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POD2MAN(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide		    POD2MAN(1)

       pod2man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

       pod2man [--center=string] [--date=string]
	   [--fixed=font] [--fixedbold=font] [--fixeditalic=font]
	   [--fixedbolditalic=font] [--name=name] [--official]
	   [--quotes=quotes] [--release[=version]]
	   [--section=manext] [--stderr] [--utf8] [--verbose]
	   [input [output] ...]

       pod2man --help

       pod2man is a front-end for Pod::Man, using it to generate *roff input
       from POD source.	 The resulting *roff code is suitable for display on a
       terminal using nroff(1), normally via man(1), or printing using

       input is the file to read for POD source (the POD can be embedded in
       code).  If input isn't given, it defaults to "STDIN".  output, if
       given, is the file to which to write the formatted output.  If output
       isn't given, the formatted output is written to "STDOUT".  Several POD
       files can be processed in the same pod2man invocation (saving module
       load and compile times) by providing multiple pairs of input and output
       files on the command line.

       --section, --release, --center, --date, and --official can be used to
       set the headers and footers to use; if not given, Pod::Man will assume
       various defaults.  See below or Pod::Man for details.

       pod2man assumes that your *roff formatters have a fixed-width font
       named "CW".  If yours is called something else (like "CR"), use --fixed
       to specify it.  This generally only matters for troff output for
       printing.  Similarly, you can set the fonts used for bold, italic, and
       bold italic fixed-width output.

       Besides the obvious pod conversions, Pod::Man, and therefore pod2man
       also takes care of formatting func(), func(n), and simple variable
       references like $foo or @bar so you don't have to use code escapes for
       them; complex expressions like $fred{'stuff'} will still need to be
       escaped, though.	 It also translates dashes that aren't used as hyphens
       into en dashes, makes long dashes--like this--into proper em dashes,
       fixes "paired quotes," and takes care of several other troff-specific
       tweaks.	See Pod::Man for complete information.

       -c string, --center=string
	   Sets the centered page header to string.  The default is "User
	   Contributed Perl Documentation", but also see --official below.

       -d string, --date=string
	   Set the left-hand footer string to this value.  By default, the
	   modification date of the input file will be used, or the current
	   date if input comes from "STDIN".

	   The fixed-width font to use for verbatim text and code.  Defaults
	   to "CW".  Some systems may want "CR" instead.  Only matters for
	   troff(1) output.

	   Bold version of the fixed-width font.  Defaults to "CB".  Only
	   matters for troff(1) output.

	   Italic version of the fixed-width font (actually, something of a
	   misnomer, since most fixed-width fonts only have an oblique
	   version, not an italic version).  Defaults to "CI".	Only matters
	   for troff(1) output.

	   Bold italic (probably actually oblique) version of the fixed-width
	   font.  Pod::Man doesn't assume you have this, and defaults to "CB".
	   Some systems (such as Solaris) have this font available as "CX".
	   Only matters for troff(1) output.

       -h, --help
	   Print out usage information.

       -l, --lax
	   No longer used.  pod2man used to check its input for validity as a
	   manual page, but this should now be done by podchecker(1) instead.
	   Accepted for backward compatibility; this option no longer does

       -n name, --name=name
	   Set the name of the manual page to name.  Without this option, the
	   manual name is set to the uppercased base name of the file being
	   converted unless the manual section is 3, in which case the path is
	   parsed to see if it is a Perl module path.  If it is, a path like
	   ".../lib/Pod/Man.pm" is converted into a name like "Pod::Man".
	   This option, if given, overrides any automatic determination of the

	   Note that this option is probably not useful when converting
	   multiple POD files at once.	The convention for Unix man pages for
	   commands is for the man page title to be in all-uppercase even if
	   the command isn't.

       -o, --official
	   Set the default header to indicate that this page is part of the
	   standard Perl release, if --center is not also given.

       -q quotes, --quotes=quotes
	   Sets the quote marks used to surround C<> text to quotes.  If
	   quotes is a single character, it is used as both the left and right
	   quote; if quotes is two characters, the first character is used as
	   the left quote and the second as the right quoted; and if quotes is
	   four characters, the first two are used as the left quote and the
	   second two as the right quote.

	   quotes may also be set to the special value "none", in which case
	   no quote marks are added around C<> text (but the font is still
	   changed for troff output).

       -r, --release
	   Set the centered footer.  By default, this is the version of Perl
	   you run pod2man under.  Note that some system an macro sets assume
	   that the centered footer will be a modification date and will
	   prepend something like "Last modified: "; if this is the case, you
	   may want to set --release to the last modified date and --date to
	   the version number.

       -s, --section
	   Set the section for the ".TH" macro.	 The standard section
	   numbering convention is to use 1 for user commands, 2 for system
	   calls, 3 for functions, 4 for devices, 5 for file formats, 6 for
	   games, 7 for miscellaneous information, and 8 for administrator
	   commands.  There is a lot of variation here, however; some systems
	   (like Solaris) use 4 for file formats, 5 for miscellaneous
	   information, and 7 for devices.  Still others use 1m instead of 8,
	   or some mix of both.	 About the only section numbers that are
	   reliably consistent are 1, 2, and 3.

	   By default, section 1 will be used unless the file ends in ".pm",
	   in which case section 3 will be selected.

	   By default, pod2man puts any errors detected in the POD input in a
	   POD ERRORS section in the output manual page.  If --stderr is
	   given, errors are sent to standard error instead and the POD ERRORS
	   section is suppressed.

       -u, --utf8
	   By default, pod2man produces the most conservative possible *roff
	   output to try to ensure that it will work with as many different
	   *roff implementations as possible.  Many *roff implementations
	   cannot handle non-ASCII characters, so this means all non-ASCII
	   characters are converted either to a *roff escape sequence that
	   tries to create a properly accented character (at least for troff
	   output) or to "X".

	   This option says to instead output literal UTF-8 characters.	 If
	   your *roff implementation can handle it, this is the best output
	   format to use and avoids corruption of documents containing non-
	   ASCII characters.  However, be warned that *roff source with
	   literal UTF-8 characters is not supported by many implementations
	   and may even result in segfaults and other bad behavior.

	   Be aware that, when using this option, the input encoding of your
	   POD source must be properly declared unless it is US-ASCII or
	   Latin-1.  POD input without an "=encoding" command will be assumed
	   to be in Latin-1, and if it's actually in UTF-8, the output will be
	   double-encoded.  See perlpod(1) for more information on the
	   "=encoding" command.

       -v, --verbose
	   Print out the name of each output file as it is being generated.

       If pod2man fails with errors, see Pod::Man and Pod::Simple for
       information about what those errors might mean.

	   pod2man program > program.1
	   pod2man SomeModule.pm /usr/perl/man/man3/SomeModule.3
	   pod2man --section=7 note.pod > note.7

       If you would like to print out a lot of man page continuously, you
       probably want to set the C and D registers to set contiguous page
       numbering and even/odd paging, at least on some versions of man(7).

	   troff -man -rC1 -rD1 perl.1 perldata.1 perlsyn.1 ...

       To get index entries on "STDERR", turn on the F register, as in:

	   troff -man -rF1 perl.1

       The indexing merely outputs messages via ".tm" for each major page,
       section, subsection, item, and any "X<>" directives.  See Pod::Man for
       more details.

       Lots of this documentation is duplicated from Pod::Man.

       For those not sure of the proper layout of a man page, here are some
       notes on writing a proper man page.

       The name of the program being documented is conventionally written in
       bold (using B<>) wherever it occurs, as are all program options.
       Arguments should be written in italics (I<>).  Functions are
       traditionally written in italics; if you write a function as
       function(), Pod::Man will take care of this for you.  Literal code or
       commands should be in C<>.  References to other man pages should be in
       the form "manpage(section)", and Pod::Man will automatically format
       those appropriately.  As an exception, it's traditional not to use this
       form when referring to module documentation; use "L<Module::Name>"

       References to other programs or functions are normally in the form of
       man page references so that cross-referencing tools can provide the
       user with links and the like.  It's possible to overdo this, though, so
       be careful not to clutter your documentation with too much markup.

       The major headers should be set out using a "=head1" directive, and are
       historically written in the rather startling ALL UPPER CASE format,
       although this is not mandatory.	Minor headers may be included using
       "=head2", and are typically in mixed case.

       The standard sections of a manual page are:

	   Mandatory section; should be a comma-separated list of programs or
	   functions documented by this POD page, such as:

	       foo, bar - programs to do something

	   Manual page indexers are often extremely picky about the format of
	   this section, so don't put anything in it except this line.	A
	   single dash, and only a single dash, should separate the list of
	   programs or functions from the description.	Do not use any markup
	   such as C<> or B<>.	Functions should not be qualified with "()" or
	   the like.  The description should ideally fit on a single line,
	   even if a man program replaces the dash with a few tabs.

	   A short usage summary for programs and functions.  This section is
	   mandatory for section 3 pages.

	   Extended description and discussion of the program or functions, or
	   the body of the documentation for man pages that document something
	   else.  If particularly long, it's a good idea to break this up into
	   subsections "=head2" directives like:

	       =head2 Normal Usage

	       =head2 Advanced Features

	       =head2 Writing Configuration Files

	   or whatever is appropriate for your documentation.

	   Detailed description of each of the command-line options taken by
	   the program.	 This should be separate from the description for the
	   use of things like Pod::Usage.  This is normally presented as a
	   list, with each option as a separate "=item".  The specific option
	   string should be enclosed in B<>.  Any values that the option takes
	   should be enclosed in I<>.  For example, the section for the option
	   --section=manext would be introduced with:

	       =item B<--section>=I<manext>

	   Synonymous options (like both the short and long forms) are
	   separated by a comma and a space on the same "=item" line, or
	   optionally listed as their own item with a reference to the
	   canonical name.  For example, since --section can also be written
	   as -s, the above would be:

	       =item B<-s> I<manext>, B<--section>=I<manext>

	   (Writing the short option first is arguably easier to read, since
	   the long option is long enough to draw the eye to it anyway and the
	   short option can otherwise get lost in visual noise.)

	   What the program or function returns, if successful.	 This section
	   can be omitted for programs whose precise exit codes aren't
	   important, provided they return 0 on success as is standard.	 It
	   should always be present for functions.

	   Exceptions, error return codes, exit statuses, and errno settings.
	   Typically used for function documentation; program documentation
	   uses DIAGNOSTICS instead.  The general rule of thumb is that errors
	   printed to "STDOUT" or "STDERR" and intended for the end user are
	   documented in DIAGNOSTICS while errors passed internal to the
	   calling program and intended for other programmers are documented
	   in ERRORS.  When documenting a function that sets errno, a full
	   list of the possible errno values should be given here.

	   All possible messages the program can print out--and what they
	   mean.  You may wish to follow the same documentation style as the
	   Perl documentation; see perldiag(1) for more details (and look at
	   the POD source as well).

	   If applicable, please include details on what the user should do to
	   correct the error; documenting an error as indicating "the input
	   buffer is too small" without telling the user how to increase the
	   size of the input buffer (or at least telling them that it isn't
	   possible) aren't very useful.

	   Give some example uses of the program or function.  Don't skimp;
	   users often find this the most useful part of the documentation.
	   The examples are generally given as verbatim paragraphs.

	   Don't just present an example without explaining what it does.
	   Adding a short paragraph saying what the example will do can
	   increase the value of the example immensely.

	   Environment variables that the program cares about, normally
	   presented as a list using "=over", "=item", and "=back".  For

	       =over 6

	       =item HOME

	       Used to determine the user's home directory.  F<.foorc> in this
	       directory is read for configuration details, if it exists.


	   Since environment variables are normally in all uppercase, no
	   additional special formatting is generally needed; they're glaring
	   enough as it is.

	   All files used by the program or function, normally presented as a
	   list, and what it uses them for.  File names should be enclosed in
	   F<>.	 It's particularly important to document files that will be
	   potentially modified.

	   Things to take special care with, sometimes called WARNINGS.

	   Things that are broken or just don't work quite right.

	   Bugs you don't plan to fix.	:-)

	   Miscellaneous commentary.

	   Who wrote it (use AUTHORS for multiple people).  Including your
	   current e-mail address (or some e-mail address to which bug reports
	   should be sent) so that users have a way of contacting you is a
	   good idea.  Remember that program documentation tends to roam the
	   wild for far longer than you expect and pick an e-mail address
	   that's likely to last if possible.

	   Programs derived from other sources sometimes have this, or you
	   might keep a modification log here.	If the log gets overly long or
	   detailed, consider maintaining it in a separate file, though.

	   For copyright

	       Copyright YEAR(s) by YOUR NAME(s)

	   (No, (C) is not needed.  No, "all rights reserved" is not needed.)

	   For licensing the easiest way is to use the same licensing as Perl

	       This library is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify
	       it under the same terms as Perl itself.

	   This makes it easy for people to use your module with Perl.	Note
	   that this licensing is neither an endorsement or a requirement, you
	   are of course free to choose any licensing.

       SEE ALSO
	   Other man pages to check out, like man(1), man(7), makewhatis(8),
	   or catman(8).  Normally a simple list of man pages separated by
	   commas, or a paragraph giving the name of a reference work.	Man
	   page references, if they use the standard "name(section)" form,
	   don't have to be enclosed in L<> (although it's recommended), but
	   other things in this section probably should be when appropriate.

	   If the package has a mailing list, include a URL or subscription
	   instructions here.

	   If the package has a web site, include a URL here.

       In addition, some systems use CONFORMING TO to note conformance to
       relevant standards and MT-LEVEL to note safeness for use in threaded
       programs or signal handlers.  These headings are primarily useful when
       documenting parts of a C library.  Documentation of object-oriented
       libraries or modules may use CONSTRUCTORS and METHODS sections for
       detailed documentation of the parts of the library and save the
       DESCRIPTION section for an overview; other large modules may use
       FUNCTIONS for similar reasons.  Some people use OVERVIEW to summarize
       the description if it's quite long.

       Section ordering varies, although NAME should always be the first
       section (you'll break some man page systems otherwise), and NAME,
       SYNOPSIS, DESCRIPTION, and OPTIONS generally always occur first and in
       that order if present.  In general, SEE ALSO, AUTHOR, and similar
       material should be left for last.  Some systems also move WARNINGS and
       NOTES to last.  The order given above should be reasonable for most

       Finally, as a general note, try not to use an excessive amount of
       markup.	As documented here and in Pod::Man, you can safely leave Perl
       variables, function names, man page references, and the like unadorned
       by markup and the POD translators will figure it out for you.  This
       makes it much easier to later edit the documentation.  Note that many
       existing translators (including this one currently) will do the wrong
       thing with e-mail addresses when wrapped in L<>, so don't do that.

       For additional information that may be more accurate for your specific
       system, see either man(5) or man(7) depending on your system manual
       section numbering conventions.

       Pod::Man, Pod::Simple, man(1), nroff(1), perlpod(1), podchecker(1),
       troff(1), man(7)

       The man page documenting the an macro set may be man(5) instead of
       man(7) on your system.

       The current version of this script is always available from its web
       site at <http://www.eyrie.org/~eagle/software/podlators/>.  It is also
       part of the Perl core distribution as of 5.6.0.

       Russ Allbery <rra@stanford.edu>, based very heavily on the original
       pod2man by Larry Wall and Tom Christiansen.  Large portions of this
       documentation, particularly the sections on the anatomy of a proper man
       page, are taken from the pod2man documentation by Tom.

       Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008 Russ Allbery

       This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.12.2			  2011-02-27			    POD2MAN(1)
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