTP Client class

       Net::Netrc  OO interface to users netrc file

       Net::POP3   Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)

       Net::Ping   Check a remote host for reachability

       Net::SMTP   Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client

       Net::Time   Time and daytime network client interface

       Net::hostent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions

       Net::libnetFAQ
		   Libnet Frequently Asked Questions

       Net::netent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions

       Net::protoent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions

       Net::servent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions

       O	   Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

       ODBM_File   Tied access to odbm files

       Opcode	   Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

       POSIX	   Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

       Package::Constants
		   List all constants declared in a package

       Params::Check
		   A generic input parsing/checking mechanism.

       Parse::CPAN::Meta
		   Parse META.yml and other similar CPAN metadata files

       PerlIO	   On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::*
		   name space

       PerlIO::encoding
		   Encoding layer

       PerlIO::scalar
		   In-memory IO, scalar IO

       PerlIO::via Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl

       PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint
		   PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings

       Pod::Checker
		   Check pod documents for syntax errors

       Pod::Escapes
		   For resolving Pod E<...> sequences

       Pod::Find   Find POD documents in directory trees

       Pod::Functions
		   Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod

       Pod::Html   Module to convert pod files to HTML

       Pod::InputObjects
		   Objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.

       Pod::LaTeX  Convert Pod data to formatted Latex

       Pod::Man	   Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

       Pod::ParseLink
		   Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text

       Pod::ParseUtils
		   Helpers for POD parsing and conversion

       Pod::Parser Base class for creating POD filters and translators

       Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker
		   Let Perldoc check Pod for errors

       Pod::Perldoc::ToMan
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as man pages

       Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff
		   Let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff

       Pod::Perldoc::ToPod
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!

       Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as RTF

       Pod::Perldoc::ToText
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext

       Pod::Perldoc::ToTk
		   Let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod

       Pod::Perldoc::ToXml
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as XML

       Pod::PlainText
		   Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

       Pod::Plainer
		   Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.

       Pod::Select Extract selected sections of POD from input

       Pod::Simple Framework for parsing Pod

       Pod::Simple::Checker
		   Check the Pod syntax of a document

       Pod::Simple::Debug
		   Put Pod::Simple into trace/debug mode

       Pod::Simple::DumpAsText
		   Dump Pod-parsing events as text

       Pod::Simple::DumpAsXML
		   Turn Pod into XML

       Pod::Simple::HTML
		   Convert Pod to HTML

       Pod::Simple::HTMLBatch
		   Convert several Pod files to several HTML files

       Pod::Simple::LinkSection
		   Represent "section" attributes of L codes

       Pod::Simple::Methody
		   Turn Pod::Simple events into method calls

       Pod::Simple::PullParser
		   A pull-parser interface to parsing Pod

       Pod::Simple::PullParserEndToken
		   End-tokens from Pod::Simple::PullParser

       Pod::Simple::PullParserStartToken
		   Start-tokens from Pod::Simple::PullParser

       Pod::Simple::PullParserTextToken
		   Text-tokens from Pod::Simple::PullParser

       Pod::Simple::PullParserToken
		   Tokens from Pod::Simple::PullParser

       Pod::Simple::RTF
		   Format Pod as RTF

       Pod::Simple::Search
		   Find POD documents in directory trees

       Pod::Simple::SimpleTree
		   Parse Pod into a simple parse tree

       Pod::Simple::Subclassing
		   Write a formatter as a Pod::Simple subclass

       Pod::Simple::Text
		   Format Pod as plaintext

       Pod::Simple::TextContent
		   Get the text content of Pod

       Pod::Simple::XHTML
		   Format Pod as validating XHTML

       Pod::Simple::XMLOutStream
		   Turn Pod into XML

       Pod::Text   Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

       Pod::Text::Color
		   Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text

       Pod::Text::Termcap
		   Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes

       Pod::Usage  Print a usage message from embedded pod documentation

       SDBM_File   Tied access to sdbm files

       Safe	   Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

       Scalar::Util
		   A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines

       Search::Dict
		   Search for key in dictionary file

       SelectSaver Save and restore selected file handle

       SelfLoader  Load functions only on demand

       Shell	   Run shell commands transparently within perl

       Socket	   Load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators

       Storable	   Persistence for Perl data structures

       Switch	   A switch statement for Perl

       Symbol	   Manipulate Perl symbols and their names

       Sys::Hostname
		   Try every conceivable way to get hostname

       Sys::Syslog Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

       Sys::Syslog::Win32
		   Win32 support for Sys::Syslog

       TAP::Base   Base class that provides common functionality to
		   TAP::Parser

       TAP::Formatter::Color
		   Run Perl test scripts with color

       TAP::Formatter::Console
		   Harness output delegate for default console output

       TAP::Formatter::Console
		   Harness output delegate for default console output

       TAP::Formatter::Console::ParallelSession
		   Harness output delegate for parallel console output

       TAP::Formatter::Console::Session
		   Harness output delegate for default console output

       TAP::Formatter::File
		   Harness output delegate for file output

       TAP::Formatter::File::Session
		   Harness output delegate for file output

       TAP::Formatter::Session
		   Abstract base class for harness output delegate

       TAP::Harness
		   Run test scripts with statistics

       TAP::Object Base class that provides common functionality to all
		   "TAP::*" modules

       TAP::Parser Parse TAP output

       TAP::Parser::Aggregator
		   Aggregate TAP::Parser results

       TAP::Parser::Grammar
		   A grammar for the Test Anything Protocol.

       TAP::Parser::Iterator
		   Internal base class for TAP::Parser Iterators

       TAP::Parser::Iterator::Array
		   Internal TAP::Parser array Iterator

       TAP::Parser::Iterator::Process
		   Internal TAP::Parser Iterator

       TAP::Parser::Iterator::Stream
		   Internal TAP::Parser Iterator

       TAP::Parser::IteratorFactory
		   Internal TAP::Parser Iterator

       TAP::Parser::Multiplexer
		   Multiplex multiple TAP::Parsers

       TAP::Parser::Result
		   Base class for TAP::Parser output objects

       TAP::Parser::Result::Bailout
		   Bailout result token.

       TAP::Parser::Result::Comment
		   Comment result token.

       TAP::Parser::Result::Plan
		   Plan result token.

       TAP::Parser::Result::Pragma
		   TAP pragma token.

       TAP::Parser::Result::Test
		   Test result token.

       TAP::Parser::Result::Unknown
		   Unknown result token.

       TAP::Parser::Result::Version
		   TAP syntax version token.

       TAP::Parser::Result::YAML
		   YAML result token.

       TAP::Parser::ResultFactory
		   Factory for creating TAP::Parser output objects

       TAP::Parser::Scheduler
		   Schedule tests during parallel testing

       TAP::Parser::Scheduler::Job
		   A single testing job.

       TAP::Parser::Scheduler::Spinner
		   A no-op job.

       TAP::Parser::Source
		   Stream output from some source

       TAP::Parser::Source::Perl
		   Stream Perl output

       TAP::Parser::Utils
		   Internal TAP::Parser utilities

       TAP::Parser::YAMLish::Reader
		   Read YAMLish data from iterator

       TAP::Parser::YAMLish::Writer
		   Write YAMLish data

       Term::ANSIColor
		   Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences

       Term::Cap   Perl termcap interface

       Term::Complete
		   Perl word completion module

       Term::ReadLine
		   Perl interface to various "readline" packages.

       Term::UI	   Term::ReadLine UI made easy

       Test	   Provides a simple framework for writing test scripts

       Test::Builder
		   Backend for building test libraries

       Test::Builder::Module
		   Base class for test modules

       Test::Builder::Tester
		   Test testsuites that have been built with

       Test::Builder::Tester::Color
		   Turn on colour in Test::Builder::Tester

       Test::Harness
		   Run Perl standard test scripts with statistics

       Test::More  Yet another framework for writing test scripts

       Test::Simple
		   Basic utilities for writing tests.

       Test::Tutorial
		   A tutorial about writing really basic tests

       Text::Abbrev
		   Create an abbreviation table from a list

       Text::Balanced
		   Extract delimited text sequences from strings.

       Text::ParseWords
		   Parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays

       Text::Soundex
		   Implementation of the soundex algorithm.

       Text::Tabs  Expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and
		   unexpand(1)

       Text::Wrap  Line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

       Thread	   Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)

       Thread::Queue
		   Thread-safe queues

       Thread::Semaphore
		   Thread-safe semaphores

       Tie::Array  Base class for tied arrays

       Tie::File   Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array

       Tie::Handle Base class definitions for tied handles

       Tie::Hash   Base class definitions for tied hashes

       Tie::Hash::NamedCapture
		   Named regexp capture buffers

       Tie::Memoize
		   Add data to hash when needed

       Tie::RefHash
		   Use references as hash keys

       Tie::Scalar Base class definitions for tied scalars

       Tie::StdHandle
		   Base class definitions for tied handles

       Tie::SubstrHash
		   Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

       Time::HiRes High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers

       Time::Local Efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

       Time::Piece Object Oriented time objects

       Time::Seconds
		   A simple API to convert seconds to other date values

       Time::gmtime
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function

       Time::localtime
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function

       Time::tm	   Internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime

       UNIVERSAL   Base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

       Unicode::Collate
		   Unicode Collation Algorithm

       Unicode::Normalize
		   Unicode Normalization Forms

       Unicode::UCD
		   Unicode character database

       User::grent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions

       User::pwent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions

       Win32	   Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions

       Win32API::File
		   Low-level access to Win32 system API calls for files/dirs.

       Win32CORE   Win32 CORE function stubs

       XS::APItest Test the perl C API

       XS::Typemap Module to test the XS typemaps distributed with perl

       XSLoader	   Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

       version::Internal
		   Perl extension for Version Objects

       To find out all modules installed on your system, including those
       without documentation or outside the standard release, just use the
       following command (under the default win32 shell, double quotes should
       be used instead of single quotes).

	   % perl -MFile::Find=find -MFile::Spec::Functions -Tlwe \
	     'find { wanted => sub { print canonpath $_ if /\.pm\z/ },
	     no_chdir => 1 }, @INC'

       (The -T is here to prevent '.' from being listed in @INC.)  They should
       all have their own documentation installed and accessible via your
       system man(1) command.  If you do not have a find program, you can use
       the Perl find2perl program instead, which generates Perl code as output
       you can run through perl.  If you have a man program but it doesn't
       find your modules, you'll have to fix your manpath.  See perl for
       details.	 If you have no system man command, you might try the perldoc
       program.

       Note also that the command "perldoc perllocal" gives you a (possibly
       incomplete) list of the modules that have been further installed on
       your system. (The perllocal.pod file is updated by the standard
       MakeMaker install process.)

   Extension Modules
       Extension modules are written in C (or a mix of Perl and C).  They are
       usually dynamically loaded into Perl if and when you need them, but may
       also be linked in statically.  Supported extension modules include
       Socket, Fcntl, and POSIX.

       Many popular C extension modules do not come bundled (at least, not
       completely) due to their sizes, volatility, or simply lack of time for
       adequate testing and configuration across the multitude of platforms on
       which Perl was beta-tested.  You are encouraged to look for them on
       CPAN (described below), or using web search engines like Alta Vista or
       Google.

CPAN
       CPAN stands for Comprehensive Perl Archive Network; it's a globally
       replicated trove of Perl materials, including documentation, style
       guides, tricks and traps, alternate ports to non-Unix systems and
       occasional binary distributions for these.   Search engines for CPAN
       can be found at http://www.cpan.org/

       Most importantly, CPAN includes around a thousand unbundled modules,
       some of which require a C compiler to build.  Major categories of
       modules are:

       ·   Language Extensions and Documentation Tools

       ·   Development Support

       ·   Operating System Interfaces

       ·   Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication

       ·   Data Types and Data Type Utilities

       ·   Database Interfaces

       ·   User Interfaces

       ·   Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages

       ·   File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles)

       ·   String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching

       ·   Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing

       ·   Internationalization and Locale

       ·   Authentication, Security, and Encryption

       ·   World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME

       ·   Server and Daemon Utilities

       ·   Archiving and Compression

       ·   Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing

       ·   Mail and Usenet News

       ·   Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc)

       ·   File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities

       ·   Miscellaneous Modules

       The list of the registered CPAN sites as of this writing follows.
       Please note that the sorting order is alphabetical on fields:

       Continent
	  |
	  |-->Country
		|
		|-->[state/province]
			  |
			  |-->ftp
			  |
			  |-->[http]

       and thus the North American servers happen to be listed between the
       European and the South American sites.

       You should try to choose one close to you.

   Africa
       South Africa
				 http://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.is.co.za/programming/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.saix.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/CPAN/CPAN/

   Asia
       China
				 http://cpan.linuxforum.net/
				 http://cpan.shellhung.org/
				 ftp://ftp.shellhung.org/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirrors.hknet.com/CPAN

       Indonesia
				 http://mirrors.tf.itb.ac.id/cpan/
				 http://cpan.cbn.net.id/
				 ftp://ftp.cbn.net.id/mirror/CPAN

       Israel
				 ftp://ftp.iglu.org.il/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.lerner.co.il/
				 http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/

       Japan
				 ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.cpan.jp/
				 ftp://ftp.cpan.jp/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Malaysia
				 http://cpan.MyBSD.org.my
				 http://mirror.leafbug.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://ossig.mncc.com.my/mirror/pub/CPAN

       Russian Federation
				 http://cpan.tomsk.ru
				 ftp://cpan.tomsk.ru/

       Saudi Arabia
				 ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/CPAN/

       Singapore
				 http://CPAN.en.com.sg/
				 ftp://cpan.en.com.sg/
				 http://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
				 http://cpan.oss.eznetsols.org
				 ftp://ftp.oss.eznetsols.org/cpan

       South Korea
				 http://CPAN.bora.net/
				 ftp://ftp.bora.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.kr.FreeBSD.org/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org/pub/CPAN

       Taiwan
				 ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/perl/CPAN
				 http://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/
				 ftp://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
				 http://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub1/perl/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/

       Thailand
				 ftp://ftp.loxinfo.co.th/pub/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.cs.riubon.ac.th/pub/mirrors/CPAN/

   Central America
       Costa Rica
				 http://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/Unix/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/pub/Unix/CPAN/

   Europe
       Austria
				 http://cpan.inode.at/
				 ftp://cpan.inode.at
				 ftp://ftp.tuwien.ac.at/pub/CPAN/

       Belgium
				 http://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.skynet.be
				 ftp://ftp.cpan.skynet.be/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kulnet.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/mirror/CPAN/

       Bosnia and Herzegovina
				 http://cpan.blic.net/

       Bulgaria
				 http://cpan.online.bg
				 ftp://cpan.online.bg/cpan
				 http://cpan.zadnik.org
				 ftp://ftp.zadnik.org/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.lirex.net/
				 ftp://ftp.lirex.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN

       Croatia
				 http://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/

       Czech Republic
				 ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/MIRRORS/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

       Denmark
				 http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/cpan/
				 ftp://sunsite.dk/mirrors/cpan/
				 http://cpan.cybercity.dk
				 http://www.cpan.dk/CPAN/
				 ftp://www.cpan.dk/ftp.cpan.org/CPAN/

       Estonia
				 ftp://ftp.ut.ee/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

       Finland
				 ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.eunet.fi/CPAN

       France
				 http://www.enstimac.fr/Perl/CPAN
				 http://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
				 http://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/
				 ftp://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/pub/ftp.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.club-internet.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://fr.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.oleane.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/computing/CPAN/
				 http://mir2.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
				 ftp://mir1.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
				 http://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
				 http://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
				 ftp://cpan.cict.fr/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uvsq.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/

       Germany
				 ftp://ftp.rub.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.freenet.de/pub/ftp.cpan.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/source/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/CPAN
				 http://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uni-hamburg.de/pub/soft/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.noris.de/
				 ftp://cpan.noris.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.gmd.de/mirrors/CPAN/

       Greece
				 ftp://ftp.acn.gr/pub/lang/perl
				 ftp://ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/lang/perl/

       Hungary
				 http://ftp.kfki.hu/packages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/perl/CPAN/

       Iceland
				 http://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/

       Ireland
				 http://cpan.indigo.ie/
				 ftp://cpan.indigo.ie/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
				 ftp://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/

       Italy
				 http://cpan.nettuno.it/
				 http://gusp.dyndns.org/CPAN/
				 ftp://gusp.dyndns.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://softcity.iol.it/cpan
				 ftp://softcity.iol.it/pub/cpan
				 ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Other/CPAN/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.unipi.it/pub/mirror/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://cis.uniRoma2.it/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.edisontel.it/pub/CPAN_Mirror/
				 http://cpan.flashnet.it/
				 ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/pub/CPAN/

       Latvia
				 http://kvin.lv/pub/CPAN/

       Lithuania
				 ftp://ftp.unix.lt/pub/CPAN/

       Netherlands
				 ftp://download.xs4all.nl/pub/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.nl.uu.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.cybercomm.nl/
				 ftp://mirror.cybercomm.nl/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.vuurwerk.nl/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.cpan.nl/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
				 http://archive.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/

       Norway
				 ftp://ftp.uninett.no/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/languages/perl/cpan/

       Poland
				 ftp://ftp.mega.net.pl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.man.torun.pl/pub/doc/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/CPAN/

       Portugal
				 ftp://ftp.ua.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://perl.di.uminho.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.dei.uc.pt/
				 ftp://ftp.dei.uc.pt/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.nfsi.pt/pub/CPAN
				 http://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
				 http://cpan.ip.pt/
				 ftp://cpan.ip.pt/pub/cpan/
				 http://cpan.telepac.pt/
				 ftp://ftp.telepac.pt/pub/cpan/

       Romania
				 ftp://ftp.bio-net.ro/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.lug.ro/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.roedu.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.dntis.ro/pub/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.iasi.roedu.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
				 http://cpan.ambra.ro/
				 ftp://ftp.ambra.ro/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.dnttm.ro/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.lasting.ro/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.timisoara.roedu.net/mirrors/CPAN/

       Russia
				 ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.rinet.ru/
				 ftp://cpan.rinet.ru/pub/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.aha.ru/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.corbina.ru/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.sai.msu.ru/
				 ftp://ftp.sai.msu.su/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Slovakia
				 ftp://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/

       Slovenia
				 ftp://ftp.arnes.si/software/perl/CPAN/

       Spain
				 http://cpan.imasd.elmundo.es/
				 ftp://ftp.rediris.es/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ri.telefonica-data.net/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/perl/

       Sweden
				 http://ftp.du.se/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.du.se/pub/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.dataphone.se/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.dataphone.se/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Switzerland
				 http://cpan.mirror.solnet.ch/
				 ftp://ftp.solnet.ch/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.danyk.ch/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/CPAN/

       Turkey
				 http://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://sunsite.bilkent.edu.tr/pub/languages/CPAN/

       Ukraine
				 http://cpan.org.ua/
				 ftp://cpan.org.ua/
				 ftp://ftp.perl.org.ua/pub/CPAN/
				 http://no-more.kiev.ua/CPAN/
				 ftp://no-more.kiev.ua/pub/CPAN/

       United Kingdom
				 http://www.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
				 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
				 http://cpan.mirror.anlx.net/
				 ftp://ftp.mirror.anlx.net/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.etla.org/
				 ftp://cpan.etla.org/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.m.flirble.org/
				 ftp://ftp.flirble.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.hambule.co.uk/
				 http://cpan.mirrors.clockerz.net/
				 ftp://ftp.clockerz.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://usit.shef.ac.uk/pub/packages/CPAN/

   North America
       Canada
	   Alberta
					 http://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/
					 ftp://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/CPAN/

	   Manitoba
					 http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/

	   Nova Scotia
					 ftp://cpan.chebucto.ns.ca/pub/CPAN/

	   Ontario
					 ftp://ftp.nrc.ca/pub/CPAN/

       Mexico
				 http://cpan.azc.uam.mx
				 ftp://cpan.azc.uam.mx/mirrors/CPAN
				 http://www.cpan.unam.mx/
				 ftp://ftp.unam.mx/pub/CPAN
				 http://www.msg.com.mx/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.msg.com.mx/pub/CPAN/

       United States
	   Alabama
					 http://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/

	   California
					 http://cpan.develooper.com/
					 http://www.cpan.org/
					 ftp://cpan.valueclick.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://www.mednor.net/ftp/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp.mednor.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://mirrors.gossamer-threads.com/CPAN
					 ftp://cpan.nas.nasa.gov/pub/perl/CPAN/
					 http://mirrors.kernel.org/cpan/
					 ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/pub/CPAN
					 http://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/
					 ftp://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.digisle.net/
					 ftp://cpan.digisle.net/pub/CPAN
					 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/
					 http://www.uberlan.net/CPAN

	   Colorado
					 ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.four10.com

	   Delaware
					 http://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN

	   District of Columbia
					 ftp://ftp.dc.aleron.net/pub/CPAN/

	   Florida
					 ftp://ftp.cise.ufl.edu/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.mirrors.nks.net/

	   Indiana
					 ftp://ftp.uwsg.iu.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.netnitco.net/
					 ftp://cpan.netnitco.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
					 ftp://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
					 http://fx.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
					 http://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN

	   Kentucky
					 http://cpan.uky.edu/
					 ftp://cpan.uky.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 http://slugsite.louisville.edu/cpan
					 ftp://slugsite.louisville.edu/CPAN

	   Massachusetts
					 http://mirrors.towardex.com/CPAN
					 ftp://mirrors.towardex.com/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/net/mirrors/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

	   Michigan
					 ftp://cpan.cse.msu.edu/
					 http://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN

	   Nevada
					 http://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN

	   New Jersey
					 http://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
					 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN

	   New York
					 http://cpan.belfry.net/
					 http://cpan.erlbaum.net/
					 ftp://cpan.erlbaum.net/
					 http://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
					 ftp://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
					 ftp://ftp.stealth.net/pub/CPAN/
					 http://www.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
					 ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/

	   North Carolina
					 http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.duke.edu/pub/perl/
					 ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/mirror/CPAN/

	   Oklahoma
					 ftp://ftp.ou.edu/mirrors/CPAN/

	   Oregon
					 ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/CPAN

	   Pennsylvania
					 http://ftp.epix.net/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp.epix.net/pub/languages/perl/
					 http://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.pair.com/
					 ftp://cpan.pair.com/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://carroll.cac.psu.edu/pub/CPAN/

	   Tennessee
					 ftp://ftp.sunsite.utk.edu/pub/CPAN/

	   Texas
					 http://ftp.sedl.org/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://www.binarycode.org/cpan
					 ftp://mirror.telentente.com/pub/CPAN
					 http://mirrors.theonlinerecordstore.com/CPAN

	   Utah
					 ftp://mirror.xmission.com/CPAN/

	   Virginia
					 http://cpan-du.viaverio.com/
					 ftp://cpan-du.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
					 http://perl.secsup.org/
					 ftp://perl.secsup.org/pub/perl/
					 http://noc.cvaix.com/mirrors/CPAN/

	   Washington
					 http://cpan.llarian.net/
					 ftp://cpan.llarian.net/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.mirrorcentral.com/
					 ftp://ftp.mirrorcentral.com/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp-mirror.internap.com/pub/CPAN/

	   Wisconsin
					 http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 http://mirror.aphix.com/CPAN
					 ftp://mirror.aphix.com/pub/CPAN

   Oceania
       Australia
				 http://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://cpan.topend.com.au/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.mirrors.ilisys.com.au

       New Zealand
				 ftp://ftp.auckland.ac.nz/pub/perl/CPAN/

       United States
				 http://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/
				 ftp://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/

   South America
       Argentina
				 ftp://mirrors.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://www.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan
				 ftp://ftp.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan

       Brazil
				 ftp://cpan.pop-mg.com.br/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.matrix.com.br/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.hostsul.com.br/
				 ftp://cpan.hostsul.com.br/

       Chile
				 http://cpan.netglobalis.net/
				 ftp://cpan.netglobalis.net/pub/CPAN/

   RSYNC Mirrors
			     www.linux.org.ar::cpan
			     theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca::CPAN
			     ftp.shellhung.org::CPAN
			     rsync.nic.funet.fi::CPAN
			     ftp.u-paris10.fr::CPAN
			     mir1.ovh.net::CPAN
			     rsync://ftp.crihan.fr::CPAN
			     ftp.gwdg.de::FTP/languages/perl/CPAN/
			     ftp.leo.org::CPAN
			     ftp.cbn.net.id::CPAN
			     rsync://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
			     ftp.iglu.org.il::CPAN
			     gusp.dyndns.org::cpan
			     ftp.kddlabs.co.jp::cpan
			     ftp.ayamura.org::pub/CPAN/
			     mirror.leafbug.org::CPAN
			     rsync.en.com.sg::CPAN
			     mirror.averse.net::cpan
			     rsync.oss.eznetsols.org
			     ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org::CPAN
			     ftp.solnet.ch::CPAN
			     cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw::CPAN
			     cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
			     rsync://rsync.mirror.anlx.net::CPAN
			     ftp.sedl.org::cpan
			     ibiblio.org::CPAN
			     cpan-du.viaverio.com::CPAN
			     aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu::CPAN
			     archive.progeny.com::CPAN
			     rsync://slugsite.louisville.edu::CPAN
			     mirror.aphix.com::CPAN
			     cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
			     ftp.lug.udel.edu::cpan
			     mirrors.kernel.org::mirrors/CPAN
			     mirrors.phenominet.com::CPAN
			     cpan.pair.com::CPAN
			     cpan-sj.viaverio.com::CPAN
			     mirror.csit.fsu.edu::CPAN
			     csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu::CPAN

       For an up-to-date listing of CPAN sites, see http://www.cpan.org/SITES
       or ftp://www.cpan.org/SITES .

Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
       (The following section is borrowed directly from Tim Bunce's modules
       file, available at your nearest CPAN site.)

       Perl implements a class using a package, but the presence of a package
       doesn't imply the presence of a class.  A package is just a namespace.
       A class is a package that provides subroutines that can be used as
       methods.	 A method is just a subroutine that expects, as its first
       argument, either the name of a package (for "static" methods), or a
       reference to something (for "virtual" methods).

       A module is a file that (by convention) provides a class of the same
       name (sans the .pm), plus an import method in that class that can be
       called to fetch exported symbols.  This module may implement some of
       its methods by loading dynamic C or C++ objects, but that should be
       totally transparent to the user of the module.  Likewise, the module
       might set up an AUTOLOAD function to slurp in subroutine definitions on
       demand, but this is also transparent.  Only the .pm file is required to
       exist.  See perlsub, perltoot, and AutoLoader for details about the
       AUTOLOAD mechanism.

   Guidelines for Module Creation
       ·   Do similar modules already exist in some form?

	   If so, please try to reuse the existing modules either in whole or
	   by inheriting useful features into a new class.  If this is not
	   practical try to get together with the module authors to work on
	   extending or enhancing the functionality of the existing modules.
	   A perfect example is the plethora of packages in perl4 for dealing
	   with command line options.

	   If you are writing a module to expand an already existing set of
	   modules, please coordinate with the author of the package.  It
	   helps if you follow the same naming scheme and module interaction
	   scheme as the original author.

       ·   Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse.

	   Try to "use warnings;" (or "use warnings qw(...);").	 Remember that
	   you can add "no warnings qw(...);" to individual blocks of code
	   that need less warnings.

	   Use blessed references.  Use the two argument form of bless to
	   bless into the class name given as the first parameter of the
	   constructor, e.g.,:

	    sub new {
		my $class = shift;
		return bless {}, $class;
	    }

	   or even this if you'd like it to be used as either a static or a
	   virtual method.

	    sub new {
		my $self  = shift;
		my $class = ref($self) || $self;
		return bless {}, $class;
	    }

	   Pass arrays as references so more parameters can be added later
	   (it's also faster).	Convert functions into methods where
	   appropriate.	 Split large methods into smaller more flexible ones.
	   Inherit methods from other modules if appropriate.

	   Avoid class name tests like: "die "Invalid" unless ref $ref eq
	   'FOO'".  Generally you can delete the "eq 'FOO'" part with no harm
	   at all.  Let the objects look after themselves! Generally, avoid
	   hard-wired class names as far as possible.

	   Avoid "$r->Class::func()" where using "@ISA=qw(... Class ...)" and
	   "$r->func()" would work (see perlbot for more details).

	   Use autosplit so little used or newly added functions won't be a
	   burden to programs that don't use them. Add test functions to the
	   module after __END__ either using AutoSplit or by saying:

	    eval join('',<main::DATA>) || die $@ unless caller();

	   Does your module pass the 'empty subclass' test? If you say
	   "@SUBCLASS::ISA = qw(YOURCLASS);" your applications should be able
	   to use SUBCLASS in exactly the same way as YOURCLASS.  For example,
	   does your application still work if you change:  "$obj =
	   YOURCLASS->new();" into: "$obj = SUBCLASS->new();" ?

	   Avoid keeping any state information in your packages. It makes it
	   difficult for multiple other packages to use yours. Keep state
	   information in objects.

	   Always use -w.

	   Try to "use strict;" (or "use strict qw(...);").  Remember that you
	   can add "no strict qw(...);" to individual blocks of code that need
	   less strictness.

	   Always use -w.

	   Follow the guidelines in the perlstyle(1) manual.

	   Always use -w.

       ·   Some simple style guidelines

	   The perlstyle manual supplied with Perl has many helpful points.

	   Coding style is a matter of personal taste. Many people evolve
	   their style over several years as they learn what helps them write
	   and maintain good code.  Here's one set of assorted suggestions
	   that seem to be widely used by experienced developers:

	   Use underscores to separate words.  It is generally easier to read
	   $var_names_like_this than $VarNamesLikeThis, especially for non-
	   native speakers of English. It's also a simple rule that works
	   consistently with VAR_NAMES_LIKE_THIS.

	   Package/Module names are an exception to this rule. Perl informally
	   reserves lowercase module names for 'pragma' modules like integer
	   and strict. Other modules normally begin with a capital letter and
	   use mixed case with no underscores (need to be short and portable).

	   You may find it helpful to use letter case to indicate the scope or
	   nature of a variable. For example:

	    $ALL_CAPS_HERE   constants only (beware clashes with Perl vars)
	    $Some_Caps_Here  package-wide global/static
	    $no_caps_here    function scope my() or local() variables

	   Function and method names seem to work best as all lowercase.
	   e.g., "$obj->as_string()".

	   You can use a leading underscore to indicate that a variable or
	   function should not be used outside the package that defined it.

       ·   Select what to export.

	   Do NOT export method names!

	   Do NOT export anything else by default without a good reason!

	   Exports pollute the namespace of the module user.  If you must
	   export try to use @EXPORT_OK in preference to @EXPORT and avoid
	   short or common names to reduce the risk of name clashes.

	   Generally anything not exported is still accessible from outside
	   the module using the ModuleName::item_name (or
	   "$blessed_ref->method") syntax.  By convention you can use a
	   leading underscore on names to indicate informally that they are
	   'internal' and not for public use.

	   (It is actually possible to get private functions by saying: "my
	   $subref = sub { ... };  &$subref;".	But there's no way to call
	   that directly as a method, because a method must have a name in the
	   symbol table.)

	   As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object oriented
	   then export nothing. If it's just a collection of functions then
	   @EXPORT_OK anything but use @EXPORT with caution.

       ·   Select a name for the module.

	   This name should be as descriptive, accurate, and complete as
	   possible.  Avoid any risk of ambiguity. Always try to use two or
	   more whole words.  Generally the name should reflect what is
	   special about what the module does rather than how it does it.
	   Please use nested module names to group informally or categorize a
	   module.  There should be a very good reason for a module not to
	   have a nested name.	Module names should begin with a capital
	   letter.

	   Having 57 modules all called Sort will not make life easy for
	   anyone (though having 23 called Sort::Quick is only marginally
	   better :-).	Imagine someone trying to install your module
	   alongside many others.  If in any doubt ask for suggestions in
	   comp.lang.perl.misc.

	   If you are developing a suite of related modules/classes it's good
	   practice to use nested classes with a common prefix as this will
	   avoid namespace clashes. For example: Xyz::Control, Xyz::View,
	   Xyz::Model etc. Use the modules in this list as a naming guide.

	   If adding a new module to a set, follow the original author's
	   standards for naming modules and the interface to methods in those
	   modules.

	   If developing modules for private internal or project specific use,
	   that will never be released to the public, then you should ensure
	   that their names will not clash with any future public module. You
	   can do this either by using the reserved Local::* category or by
	   using a category name that includes an underscore like Foo_Corp::*.

	   To be portable each component of a module name should be limited to
	   11 characters. If it might be used on MS-DOS then try to ensure
	   each is unique in the first 8 characters. Nested modules make this
	   easier.

       ·   Have you got it right?

	   How do you know that you've made the right decisions? Have you
	   picked an interface design that will cause problems later? Have you
	   picked the most appropriate name? Do you have any questions?

	   The best way to know for sure, and pick up many helpful
	   suggestions, is to ask someone who knows. Comp.lang.perl.misc is
	   read by just about all the people who develop modules and it's the
	   best place to ask.

	   All you need to do is post a short summary of the module, its
	   purpose and interfaces. A few lines on each of the main methods is
	   probably enough. (If you post the whole module it might be ignored
	   by busy people - generally the very people you want to read it!)

	   Don't worry about posting if you can't say when the module will be
	   ready - just say so in the message. It might be worth inviting
	   others to help you, they may be able to complete it for you!

       ·   README and other Additional Files.

	   It's well known that software developers usually fully document the
	   software they write. If, however, the world is in urgent need of
	   your software and there is not enough time to write the full
	   documentation please at least provide a README file containing:

	   ·	     A description of the module/package/extension etc.

	   ·	     A copyright notice - see below.

	   ·	     Prerequisites - what else you may need to have.

	   ·	     How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc.

	   ·	     How to install it.

	   ·	     Recent changes in this release, especially
		     incompatibilities

	   ·	     Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future.

	   If the README file seems to be getting too large you may wish to
	   split out some of the sections into separate files: INSTALL,
	   Copying, ToDo etc.

	   ·   Adding a Copyright Notice.

	       How you choose to license your work is a personal decision.
	       The general mechanism is to assert your Copyright and then make
	       a declaration of how others may copy/use/modify your work.

	       Perl, for example, is supplied with two types of licence: The
	       GNU GPL and The Artistic Licence (see the files README,
	       Copying, and Artistic, or perlgpl and perlartistic).  Larry has
	       good reasons for NOT just using the GNU GPL.

	       My personal recommendation, out of respect for Larry, Perl, and
	       the Perl community at large is to state something simply like:

		Copyright (c) 1995 Your Name. All rights reserved.
		This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
		modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

	       This statement should at least appear in the README file. You
	       may also wish to include it in a Copying file and your source
	       files.  Remember to include the other words in addition to the
	       Copyright.

	   ·   Give the module a version/issue/release number.

	       To be fully compatible with the Exporter and MakeMaker modules
	       you should store your module's version number in a non-my
	       package variable called $VERSION.  This should be a floating
	       point number with at least two digits after the decimal (i.e.,
	       hundredths, e.g, "$VERSION = "0.01"").  Don't use a "1.3.2"
	       style version.  See Exporter for details.

	       It may be handy to add a function or method to retrieve the
	       number.	Use the number in announcements and archive file names
	       when releasing the module (ModuleName-1.02.tar.Z).  See perldoc
	       ExtUtils::MakeMaker.pm for details.

	   ·   How to release and distribute a module.

	       It's good idea to post an announcement of the availability of
	       your module (or the module itself if small) to the
	       comp.lang.perl.announce Usenet newsgroup.  This will at least
	       ensure very wide once-off distribution.

	       If possible, register the module with CPAN.  You should include
	       details of its location in your announcement.

	       Some notes about ftp archives: Please use a long descriptive
	       file name that includes the version number. Most incoming
	       directories will not be readable/listable, i.e., you won't be
	       able to see your file after uploading it. Remember to send your
	       email notification message as soon as possible after uploading
	       else your file may get deleted automatically. Allow time for
	       the file to be processed and/or check the file has been
	       processed before announcing its location.

	       FTP Archives for Perl Modules:

	       Follow the instructions and links on:

		  http://www.cpan.org/modules/00modlist.long.html
		  http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html

	       or upload to one of these sites:

		  https://pause.kbx.de/pause/
		  http://pause.perl.org/pause/

	       and notify <modules@perl.org>.

	       By using the WWW interface you can ask the Upload Server to
	       mirror your modules from your ftp or WWW site into your own
	       directory on CPAN!

	       Please remember to send me an updated entry for the Module
	       list!

	   ·   Take care when changing a released module.

	       Always strive to remain compatible with previous released
	       versions.  Otherwise try to add a mechanism to revert to the
	       old behavior if people rely on it.  Document incompatible
	       changes.

   Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
       ·   There is no requirement to convert anything.

	   If it ain't broke, don't fix it! Perl 4 library scripts should
	   continue to work with no problems. You may need to make some minor
	   changes (like escaping non-array @'s in double quoted strings) but
	   there is no need to convert a .pl file into a Module for just that.

       ·   Consider the implications.

	   All Perl applications that make use of the script will need to be
	   changed (slightly) if the script is converted into a module.	 Is it
	   worth it unless you plan to make other changes at the same time?

       ·   Make the most of the opportunity.

	   If you are going to convert the script to a module you can use the
	   opportunity to redesign the interface.  The guidelines for module
	   creation above include many of the issues you should consider.

       ·   The pl2pm utility will get you started.

	   This utility will read *.pl files (given as parameters) and write
	   corresponding *.pm files. The pl2pm utilities does the following:

	   ·	     Adds the standard Module prologue lines

	   ·	     Converts package specifiers from ' to ::

	   ·	     Converts die(...) to croak(...)

	   ·	     Several other minor changes

	   Being a mechanical process pl2pm is not bullet proof. The converted
	   code will need careful checking, especially any package statements.
	   Don't delete the original .pl file till the new .pm one works!

   Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
       ·   Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library.

       ·   Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused.

	   Help save the world! Share your code in a form that makes it easy
	   to reuse.

       ·   Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files.

       ·   Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces.

       ·   In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small

	   fragment of code built on top of the reusable modules. In these
	   cases the application could invoked as:

		% perl -e 'use Module::Name; method(@ARGV)' ...
	   or
		% perl -mModule::Name ...    (in perl5.002 or higher)

NOTE
       Perl does not enforce private and public parts of its modules as you
       may have been used to in other languages like C++, Ada, or Modula-17.
       Perl doesn't have an infatuation with enforced privacy.	It would
       prefer that you stayed out of its living room because you weren't
       invited, not because it has a shotgun.

       The module and its user have a contract, part of which is common law,
       and part of which is "written".	Part of the common law contract is
       that a module doesn't pollute any namespace it wasn't asked to.	The
       written contract for the module (A.K.A. documentation) may make other
       provisions.  But then you know when you "use RedefineTheWorld" that
       you're redefining the world and willing to take the consequences.

perl v5.10.1			  2010-11-08			 PERLMODLIB(1)
[top]

List of man pages available for FreeBSD

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Tweet
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
...................................................................
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net