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       pgsql_table - Postfix PostgreSQL client configuration

       postmap -q "string" pgsql:$config_directory/filename

       postmap -q - pgsql:$config_directory/filename <inputfile

       The  Postfix  mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
       mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm or db format.

       Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as PostgreSQL  databases.
       In  order  to  use  PostgreSQL lookups, define a PostgreSQL source as a
       lookup table in, for example:
	   alias_maps = pgsql:/etc/

       The file /usr/local/etc/postfix/ has the same format as
       the  Postfix  file,  and  can specify the parameters described

       For compatibility with other Postfix lookup tables, PostgreSQL  parame‐
       ters  can  also be defined in  In order to do that, specify as
       PostgreSQL source a name that doesn't begin with a slash or a dot.  The
       PostgreSQL  parameters will then be accessible as the name you've given
       the source in its definition, an underscore, and the name of the param‐
       eter.   For  example, if the map is specified as "pgsql:pgsqlname", the
       parameter  "hosts"  below  would	 be  defined  in  as  "pgsql‐

       Note:  with  this  form,	 the  passwords for the PostgreSQL sources are
       written in, which is normally world-readable.  Support for this
       form will be removed in a future Postfix version.

       Normally,  the  SQL  query  is  specified  via a single query parameter
       (described in more detail below).  When this parameter is not specified
       in  the map definition, Postfix reverts to an older interface, with the
       SQL  query constructed  from the select_function, select_field,	table,
       where_field  and	 additional_conditions	parameters.  The old interface
       will be gradually phased out. To migrate to the new interface set:

	   query = SELECT select_function('%s')

       or in the absence of select_function, the lower precedence:

	   query = SELECT select_field
	       FROM table
	       WHERE where_field = '%s'

       Use the value, not the name, of each legacy parameter.  Note  that  the
       additional_conditions  parameter	 is  optional  and  if not empty, will
       always start with AND.

       When using SQL to store	lists  such  as	 $mynetworks,  $mydestination,
       $relay_domains,	$local_recipient_maps, etc., it is important to under‐
       stand that the table must store each list member as a separate key. The
       table  lookup  verifies	the *existence* of the key. See "Postfix lists
       versus tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.

       Do NOT create tables that return the full list of domains in  $mydesti‐
       nation or $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses in $mynetworks.

       DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with an arbitrary
       value. With SQL databases it is not uncommon to return the  key	itself
       or a constant value.

       hosts  The  hosts  that	Postfix will try to connect to and query from.
	      Specify unix: for UNIX-domain sockets, inet: for TCP connections
	      (default).  Example:
		  hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain
		  hosts = unix:/file/name

	      The  hosts  are tried in random order, with all connections over
	      UNIX domain sockets being tried before those over TCP.  The con‐
	      nections	are  automatically closed after being idle for about 1
	      minute, and are re-opened as necessary.

	      NOTE: the unix: and inet: prefixes are  accepted	for  backwards
	      compatibility reasons, but are actually ignored.	The PostgreSQL
	      client library will always try to connect to an UNIX  socket  if
	      the name starts with a slash, and will try a TCP connection oth‐

       user, password
	      The user name and password to log into the pgsql server.	 Exam‐
		  user = someone
		  password = some_password

       dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
		  dbname = customer_database

       query  The  SQL query template used to search the database, where %s is
	      a substitute for the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
		  query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'

	      This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:

	      %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character. (Postfix 2.2
		     and later)

	      %s     This  is  replaced by the input key.  SQL quoting is used
		     to make sure that the input key does not  add  unexpected

	      %u     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
		     %u is replaced by	the  SQL  quoted  local	 part  of  the
		     address.	Otherwise, %u is replaced by the entire search
		     string.  If the localpart is empty,  the  query  is  sup‐
		     pressed and returns no results.

	      %d     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
		     %d is replaced by the  SQL	 quoted	 domain	 part  of  the
		     address.	Otherwise, the query is suppressed and returns
		     no results.

	      %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above expansions behave
		     in	 the  query  parameter identically to their lower-case
		     counter-parts.  With  the	result_format  parameter  (see
		     below),  they expand the input key rather than the result

		     The above %S, %U and %D  expansions  are  available  with
		     Postfix 2.2 and later

	      %[1-9] The  patterns  %1,	 %2, ... %9 are replaced by the corre‐
		     sponding most significant component of  the  input	 key's
		     domain.  If  the input key is, then
		     %1 is com, %2 is example and %3 is mail. If the input key
		     is	 unqualified or does not have enough domain components
		     to satisfy all the specified patterns, the query is  sup‐
		     pressed and returns no results.

		     The  above %1, ... %9 expansions are available with Post‐
		     fix 2.2 and later

	      The domain parameter described below limits the  input  keys  to
	      addresses in matching domains. When the domain parameter is non-
	      empty, SQL queries for unqualified  addresses  or	 addresses  in
	      non-matching domains are suppressed and return no results.

	      The  precedence  of this parameter has changed with Postfix 2.2,
	      in prior releases the precedence was, from  highest  to  lowest,
	      select_function, query, select_field, ...

	      With Postfix 2.2 the query parameter has highest precedence, see
	      COMPATIBILITY above.

	      NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.

       result_format (default: %s)
	      Format template applied to result attributes. Most commonly used
	      to  append  (or prepend) text to the result. This parameter sup‐
	      ports the following '%' expansions:

	      %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

	      %s     This is replaced by the value of  the  result  attribute.
		     When result is empty it is skipped.

	      %u     When the result attribute value is an address of the form
		     user@domain, %u is replaced by  the  local	 part  of  the
		     address.  When  the  result  has an empty localpart it is

	      %d     When a result attribute value is an address of  the  form
		     user@domain,  %d  is  replaced  by the domain part of the
		     attribute value. When the result  is  unqualified	it  is

		     The  upper-case  and decimal digit expansions interpolate
		     the parts of the input key rather than the result.	 Their
		     behavior  is  identical to that described with query, and
		     in fact because  the  input  key  is  known  in  advance,
		     queries  whose  key  does not contain all the information
		     specified in  the	result	template  are  suppressed  and
		     return no results.

	      For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]" allows one to use
	      a mailHost attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After
	      applying	the result format, multiple values are concatenated as
	      comma  separated	strings.  The  expansion_limit	and  parameter
	      explained	 below	allows one to restrict the number of values in
	      the result, which is especially useful for maps that must return
	      at most one value.

	      The  default value %s specifies that each result value should be
	      used as is.

	      This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

	      NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!

       domain (default: no domain list)
	      This is a list of domain names, paths to files, or dictionaries.
	      When  specified,	only  fully qualified search keys with a *non-
	      empty* localpart and a matching domain are eligible for  lookup:
	      'user'  lookups,	bare  domain lookups and "@domain" lookups are
	      not performed. This can significantly reduce the query  load  on
	      the PostgreSQL server.
		  domain =, hash:$config_directory/searchdomains

	      It  is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for SQL

	      This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

	      NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
	      the input keys are always unqualified.

       expansion_limit (default: 0)
	      A	 limit	on  the total number of result elements returned (as a
	      comma separated list) by a lookup against the map.  A setting of
	      zero  disables the limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error if
	      the limit is exceeded.  Setting the  limit  to  1	 ensures  that
	      lookups do not return multiple values.

       This section describes query interfaces that are deprecated as of Post‐
       fix 2.2.	 Please migrate to the new query interface as the  old	inter‐
       faces are slated to be phased out.

	      This parameter specifies a database function name. Example:
		  select_function = my_lookup_user_alias

	      This is equivalent to:
		  query = SELECT my_lookup_user_alias('%s')

	      This   parameter	 overrides  the	 legacy	 table-related	fields
	      (described below). With Postfix versions prior to 2.2,  it  also
	      overrides	 the  query  parameter. Starting with Postfix 2.2, the
	      query parameter has highest precedence, and the  select_function
	      parameter is deprecated.

       The  following  parameters (with lower precedence than the select_func‐
       tion interface described above) can be used to  build  the  SQL	select
       statement as follows:

	   SELECT [select_field]
	   FROM [table]
	   WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       The  specifier %s is replaced with each lookup by the lookup key and is
       escaped so if it contains single quotes or  other  odd  characters,  it
       will not cause a parse error, or worse, a security problem.

       Starting with Postfix 2.2, this interface is obsoleted by the more gen‐
       eral query interface described above. If higher precedence the query or
       select_function	parameters described above are defined, the parameters
       described here are ignored.

	      The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
		  select_field = forw_addr

       table  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
		  table = mxaliases

	      The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
		  where_field = alias

	      Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
		  additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'

       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager
       postconf(5), configuration parameters
       ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
       mysql_table(5), MySQL lookup tables
       sqlite_table(5), SQLite lookup tables

       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to	locate
       this information.
       DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
       PGSQL_README, Postfix PostgreSQL client guide

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       PgSQL support was introduced with Postfix version 2.1.

       Based on the MySQL client by:
       Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
       IC Group, Inc.

       Ported to PostgreSQL by:
       Aaron Sethman

       Further enhanced by:
       Liviu Daia
       Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
       P.O. BOX 1-764
       RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA


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