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PERLREPOSITORY(1)      Perl Programmers Reference Guide	     PERLREPOSITORY(1)

       perlrepository - Using the Perl source repository

       All of Perl's source code is kept centrally in a Git repository at The repository contains many Perl revisions from
       Perl 1 onwards and all the revisions from Perforce, the version control
       system we were using previously. This repository is accessible in
       different ways.

       The full repository takes up about 80MB of disk space. A check out of
       the blead branch (that is, the main development branch, which contains
       bleadperl, the development version of perl 5) takes up about 160MB of
       disk space (including the repository). A build of bleadperl takes up
       about 200MB (including the repository and the check out).

       You may access the repository over the web. This allows you to browse
       the tree, see recent commits, subscribe to RSS feeds for the changes,
       search for particular commits and more. You may access it at:

       A mirror of the repository is found at:

       You will need a copy of Git for your computer. You can fetch a copy of
       the repository using the Git protocol (which uses port 9418):

	 % git clone git:// perl-git

       This clones the repository and makes a local copy in the perl-git

       If your local network does not allow you to use port 9418, then you can
       fetch a copy of the repository over HTTP (this is at least 4x slower):

	 % git clone perl-http

       This clones the repository and makes a local copy in the perl-http

       If you are a committer, then you can fetch a copy of the repository
       that you can push back on with:

	 % git clone ssh:// perl-ssh

       This clones the repository and makes a local copy in the perl-ssh

       If you cloned using the git protocol, which is faster than ssh, then
       you will need to modify the URL for the origin remote to enable
       pushing. To do that edit .git/config with git-config(1) like this:

	 % git config remote.origin.url ssh://

       You can also set up your user name and e-mail address. Most people do
       this once globally in their ~/.gitconfig by doing something like:

	 % git config --global "A~Xvar ArnfjA~XrA~X Bjarmason"
	 % git config --global

       However if you'd like to override that just for perl then execute then
       execute something like the following in perl-git:

	 % git config

       It is also possible to keep "origin" as a git remote, and add a new
       remote for ssh access:

	 % git remote add camel

       This allows you to update your local repository by pulling from
       "origin", which is faster and doesn't require you to authenticate, and
       to push your changes back with the "camel" remote:

	 % git fetch camel
	 % git push camel

       The "fetch" command just updates the "camel" refs, as the objects
       themselves should have been fetched when pulling from "origin".

       The committers have SSH access to the two servers that serve
       "". One is "" itself (camel), which
       is the 'master' repository. The second one is
       "" (dromedary), which can be used for general
       testing and development. Dromedary syncs the git tree from camel every
       few minutes, you should not push there. Both machines also have a full
       CPAN mirror in /srv/CPAN, please use this. To share files with the
       general public, dromedary serves your ~/public_html/ as

       These hosts have fairly strict firewalls to the outside. Outgoing, only
       rsync, ssh and git are allowed. For http and ftp, you can use
       http://webproxy:3128 as proxy. Incoming, the firewall tries to detect
       attacks and blocks IP addresses with suspicious activity. This
       sometimes (but very rarely) has false positives and you might get
       blocked. The quickest way to get unblocked is to notify the admins.

       These two boxes are owned, hosted, and operated by You can
       reach the sysadmins in #p5p on or via mail to

       Once you have changed into the repository directory, you can inspect

       After a clone the repository will contain a single local branch, which
       will be the current branch as well, as indicated by the asterisk.

	 % git branch
	 * blead

       Using the -a switch to "branch" will also show the remote tracking
       branches in the repository:

	 % git branch -a
	 * blead

       The branches that begin with "origin" correspond to the "git remote"
       that you cloned from (which is named "origin"). Each branch on the
       remote will be exactly tracked by theses branches. You should NEVER do
       work on these remote tracking branches. You only ever do work in a
       local branch. Local branches can be configured to automerge (on pull)
       from a designated remote tracking branch. This is the case with the
       default branch "blead" which will be configured to merge from the
       remote tracking branch "origin/blead".

       You can see recent commits:

	 % git log

       And pull new changes from the repository, and update your local
       repository (must be clean first)

	 % git pull

       Assuming we are on the branch "blead" immediately after a pull, this
       command would be more or less equivalent to:

	 % git fetch
	 % git merge origin/blead

       In fact if you want to update your local repository without touching
       your working directory you do:

	 % git fetch

       And if you want to update your remote-tracking branches for all defined
       remotes simultaneously you can do

	 % git remote update

       Neither of these last two commands will update your working directory,
       however both will update the remote-tracking branches in your

       To make a local branch of a remote branch:

	 % git checkout -b maint-5.10 origin/maint-5.10

       To switch back to blead:

	 % git checkout blead

       The most common git command you will use will probably be

	 % git status

       This command will produce as output a description of the current state
       of the repository, including modified files and unignored untracked
       files, and in addition it will show things like what files have been
       staged for the next commit, and usually some useful information about
       how to change things. For instance the following:

	 $ git status
	 # On branch blead
	 # Your branch is ahead of 'origin/blead' by 1 commit.
	 # Changes to be committed:
	 #   (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
	 #	 modified:   pod/perlrepository.pod
	 # Changed but not updated:
	 #   (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
	 #	 modified:   pod/perlrepository.pod
	 # Untracked files:
	 #   (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
	 #	 deliberate.untracked

       This shows that there were changes to this document staged for commit,
       and that there were further changes in the working directory not yet
       staged. It also shows that there was an untracked file in the working
       directory, and as you can see shows how to change all of this. It also
       shows that there is one commit on the working branch "blead" which has
       not been pushed to the "origin" remote yet. NOTE: that this output is
       also what you see as a template if you do not provide a message to "git

       Assuming that you'd like to commit all the changes you've just made as
       a a single atomic unit, run this command:

	  % git commit -a

       (That "-a" tells git to add every file you've changed to this commit.
       New files aren't automatically added to your commit when you use
       "commit -a" If you want to add files or to commit some, but not all of
       your changes, have a look at the documentation for "git add".)

       Git will start up your favorite text editor, so that you can craft a
       commit message for your change. See "Commit message" below for more
       information about what makes a good commit message.

       Once you've finished writing your commit message and exited your
       editor, git will write your change to disk and tell you something like

	 Created commit daf8e63: explain git status and stuff about remotes
	  1 files changed, 83 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

       If you re-run "git status", you should see something like this:

	 % git status
	 # On branch blead
	 # Your branch is ahead of 'origin/blead' by 2 commits.
	 # Untracked files:
	 #   (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
	 #	 deliberate.untracked
	 nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)

       When in doubt, before you do anything else, check your status and read
       it carefully, many questions are answered directly by the git status

       If you have a patch in mind for Perl, you should first get a copy of
       the repository:

	 % git clone git:// perl-git

       Then change into the directory:

	 % cd perl-git

       Alternatively, if you already have a Perl repository, you should ensure
       that you're on the blead branch, and your repository is up to date:

	 % git checkout blead
	 % git pull

       It's preferable to patch against the latest blead version, since this
       is where new development occurs for all changes other than critical bug
       fixes.  Critical bug fix patches should be made against the relevant
       maint branches, or should be submitted with a note indicating all the
       branches where the fix should be applied.

       Now that we have everything up to date, we need to create a temporary
       new branch for these changes and switch into it:

	 % git checkout -b orange

       which is the short form of

	 % git branch orange
	 % git checkout orange

       Creating a topic branch makes it easier for the maintainers to rebase
       or merge back into the master blead for a more linear history. If you
       don't work on a topic branch the maintainer has to manually cherry pick
       your changes onto blead before they can be applied.

       That'll get you scolded on perl5-porters, so don't do that. Be Awesome.

       Then make your changes. For example, if Leon Brocard changes his name
       to Orange Brocard, we should change his name in the AUTHORS file:

	 % perl -pi -e 's{Leon Brocard}{Orange Brocard}' AUTHORS

       You can see what files are changed:

	 % git status
	 # On branch orange
	 # Changes to be committed:
	 #   (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
	 #    modified:	  AUTHORS

       And you can see the changes:

	 % git diff
	 diff --git a/AUTHORS b/AUTHORS
	 index 293dd70..722c93e 100644
	 --- a/AUTHORS
	 +++ b/AUTHORS
	 @@ -541,7 +541,7 @@	Lars Hecking		       <>
	  Laszlo Molnar			 <>
	  Leif Huhn			 <>
	  Len Johnson			 <>
	 -Leon Brocard			 <>
	 +Orange Brocard		 <>
	  Les Peters			 <>
	  Lesley Binks			 <>
	  Lincoln D. Stein		 <>

       Now commit your change locally:

	 % git commit -a -m 'Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard'
	 Created commit 6196c1d: Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard
	  1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)

       You can examine your last commit with:

	 % git show HEAD

       and if you are not happy with either the description or the patch
       itself you can fix it up by editing the files once more and then issue:

	 % git commit -a --amend

       Now you should create a patch file for all your local changes:

	 % git format-patch -M origin..

       You should now send an email to to
       <> with a description of your changes, and
       include this patch file as an attachment. In addition to being tracked
       by RT, mail to perlbug will automatically be forwarded to
       perl5-porters. You should only send patches to
       <> directly if the patch is not ready to
       be applied, but intended for discussion.

       See the next section for how to configure and use git to send these
       emails for you.

       If you want to delete your temporary branch, you may do so with:

	 % git checkout blead
	 % git branch -d orange
	 error: The branch 'orange' is not an ancestor of your current HEAD.
	 If you are sure you want to delete it, run 'git branch -D orange'.
	 % git branch -D orange
	 Deleted branch orange.

   Using git to send patch emails
       In your ~/git/perl repository, set the destination email to perl's bug

	 $ git config

       Or maybe perl5-porters (discussed above):

	 $ git config

       Then you can use git directly to send your patch emails:

	 $ git send-email 0001-Rename-Leon-Brocard-to-Orange-Brocard.patch

       You may need to set some configuration variables for your particular
       email service provider. For example, to set your global git config to
       send email via a gmail account:

	 $ git config --global sendemail.smtpserver
	 $ git config --global sendemail.smtpssl 1
	 $ git config --global sendemail.smtpuser

       With this configuration, you will be prompted for your gmail password
       when you run 'git send-email'.  You can also configure
       "sendemail.smtppass" with your password if you don't care about having
       your password in the .gitconfig file.

   A note on derived files
       Be aware that many files in the distribution are derivative--avoid
       patching them, because git won't see the changes to them, and the build
       process will overwrite them. Patch the originals instead.  Most
       utilities (like perldoc) are in this category, i.e. patch
       utils/perldoc.PL rather than utils/perldoc. Similarly, don't create
       patches for files under $src_root/ext from their copies found in
       $install_root/lib.  If you are unsure about the proper location of a
       file that may have gotten copied while building the source
       distribution, consult the "MANIFEST".

       As a special case, several files are regenerated by 'make regen' if
       your patch alters "embed.fnc".  These are needed for compilation, but
       are included in the distribution so that you can build perl without
       needing another perl to generate the files.  You must test with these
       regenerated files, but it is preferred that you instead note that 'make
       regen is needed' in both the email and the commit message, and submit
       your patch without them.	 If you're submitting a series of patches, it
       might be best to submit the regenerated changes immediately after the
       source-changes that caused them, so as to have as little effect as
       possible on the bisectability of your patchset.

   Getting your patch accepted
       If you are submitting a code patch there are several things that you
       need to do.

       Commit message
	   As you craft each patch you intend to submit to the Perl core, it's
	   important to write a good commit message.

	   Your commit message should start with a description of the problem
	   that the patch corrects or new functionality that the patch adds.

	   As a general rule of thumb, your commit message should let a
	   programmer with a reasonable familiarity with the Perl core quickly
	   understand what you were trying to do, how you were trying to do it
	   and why the change matters to Perl.

	       Your commit message should describe what part of the Perl core
	       you're changing and what you expect your patch to do.

	   Why Perhaps most importantly, your commit message should describe
	       why the change you are making is important. When someone looks
	       at your change in six months or six years, your intent should
	       be clear.  If you're deprecating a feature with the intent of
	       later simplifying another bit of code, say so. If you're fixing
	       a performance problem or adding a new feature to support some
	       other bit of the core, mention that.

	   How While it's not necessary for documentation changes, new tests
	       or trivial patches, it's often worth explaining how your change
	       works.  Even if it's clear to you today, it may not be clear to
	       a porter next month or next year.

	   A commit message isn't intended to take the place of comments in
	   your code.  Commit messages should describe the change you made,
	   while code comments should describe the current state of the code.
	   If you've just implemented a new feature, complete with doc, tests
	   and well-commented code, a brief commit message will often suffice.
	   If, however, you've just changed a single character deep in the
	   parser or lexer, you might need to write a small novel to ensure
	   that future readers understand what you did and why you did it.

       Comments, Comments, Comments
	   Be sure to adequately comment your code.  While commenting every
	   line is unnecessary, anything that takes advantage of side effects
	   of operators, that creates changes that will be felt outside of the
	   function being patched, or that others may find confusing should be
	   documented.	If you are going to err, it is better to err on the
	   side of adding too many comments than too few.

	   In general, please follow the particular style of the code you are

	   In particular, follow these general guidelines for patching Perl

	       8-wide tabs (no exceptions!)
	       4-wide indents for code, 2-wide indents for nested CPP #defines
	       try hard not to exceed 79-columns
	       ANSI C prototypes
	       uncuddled elses and "K&R" style for indenting control constructs
	       no C++ style (//) comments
	       mark places that need to be revisited with XXX (and revisit often!)
	       opening brace lines up with "if" when conditional spans multiple
		   lines; should be at end-of-line otherwise
	       in function definitions, name starts in column 0 (return value is on
		   previous line)
	       single space after keywords that are followed by parens, no space
		   between function name and following paren
	       avoid assignments in conditionals, but if they're unavoidable, use
		   extra paren, e.g. "if (a && (b = c)) ..."
	       "return foo;" rather than "return(foo);"
	       "if (!foo) ..." rather than "if (foo == FALSE) ..." etc.

	   If your patch changes code (rather than just changing
	   documentation) you should also include one or more test cases which
	   illustrate the bug you're fixing or validate the new functionality
	   you're adding.  In general, you should update an existing test file
	   rather than create a new one.

	   Your testsuite additions should generally follow these guidelines
	   (courtesy of Gurusamy Sarathy <>):

	       Know what you're testing.  Read the docs, and the source.
	       Tend to fail, not succeed.
	       Interpret results strictly.
	       Use unrelated features (this will flush out bizarre interactions).
	       Use non-standard idioms (otherwise you are not testing TIMTOWTDI).
	       Avoid using hardcoded test numbers whenever possible (the
		 EXPECTED/GOT found in t/op/tie.t is much more maintainable,
		 and gives better failure reports).
	       Give meaningful error messages when a test fails.
	       Avoid using qx// and system() unless you are testing for them.  If you
		 do use them, make sure that you cover _all_ perl platforms.
	       Unlink any temporary files you create.
	       Promote unforeseen warnings to errors with $SIG{__WARN__}.
	       Be sure to use the libraries and modules shipped with the version
		 being tested, not those that were already installed.
	       Add comments to the code explaining what you are testing for.
	       Make updating the '1..42' string unnecessary.  Or make sure that
		 you update it.
	       Test _all_ behaviors of a given operator, library, or function:
		 - All optional arguments
		 - Return values in various contexts (boolean, scalar, list, lvalue)
		 - Use both global and lexical variables
		 - Don't forget the exceptional, pathological cases.

       If you have received a patch file generated using the above section,
       you should try out the patch.

       First we need to create a temporary new branch for these changes and
       switch into it:

	 % git checkout -b experimental

       Patches that were formatted by "git format-patch" are applied with "git

	 % git am 0001-Rename-Leon-Brocard-to-Orange-Brocard.patch
	 Applying Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard

       If just a raw diff is provided, it is also possible use this two-step

	 % git apply bugfix.diff
	 % git commit -a -m "Some fixing" --author="That Guy <>"

       Now we can inspect the change:

	 % git show HEAD
	 commit b1b3dab48344cff6de4087efca3dbd63548ab5e2
	 Author: Leon Brocard <>
	 Date:	 Fri Dec 19 17:02:59 2008 +0000

	   Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard

	 diff --git a/AUTHORS b/AUTHORS
	 index 293dd70..722c93e 100644
	 --- a/AUTHORS
	 +++ b/AUTHORS
	 @@ -541,7 +541,7 @@ Lars Hecking			 <>
	  Laszlo Molnar			 <>
	  Leif Huhn			 <>
	  Len Johnson			 <>
	 -Leon Brocard			 <>
	 +Orange Brocard		 <>
	  Les Peters			 <>
	  Lesley Binks			 <>
	  Lincoln D. Stein		 <>

       If you are a committer to Perl and you think the patch is good, you can
       then merge it into blead then push it out to the main repository:

	 % git checkout blead
	 % git merge experimental
	 % git push

       If you want to delete your temporary branch, you may do so with:

	 % git checkout blead
	 % git branch -d experimental
	 error: The branch 'experimental' is not an ancestor of your current HEAD.
	 If you are sure you want to delete it, run 'git branch -D experimental'.
	 % git branch -D experimental
	 Deleted branch experimental.

       The command "git clean" can with varying arguments be used as a
       replacement for "make clean".

       To reset your working directory to a pristine condition you can do:

	 % git clean -dxf

       However, be aware this will delete ALL untracked content. You can use

	 % git clean -Xf

       to remove all ignored untracked files, such as build and test
       byproduct, but leave any	 manually created files alone.

       If you only want to cancel some uncommitted edits, you can use "git
       checkout" and give it a list of files to be reverted, or "git checkout
       -f" to revert them all.

       If you want to cancel one or several commits, you can use "git reset".

       "git" provides a built-in way to determine, with a binary search in the
       history, which commit should be blamed for introducing a given bug.

       Suppose that we have a script ~/ that exits with 0 when some
       behaviour is correct, and with 1 when it's faulty. You need an helper
       script that automates building "perl" and running the testcase:

	 % cat ~/run
	 git clean -dxf
	 # If you can use ccache, add -Dcc=ccache\ gcc -Dld=gcc to the Configure line
	 # if Encode is not needed for the test, you can speed up the bisect by
	 # excluding it from the runs with -Dnoextensions=Encode
	 sh Configure -des -Dusedevel -Doptimize="-g"
	 test -f || exit 125
	 # Correct makefile for newer GNU gcc
	 perl -ni -we 'print unless /<(?:built-in|command)/' makefile x2p/makefile
	 # if you just need miniperl, replace test_prep with miniperl
	 make -j4 test_prep
	 [ -x ./perl ] || exit 125
	 ./perl -Ilib ~/
	 [ $ret -gt 127 ] && ret=127
	 git clean -dxf
	 exit $ret

       This script may return 125 to indicate that the corresponding commit
       should be skipped. Otherwise, it returns the status of ~/

       You first enter in bisect mode with:

	 % git bisect start

       For example, if the bug is present on "HEAD" but wasn't in 5.10.0,
       "git" will learn about this when you enter:

	 % git bisect bad
	 % git bisect good perl-5.10.0
	 Bisecting: 853 revisions left to test after this

       This results in checking out the median commit between "HEAD" and
       "perl-5.10.0". You can then run the bisecting process with:

	 % git bisect run ~/run

       When the first bad commit is isolated, "git bisect" will tell you so:

	 ca4cfd28534303b82a216cfe83a1c80cbc3b9dc5 is first bad commit
	 commit ca4cfd28534303b82a216cfe83a1c80cbc3b9dc5
	 Author: Dave Mitchell <>
	 Date:	 Sat Feb 9 14:56:23 2008 +0000

	     [perl #49472] Attributes + Unknown Error

	 bisect run success

       You can peek into the bisecting process with "git bisect log" and "git
       bisect visualize". "git bisect reset" will get you out of bisect mode.

       Please note that the first "good" state must be an ancestor of the
       first "bad" state. If you want to search for the commit that solved
       some bug, you have to negate your test case (i.e. exit with 1 if OK and
       0 if not) and still mark the lower bound as "good" and the upper as
       "bad". The "first bad commit" has then to be understood as the "first
       commit where the bug is solved".

       "git help bisect" has much more information on how you can tweak your
       binary searches.

       GitHub is a website that makes it easy to fork and publish projects
       with Git. First you should set up a GitHub account and log in.

       Perl's git repository is mirrored on GitHub at this page:

       Visit the page and click the "fork" button. This clones the Perl git
       repository for you and provides you with "Your Clone URL" from which
       you should clone:

	 % git clone perl-github

       The same patch as above, using github might look like this:

	 % cd perl-github
	 % git remote add upstream git://
	 % git pull upstream blead
	 % git checkout -b orange
	 % perl -pi -e 's{Leon Brocard}{Orange Brocard}' AUTHORS
	 % git commit -a -m 'Rename Leon Brocard to Orange Brocard'
	 % git push origin orange

       The orange branch has been pushed to GitHub, so you should now send an
       email (see "SUBMITTING A PATCH") with a description of your changes and
       the following information: branch orange

       If someone has provided a branch via GitHub and you are a committer,
       you should use the following in your perl-ssh directory:

	 % git remote add dandv git://
	 % git fetch dandv

       Now you can see the differences between the branch and blead:

	 % git diff dandv/blead

       And you can see the commits:

	 % git log dandv/blead

       If you approve of a specific commit, you can cherry pick it:

	 % git cherry-pick 3adac458cb1c1d41af47fc66e67b49c8dec2323f

       Or you could just merge the whole branch if you like it all:

	 % git merge dandv/blead

       And then push back to the repository:

	 % git push

       Individual committers should create topic branches under
       yourname/some_descriptive_name. Other committers should check with a
       topic branch's creator before making any change to it.

       The simplest way to create a remote topic branch that works on all
       versions of git is to push the current head as a new branch on the
       remote, then check it out locally:

	 $ branch="$yourname/$some_descriptive_name"
	 $ git push origin HEAD:$branch
	 $ git checkout -b $branch origin/$branch

       Users of git 1.7 or newer can do it in a more obvious manner:

	 $ branch="$yourname/$some_descriptive_name"
	 $ git checkout -b $branch
	 $ git push origin -u $branch

       If you are not the creator of yourname/some_descriptive_name, you might
       sometimes find that the original author has edited the branch's
       history. There are lots of good reasons for this. Sometimes, an author
       might simply be rebasing the branch onto a newer source point.
       Sometimes, an author might have found an error in an early commit which
       they wanted to fix before merging the branch to blead.

       Currently the master repository is configured to forbid non-fast-
       forward merges.	This means that the branches within can not be rebased
       and pushed as a single step.

       The only way you will ever be allowed to rebase or modify the history
       of a pushed branch is to delete it and push it as a new branch under
       the same name. Please think carefully about doing this. It may be
       better to sequentially rename your branches so that it is easier for
       others working with you to cherry-pick their local changes onto the new
       version. (XXX: needs explanation).

       If you want to rebase a personal topic branch, you will have to delete
       your existing topic branch and push as a new version of it. You can do
       this via the following formula (see the explanation about "refspec"'s
       in the git push documentation for details) after you have rebased your

	  # first rebase
	  $ git checkout $user/$topic
	  $ git fetch
	  $ git rebase origin/blead

	  # then "delete-and-push"
	  $ git push origin :$user/$topic
	  $ git push origin $user/$topic

       NOTE: it is forbidden at the repository level to delete any of the
       "primary" branches. That is any branch matching
       "m!^(blead|maint|perl)!". Any attempt to do so will result in git
       producing an error like this:

	   $ git push origin :blead
	   *** It is forbidden to delete blead/maint branches in this repository
	   error: hooks/update exited with error code 1
	   error: hook declined to update refs/heads/blead
	   To ssh://
	    ! [remote rejected] blead (hook declined)
	    error: failed to push some refs to 'ssh://'

       As a matter of policy we do not edit the history of the blead and
       maint-* branches. If a typo (or worse) sneaks into a commit to blead or
       maint-*, we'll fix it in another commit. The only types of updates
       allowed on these branches are "fast-forward's", where all history is

       Annotated tags in the canonical perl.git repository will never be
       deleted or modified. Think long and hard about whether you want to push
       a local tag to perl.git before doing so. (Pushing unannotated tags is
       not allowed.)

       Maintenance versions should only be altered to add critical bug fixes.

       To commit to a maintenance version of perl, you need to create a local
       tracking branch:

	 % git checkout --track -b maint-5.005 origin/maint-5.005

       This creates a local branch named "maint-5.005", which tracks the
       remote branch "origin/maint-5.005". Then you can pull, commit, merge
       and push as before.

       You can also cherry-pick commits from blead and another branch, by
       using the "git cherry-pick" command. It is recommended to use the -x
       option to "git cherry-pick" in order to record the SHA1 of the original
       commit in the new commit message.

       The perl history contains one mistake which was not caught in the
       conversion: a merge was recorded in the history between blead and
       maint-5.10 where no merge actually occurred.  Due to the nature of git,
       this is now impossible to fix in the public repository.	You can remove
       this mis-merge locally by adding the following line to your
       ".git/info/grafts" file:

	 296f12bbbbaa06de9be9d09d3dcf8f4528898a49 434946e0cb7a32589ed92d18008aaa1d88515930

       It is particularly important to have this graft line if any bisecting
       is done in the area of the "merge" in question.

       ·   The git documentation, accessible via the "git help" command

       ·   perlpolicy - Perl core development policy

perl v5.12.2			  2010-09-06		     PERLREPOSITORY(1)
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                         \ \| |/ / \ \| |/ / \ \| |/ /  
                          \ \ / /   \ \ / /   \ \ / /   
                           \   /     \   /     \   /    
                            \_/       \_/       \_/ 
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