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PIC(1)									PIC(1)

NAME
       pic - compile pictures for troff or TeX

SYNOPSIS
       pic [ -nvCSU ] [ filename ... ]
       pic -t [ -cvzCSU ] [ filename ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of pic, which is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  pic compiles	descriptions  of  pic‐
       tures  embedded	within troff or TeX input files into commands that are
       understood by TeX or troff.  Each picture starts with a line  beginning
       with  .PS and ends with a line beginning with .PE.  Anything outside of
       .PS and .PE is passed through without change.

       It is the user's responsibility to provide appropriate  definitions  of
       the  PS and PE macros.  When the macro package being used does not sup‐
       ply such definitions (for example, old versions	of  -ms),  appropriate
       definitions can be obtained with -mpic: these will center each picture.

OPTIONS
       Options	that  do  not take arguments may be grouped behind a single -.
       The special option -- can be used to mark the end of  the  options.   A
       filename of - refers to the standard input.

       -C     Recognize	 .PS  and  .PE even when followed by a character other
	      than space or newline.

       -S     Safer mode; do not execute sh commands.  This can be useful when
	      operating on untrustworthy input.	 (enabled by default)

       -U     Unsafe mode; revert the default option -S.

       -n     Don't  use  the  groff extensions to the troff drawing commands.
	      You should use this  if  you  are	 using	a  postprocessor  that
	      doesn't  support these extensions.  The extensions are described
	      in groff_out(5).	The -n option also causes pic not to use zero-
	      length lines to draw dots in troff mode.

       -t     TeX mode.

       -c     Be more compatible with tpic.  Implies -t.  Lines beginning with
	      \ are not passed through transparently.  Lines beginning with  .
	      are  passed  through  with  the initial .	 changed to \.	A line
	      beginning with .ps is  given  special  treatment:	 it  takes  an
	      optional	integer	 argument  specifying  the line thickness (pen
	      size) in milliinches; a missing argument restores	 the  previous
	      line  thickness;	the  default  line thickness is 8 milliinches.
	      The line thickness thus specified takes effect only when a  non-
	      negative	line  thickness	 has  not been specified by use of the
	      thickness attribute or by setting the linethick variable.

       -v     Print the version number.

       -z     In TeX mode draw dots using zero-length lines.

       The following options supported by other versions of pic are ignored:

       -D     Draw all lines using the \D escape sequence.   pic  always  does
	      this.

       -T dev Generate	output	for the troff device dev.  This is unnecessary
	      because the troff output generated by pic is device-independent.

USAGE
       This section describes only the differences between  GNU	 pic  and  the
       original version of pic.	 Many of these differences also apply to newer
       versions of Unix pic.  A complete documentation	is  available  in  the
       file

	      /usr/share/doc/groff/1.18.1/pic.ms

   TeX mode
       TeX  mode  is enabled by the -t option.	In TeX mode, pic will define a
       vbox called \graph for each picture.  You must yourself print that vbox
       using, for example, the command

	      \centerline{\box\graph}

       Actually,  since	 the  vbox  has	 a  height  of	zero this will produce
       slightly more vertical space above the picture than below it;

	      \centerline{\raise 1em\box\graph}

       would avoid this.

       You must use a TeX driver that supports the tpic specials, version 2.

       Lines beginning with \ are passed through transparently; a %  is	 added
       to  the	end  of the line to avoid unwanted spaces.  You can safely use
       this feature to change fonts or to change the value  of	\baselineskip.
       Anything	 else  may  well  produce undesirable results; use at your own
       risk.  Lines beginning with a period are not given any  special	treat‐
       ment.

   Commands
       for variable = expr1 to expr2 [by [*]expr3] do X body X
	      Set variable to expr1.  While the value of variable is less than
	      or equal to expr2, do body and increment variable by  expr3;  if
	      by  is not given, increment variable by 1.  If expr3 is prefixed
	      by * then variable will instead be multiplied by expr3.	X  can
	      be any character not occurring in body.

       if expr then X if-true X [else Y if-false Y]
	      Evaluate	expr;  if it is non-zero then do if-true, otherwise do
	      if-false.	 X can be any character not occurring in  if-true.   Y
	      can be any character not occurring in if-false.

       print arg...
	      Concatenate  the	arguments and print as a line on stderr.  Each
	      arg must be an expression, a position, or text.  This is	useful
	      for debugging.

       command arg...
	      Concatenate  the	arguments  and	pass them through as a line to
	      troff or TeX.  Each arg must be an expression,  a	 position,  or
	      text.   This  has a similar effect to a line beginning with . or
	      \, but allows the values of variables to be passed through.

       sh X command X
	      Pass command to a shell.	X can be any character	not  occurring
	      in command.

       copy "filename"
	      Include filename at this point in the file.

       copy ["filename"] thru X body X [until "word"]
       copy ["filename"] thru macro [until "word"]
	      This  construct  does  body  once for each line of filename; the
	      line is split into blank-delimited words, and occurrences of  $i
	      in body, for i between 1 and 9, are replaced by the i-th word of
	      the line.	 If filename is not given, lines are  taken  from  the
	      current input up to .PE.	If an until clause is specified, lines
	      will be read only until a line the first word of which is	 word;
	      that  line  will	then be discarded.  X can be any character not
	      occurring in body.  For example,

		     .PS
		     copy thru % circle at ($1,$2) % until "END"
		     1 2
		     3 4
		     5 6
		     END
		     box
		     .PE

	      is equivalent to

		     .PS
		     circle at (1,2)
		     circle at (3,4)
		     circle at (5,6)
		     box
		     .PE

	      The commands to be performed for each line  can  also  be	 taken
	      from  a macro defined earlier by giving the name of the macro as
	      the argument to thru.

       reset
       reset variable1[,] variable2 ...
	      Reset pre-defined variables variable1, variable2	...  to	 their
	      default  values.	 If  no	 arguments  are	 given, reset all pre-
	      defined variables to their default values.  Note that  assigning
	      a value to scale also causes all pre-defined variables that con‐
	      trol dimensions to be reset to their default  values  times  the
	      new value of scale.

       plot expr ["text"]
	      This  is	a  text object which is constructed by using text as a
	      format string for sprintf with an argument of expr.  If text  is
	      omitted  a  format  string  of  "%g" is used.  Attributes can be
	      specified in the same way as for a normal text object.  Be  very
	      careful  that you specify an appropriate format string; pic does
	      only very limited checking of the string.	 This is deprecated in
	      favour of sprintf.

       variable := expr
	      This  is	similar	 to = except variable must already be defined,
	      and expr will be assigned to variable without creating  a	 vari‐
	      able  local  to  the current block.  (By contrast, = defines the
	      variable in the current block  if	 it  is	 not  already  defined
	      there,  and  then	 changes the value in the current block only.)
	      For example, the following:

		     .PS
		     x = 3
		     y = 3
		     [
		       x := 5
		       y = 5
		     ]
		     print x " " y
		     .PE

	      prints 5 3.

       Arguments of the form

	      X anything X

       are also allowed to be of the form

	      { anything }

       In this case anything can contain balanced  occurrences	of  {  and  }.
       Strings may contain X or imbalanced occurrences of { and }.

   Expressions
       The syntax for expressions has been significantly extended:

       x ^ y (exponentiation)
       sin(x)
       cos(x)
       atan2(y, x)
       log(x) (base 10)
       exp(x) (base 10, ie 10^x)
       sqrt(x)
       int(x)
       rand() (return a random number between 0 and 1)
       rand(x) (return a random number between 1 and x; deprecated)
       srand(x) (set the random number seed)
       max(e1, e2)
       min(e1, e2)
       !e
       e1 && e2
       e1 || e2
       e1 == e2
       e1 != e2
       e1 >= e2
       e1 > e2
       e1 <= e2
       e1 < e2
       "str1" == "str2"
       "str1" != "str2"

       String comparison expressions must be parenthesised in some contexts to
       avoid ambiguity.

   Other Changes
       A bare expression, expr, is acceptable as an attribute; it  is  equiva‐
       lent to dir expr, where dir is the current direction.  For example

	      line 2i

       means  draw a line 2 inches long in the current direction.  The `i' (or
       `I') character is ignored; to use another  measurement  unit,  set  the
       scale variable to an appropriate value.

       The  maximum  width  and height of the picture are taken from the vari‐
       ables maxpswid and maxpsht.  Initially these have values 8.5 and 11.

       Scientific notation is allowed for numbers.  For example
	      x = 5e-2

       Text attributes can be compounded.  For example,
	      "foo" above ljust
       is legal.

       There is no limit to the depth to which blocks can  be  examined.   For
       example,
	      [A: [B: [C: box ]]] with .A.B.C.sw at 1,2
	      circle at last [].A.B.C
       is acceptable.

       Arcs  now have compass points determined by the circle of which the arc
       is a part.

       Circles and arcs can be dotted or dashed.  In TeX mode splines  can  be
       dotted or dashed.

       Boxes can have rounded corners.	The rad attribute specifies the radius
       of the quarter-circles at each corner.  If no rad or diam attribute  is
       given, a radius of boxrad is used.  Initially, boxrad has a value of 0.
       A box with rounded corners can be dotted or dashed.

       The .PS line can have a second argument specifying a maximum height for
       the  picture.   If  the	width  of  zero is specified the width will be
       ignored in computing the scaling factor for the picture.	 Note that GNU
       pic  will  always scale a picture by the same amount vertically as well
       as horizontally.	 This is different from the  DWB  2.0  pic  which  may
       scale a picture by a different amount vertically than horizontally if a
       height is specified.

       Each text object has an invisible box associated with it.  The  compass
       points  of  a  text  object  are	 determined by this box.  The implicit
       motion associated with the object is also determined by this box.   The
       dimensions  of this box are taken from the width and height attributes;
       if the width attribute is not supplied then the width will be taken  to
       be  textwid;  if	 the  height attribute is not supplied then the height
       will be taken to be the number of  text	strings	 associated  with  the
       object times textht.  Initially textwid and textht have a value of 0.

       In  (almost  all)  places  where	 a  quoted text string can be used, an
       expression of the form

	      sprintf("format", arg,...)

       can also be used; this will produce the arguments  formatted  according
       to format, which should be a string as described in printf(3) appropri‐
       ate for the number of arguments supplied.

       The thickness of the lines used to draw objects is  controlled  by  the
       linethick  variable.   This  gives the thickness of lines in points.  A
       negative value means use the default thickness:	in  TeX	 output	 mode,
       this  means  use	 a thickness of 8 milliinches; in TeX output mode with
       the -c option, this means use  the  line	 thickness  specified  by  .ps
       lines; in troff output mode, this means use a thickness proportional to
       the pointsize.  A zero value means draw the thinnest possible line sup‐
       ported by the output device.  Initially it has a value of -1.  There is
       also a thick[ness] attribute.  For example,

	      circle thickness 1.5

       would draw a circle using a line with a thickness of 1.5	 points.   The
       thickness  of lines is not affected by the value of the scale variable,
       nor by the width or height given in the .PS line.

       Boxes (including boxes with rounded corners), circles and ellipses  can
       be  filled  by  giving  them  an	 attribute of fill[ed].	 This takes an
       optional argument of an expression with a value between 0 and 1; 0 will
       fill  it with white, 1 with black, values in between with a proportion‐
       ally gray shade.	 A value greater than 1 can also be used:  this	 means
       fill  with  the shade of gray that is currently being used for text and
       lines.  Normally this will be black, but output devices may  provide  a
       mechanism  for  changing	 this.	Without an argument, then the value of
       the variable fillval will be used.  Initially this has a value of  0.5.
       The  invisible  attribute  does not affect the filling of objects.  Any
       text associated with a filled object will be added after the object has
       been filled, so that the text will not be obscured by the filling.

       Three  additional  modifiers  are available to specify colored objects:
       outline[d] sets the color of the outline, shaded the  fill  color,  and
       colo[u]r[ed]  sets both.	 All three keywords expect a suffix specifying
       the color, for example

	      circle shaded "green" outline "black"

       Currently, color support isn't available in TeX mode.  Predefined color
       names  for  groff  are  in the device macro files, for example ps.tmac;
       additional colors can be defined with the .defcolor  request  (see  the
       manual page of troff(1) for more details).

       pic  assumes  that  at  the  beginning of a picture both glyph and fill
       color are set to the default value.

       Arrow heads will be drawn as solid triangles if the variable  arrowhead
       is  non-zero  and  either  TeX mode is enabled or the -n option has not
       been given.  Initially arrowhead has a value  of 1.   Note  that	 solid
       arrow heads are always filled with the current outline color.

       The troff output of pic is device-independent.  The -T option is there‐
       fore redundant.	All numbers are taken to be  in	 inches;  numbers  are
       never interpreted to be in troff machine units.

       Objects	can  have  an  aligned	attribute.  This will only work if the
       postprocessor is grops.	Any text associated with an object having  the
       aligned	attribute  will	 be  rotated about the center of the object so
       that it is aligned in the direction from the start  point  to  the  end
       point  of the object.  Note that this attribute will have no effect for
       objects whose start and end points are coincident.

       In places where nth is allowed `expr'th is also allowed.	 Note that 'th
       is  a  single token: no space is allowed between the ' and the th.  For
       example,

	      for i = 1 to 4 do {
		 line from `i'th box.nw to `i+1'th box.se
	      }

CONVERSION
       To obtain a stand-alone picture from a pic file, enclose your pic  code
       with  .PS and .PE requests; roff configuration commands may be added at
       the beginning of the file, but no roff text.

       It is necessary to feed this file into groff without  adding  any  page
       information,  so you must check which .PS and .PE requests are actually
       called.	For example, the mm macro package adds a page number, which is
       very annoying.  At the moment, calling standard groff without any macro
       package works.  Alternatively, you can define your own  requests,  e.g.
       to do nothing:

	      .de PS
	      ..
	      .de PE
	      ..

       groff  itself  does  not	 provide direct conversion into other graphics
       file formats.  But there are lots of possibilities if you first	trans‐
       form  your picture into PostScript® format using the groff option -Tps.
       Since this ps-file lacks BoundingBox information it is not very	useful
       by  itself,  but	 it may be fed into other conversion programs, usually
       named ps2other or pstoother or  the  like.   Moreover,  the  PostScript
       interpreter  ghostscript	 (gs) has built-in graphics conversion devices
       that are called with the option

	      gs -sDEVICE=<devname>

       Call
	      gs --help

       for a list of the available devices.

       As the Encapsulated PostScript File Format EPS is getting more and more
       important,  and	the conversion wasn't regarded trivial in the past you
       might be interested to know that	 there	is  a  conversion  tool	 named
       ps2eps  which  does  the	 right	job.   It is much better than the tool
       ps2epsi packaged with gs.

       For bitmapped graphic formats, you should use  pstopnm;	the  resulting
       (intermediate) PNM file can be then converted to virtually any graphics
       format using the tools of the netpbm package .

FILES
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/pic.tmac
	      Example definitions of the PS and PE macros.

SEE ALSO
       troff(1),   groff_out(5),   tex(1),   gs(1),   ps2eps(1),   pstopnm(1),
       ps2epsi(1), pnm(5)

       Tpic: Pic for TeX

       Brian  W.  Kernighan,  PIC  — A Graphics Language for Typesetting (User
       Manual).	 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Computing  Science  Technical	Report
       No. 116	<http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/cstr/116.ps.gz>	(revised  May,
       1991).

       ps2eps is available from CTAN mirrors, e.g.
       <ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/support/ps2eps/>

       W. Richard Stevens - Turning PIC Into HTML
       <http://www.kohala.com/start/troff/pic2html.html>

       W. Richard Stevens - Examples of picMacros
       <http://www.kohala.com/start/troff/pic.examples.ps>

BUGS
       Input characters that are invalid for groff (ie those with  ASCII  code
       0, or 013 octal, or between 015 and 037 octal, or between 0200 and 0237
       octal) are rejected even in TeX mode.

       The interpretation of fillval is incompatible with the pic in 10th edi‐
       tion Unix, which interprets 0 as black and 1 as white.

       PostScript® is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporation.

Groff Version 1.18.1		   Nov	2003				PIC(1)
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