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RAL(4)			 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			RAL(4)

     ral — Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11 wireless network driver

     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device ral
	   device ralfw
	   device wlan
	   device wlan_amrr
	   device firmware

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):


     The ral driver supports PCI/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink
     Technology RT2500, RT2501, and RT2600 chipsets.

     The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, a RT2560 MAC/BBP and a
     RT2525 radio transceiver.

     The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, a RT2561 MAC/BBP and a
     RT2527 radio transceiver.	This chipset provides support for the IEEE
     802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows
     scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.

     The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, a RT2661 MAC/BBP and
     a RT2529 radio transceiver.  This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-input
     multiple-output) technology with multiple antennas to extend the operat‐
     ing range of the adapter and to achieve higher throughput.	 MIMO is the
     basis of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11n standard.

     The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
     the driver depending on the received signal strength and on the number of
     hardware transmission retries.

     ral supports station, adhoc, hostap, mesh, wds, and monitor mode opera‐
     tion.  Only one hostap or mesh virtual interface may be configured at a
     time.  Any number of wds virtual interfaces may be configured together
     with a hostap interface.  Multiple station interfaces may be operated
     together with a hostap interface to construct a wireless repeater device.
     For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

     The ral driver supports PCI/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink
     Technology RT2500, RT2501, and RT2600 chipsets, including:

     Card			  MAC/BBP    Bus
     A-Link WL54H		  RT2560     PCI
     A-Link WL54PC		  RT2560     CardBus
     AirLink101 AWLC5025	  RT2661     CardBus
     AirLink101 AWLH5025	  RT2661     PCI
     Amigo AWI-914W		  RT2560     CardBus
     Amigo AWI-922W		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Amigo AWI-926W		  RT2560     PCI
     AMIT WL531C		  RT2560     CardBus
     AMIT WL531P		  RT2560     PCI
     AOpen AOI-831		  RT2560     PCI
     ASUS WL-107G		  RT2560     CardBus
     ASUS WL-130g		  RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54	  RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCM-W54	  RT2560     CardBus
     Belkin F5D7000 v3		  RT2560     PCI
     Belkin F5D7010 v2		  RT2560     CardBus
     Billionton MIWLGRL		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Canyon CN-WF511		  RT2560     PCI
     Canyon CN-WF513		  RT2560     CardBus
     CC&C WL-2102		  RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWC-854		  RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWP-854		  RT2560     PCI
     Compex WL54G		  RT2560     CardBus
     Compex WLP54G		  RT2560     PCI
     Conceptronic C54RC		  RT2560     CardBus
     Conceptronic C54Ri		  RT2560     PCI
     Digitus DN-7001G-RA	  RT2560     CardBus
     Digitus DN-7006G-RA	  RT2560     PCI
     E-Tech WGPC02		  RT2560     CardBus
     E-Tech WGPI02		  RT2560     PCI
     Edimax EW-7108PCg		  RT2560     CardBus
     Edimax EW-7128g		  RT2560     PCI
     Eminent EM3036		  RT2560     CardBus
     Eminent EM3037		  RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM	  RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM	  RT2560     CardBus
     Fiberline WL-400P		  RT2560     PCI
     Fibreline WL-400X		  RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WI01GS		  RT2561S    mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WIKG		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WMKG		  RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WP01GS		  RT2561S    PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WPKG		  RT2560     PCI
     Hawking HWC54GR		  RT2560     CardBus
     Hawking HWP54GR		  RT2560     PCI
     iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03)	  RT2560     PCI
     JAHT WN-4054P		  RT2560     CardBus
     JAHT WN-4054PCI		  RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WNC-0301 v2	  RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WPC-0301 v2	  RT2560     CardBus
     Linksys WMP54G v4		  RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP906GK		  RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP908GK V3	  RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GCB-R		  RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GPC-R		  RT2560     PCI
     MSI CB54G2			  RT2560     CardBus
     MSI MP54G2			  RT2560     mini-PCI
     MSI PC54G2			  RT2560     PCI
     OvisLink EVO-W54PCI	  RT2560     PCI
     PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA	  RT2560     PCI
     Pro-Nets CB80211G		  RT2560     CardBus
     Pro-Nets PC80211G		  RT2560     PCI
     Repotec RP-WB7108		  RT2560     CardBus
     Repotec RP-WP0854		  RT2560     PCI
     SATech SN-54C		  RT2560     CardBus
     SATech SN-54P		  RT2560     PCI
     Sitecom WL-112		  RT2560     CardBus
     Sitecom WL-115		  RT2560     PCI
     SMC SMCWCB-GM		  RT2661     CardBus
     SMC SMCWPCI-GM		  RT2661     PCI
     SparkLAN WL-685R		  RT2560     CardBus
     Surecom EP-9321-g		  RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9321-g1		  RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9428-g		  RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC500050		  RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC700030		  RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9321-g		  RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9428-g		  RT2560     CardBus
     Unex CR054g-R02		  RT2560     PCI
     Unex MR054g-R02		  RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G160		  RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G360		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Zinwell ZWX-G361		  RT2560     PCI
     Zonet ZEW1500		  RT2560     CardBus
     Zonet ZEW1600		  RT2560     PCI

     An up to date list can be found at

     Join an existing BSS network (i.e., connect to an access point):

	   ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet netmask

     Join a specific BSS network with network name “my_net”:

	   ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet \
	       netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with 40-bit WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet \
	       netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
	       wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1

     Join a specific BSS network with 104-bit WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet \
	       netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
	       wepmode on wepkey 0x01020304050607080910111213 weptxkey 1

     ral%d: could not load 8051 microcode  An error occurred while attempting
     to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.

     ral%d: timeout waiting for MCU to initialize  The onboard 8051 microcon‐
     troller unit failed to initialize in time.

     ral%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis‐
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the hardware.  This
     should not happen.

     intro(4), cardbus(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4),
     wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8), wpa_supplicant(8).

     Ralink Technology, http://www.ralinktech.com/.

     The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.

     The original ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini

     Host AP mode doesn't support client power save.  Clients using power save
     mode will experience packet loss (disabling power saving on the client
     will fix this).

BSD				 July 8, 2009				   BSD

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