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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a	"quick	check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in	the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as	requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file’s data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis‐

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a	 remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans‐
       port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
       colon (:) separator after a host specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti‐
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
       the "server".  Don’t confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a	daemon
       is  always  a  server,  but  a  server  can  be	either	a  daemon or a
       remote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its	 communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif‐
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto‐
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are	transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym‐
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,	ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to	"copy  the  directory  by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain‐
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow‐
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don’t require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory’s contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av host: /dest
	      rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don’t have a ’:’ in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par‐
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

	      rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains	 whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you’ll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote	shell  will  understand.   For

	      rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It  is  also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the trans‐
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using	 TCP port 873.	(This obviously requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE‐
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in	 this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the  remote  daemon may print a message of the day when you con‐

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then  the  list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci‐
	      fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems	 environment  variables	 are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may	 establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the envi‐
       ronment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing  to  your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy’s configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as  a	 proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish to run in place of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a	 single	 "%"  in  your
       string).	 For example:

	 export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the  targeth‐
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into   a	  system  (other  than	what  is  already  required  to	 allow
       remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting	 to  a	host  using  a
       remote  shell  and  then	 spawning  a  single-use  "daemon" server that
       expects to read its config file in the home dir	of  the	 remote	 user.
       This  can  be  useful  if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer’s
       data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user,  you
       may  not	 be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used
       by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
       using  ssh  to  tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure a
       normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow connections  from

       From  the user’s perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con‐
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae‐
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	 (Setting  the	RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that	 requires  user-based  authentication).	  This
       means  that  you	 must give the ’-l user’ option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).	For  full  information on how to start a daemon that will han‐
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man  page  --
       that  is	 the  config  file  for	 the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con‐

       If  you’re  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse	someone	 when  the  files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file  to  be  transferred  prior  to  another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn’t affect the sorted	 transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife’s  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile tar‐

		   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn’t very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com‐

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data in file checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run with no changes made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the remote shell to use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before xfer, not during
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during the transfer
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not during
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put a partially transferred file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put all updated files into place at end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ... and include copies of unchanged files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from FILE
	-0, --from0		    all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log what we're doing to the specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
       letter) options.	 The full list of the available options are  described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a	long  variant,	not  a
       short.	If  the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also be specified  for  the
       short.	When  specifying  a  parameter,	 you  can  either use the form
       --option=param or replace the ’=’ with whitespace.  The	parameter  may
       need  to	 be  quoted  in some manner for it to survive the shell’s com‐
       mand-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
       is  substituted	by  your  shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the
       tilde into your home directory (remove the ’=’ for that).

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the	options	 available  in
	      rsync  and exit.	For backward-compatibility with older versions
	      of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h	option
	      without any other args.

	      print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
	      -v  will	give you information about what files are being trans‐
	      ferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will  give
	      you  information	on  what  files are being skipped and slightly
	      more information at the end. More than  two  -v  options	should
	      only be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
	      done using a default --out-format of  "%n%L",  which  tells  you
	      just  the	 name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
	      points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not men‐
	      tion when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding  "%i"  to	the  --out-format setting), the output (on the
	      client) increases to mention all items that are changed  in  any
	      way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer, notably  suppressing	 information  messages
	      from  the	 remote	 server.  This	option is useful when invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the client
	      at  the  start  of  a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the mes‐
	      sage-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also	affects	 the  list  of
	      modules  that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
	      request (due to a limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
	      this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
	      turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  modifies rsync’s "quick check" algorithm for finding files
	      that need to be transferred, changing it	from  the  default  of
	      transferring  files  with	 either	 a  changed  size or a changed
	      last-modified time to just looking for files that	 have  changed
	      in  size.	 This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
	      another mirroring	 system	 which	may  not  preserve  timestamps

	      When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file’s size and
	      time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in	the  files  in	the transfer (and this is prior to any
	      reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender’s file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans‐
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option’s before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need to be updated?" check.

	      For  protocol  30	 and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi‐
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with "no-".	Not all options may be prefixed with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by	 other	options	 (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir‐
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify either the short or the long option name after
	      the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don’t want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

	      The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
	      an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
	      begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo‐
	      ries  have  been	completed.  This incremental scan only affects
	      our recursion algorithm, and does	 not  change  a	 non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the trans‐
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so	 these
	      options  disable the incremental recursion mode.	These include:
	      --delete-before,	 --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,	   and
	      --delay-updates.	 Because of this, the default delete mode when
	      you specify --delete is now --delete-during when	both  ends  of
	      the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
	      to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
	      the  --delete-delay  option  that	 is a better choice than using

	      Incremental recursion can be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur‐
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci‐
	      fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
	      the  last	 parts	of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
	      when you want to send several different directories at the  same
	      time. For example, if you used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
	      remote machine, preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele‐
	      ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
	      "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	 with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
	      directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
	      element  is really a symlink on the sending side.	 This prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
	      file  that you didn’t realize had a symlink in its path.	If you
	      want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym‐
	      link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
	      you’re dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you  may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.	  With
	      a	 modern	 rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	For older rsync versions, you  would  need  to
	      use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn’t remain in effect for future com‐
	      mands.)  If you’re pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
	      option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
	      directories from the source names are not included in the trans‐
	      fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged if they exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ‐
	      ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on	the  receiving

	      For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
	      to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
	      you request and you wish the implied directories	to  be	trans‐
	      ferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
	      each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
	      backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note  that  if  you  don’t   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
	      --omit-dir-times	option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
	      also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will	add  a
	      "protect"	 filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre‐
	      viously  backed-up  files	 from being deleted.  Note that if you
	      are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
	      insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
	      list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to	 be  effective
	      (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
	      ’*’, the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In combination with the --backup option,	this  tells  rsync  to
	      store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
	      side.  This can be used for incremental backups.	You can	 addi‐
	      tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth‐
	      erwise the files backed up in the specified directory will  keep
	      their original filenames).

	      Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
	      will be relative to the destination directory, so	 you  probably
	      want  to	specify	 either an absolute path or a path that starts
	      with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
	      cannot  go  outside  the	module’s path hierarchy, so take extra
	      care not to delete it or copy into it.

	      This option allows you to override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the  destina‐
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the source
	      file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification  time
	      equal  to the source file’s, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or	 other
	      special  files.	Also,  a difference of file format between the
	      sender and receiver is always considered to be important	enough
	      for  an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In other
	      words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
	      file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn’t  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the files that the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This option changes how rsync transfers a	 file  when  its  data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new copy of the file and moving it into place when  it  is  com‐
	      plete,  rsync  instead  writes  the updated data directly to the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o	     Hard links are not broken.	 This means the new data  will
		     be	 visible  through  other hard links to the destination
		     file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing source	 files
		     onto  a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
		     "tug of war" with the destination data changing back  and

	      o	     In-use  binaries  cannot  be  updated (either the OS will
		     prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt  to
		     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

	      o	     The  file’s  data will be in an inconsistent state during
		     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
		     interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o	     A	file  that  rsync  cannot  write to cannot be updated.
		     While a super user can update any	file,  a  normal  user
		     needs  to be granted write permission for the open of the
		     file for writing to be successful.

	      o	     The efficiency of rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm may be
		     reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit‐
		     ten before it can be copied to a position	later  in  the
		     file.   This  does	 not  apply if you use --backup, since
		     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
		     file for the transfer.

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
	      being accessed by others, so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
	      this for a copy.

	      This   option  is	 useful	 for  transferring  large  files  with
	      block-based changes or appended data, and also on	 systems  that
	      are  disk	 bound,	 not  network  bound.  It can also help keep a
	      copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire con‐
	      tents of a file that only has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom‐
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
	      end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
	      exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
	      the  sender,  the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
	      the updating of a file’s non-content  attributes	(e.g.  permis‐
	      sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans‐
	      ferred, nor does it  affect  the	updating  of  any  non-regular
	      files.   Implies	--inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse
	      (since it is always extending a file’s length).

	      This works just like the --append option, but the existing  data
	      on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver‐
	      ification step, which will cause a file  to  be  resent  if  the
	      final  verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-append‐
	      ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell  the	 sending  side	to  include  any  directories that are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory’s contents are not
	      copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
	      trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).	 Without  this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo‐
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn’t specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to	 use  a	 hack  of  "-r
	      --exclude=’/*/*’" to get an older rsync to list a single	direc‐
	      tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des‐

       -L, --copy-links
	      When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
	      referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
	      of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
	      receiving	 side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directo‐
	      ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you’ll need to	 spec‐
	      ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
	      exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
	      side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

	      This tells rsync to copy the referent  of	 symbolic  links  that
	      point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
	      treated like ordinary files, and so  are	any  symlinks  in  the
	      source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
	      additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out‐
	      side  the	 copied	 tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
	      Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give	 unex‐
	      pected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the	 sending  side to treat a symlink to a
	      directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you  don’t  want	symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a	direc‐
	      tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
	      a	 directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv‐
	      ing side.

	      --copy-dirlinks  applies	to  all symlinks to directories in the
	      source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks,  a
	      trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
	      a trailing slash, using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
	      right.  For example:

	      rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
	      given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
	      giving  rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
	      symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This option causes the receiving side to treat a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	 as  though  it	 were a real directory, but only if it
	      matches a real directory from the sender.	 Without this  option,
	      the receiver’s symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

	      For example, suppose you transfer a directory  "foo"  that  con‐
	      tains  a	file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
	      on the receiver.	Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
	      symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
	      file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
	      all the symlinks	in  the	 copy!	 If  it	 is  possible  for  an
	      untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
	      user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
	      a	 real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
	      the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
	      using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
	      link together the corresponding files on the destination.	 With‐
	      out  this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as
	      though they were separate files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
	      links  on	 the  destination  exactly matches that on the source.
	      Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard	 links
	      include the following:

	      o	     If	 the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
		     linking than what is present in the  source  file	list),
		     the  copying  algorithm  will  not break them explicitly.
		     However, if one or more of the paths have content differ‐
		     ences,  the  normal  file-update process will break those
		     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

	      o	     If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
		     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
		     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
		     to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa‐

	      Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
	      your  files  are	being  updated so that you are certain that no
	      unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
	      the --inplace option for more caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
	      does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which	 files
	      are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
	      data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
	      been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in	 another member of the
	      hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
	      is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
		     existing permissions, though the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set to the
		     source  file’s  permissions  masked  with	the  receiving
		     directory’s  default  permissions	(either	 the receiving
		     process’s umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory’s  default ACL), and their special
		     permission bits disabled except in the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc‐

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync’s  behavior	 is the same as that of other file-copy utili‐
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give new files the destina‐
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged),  make	 sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all	 non-masked  bits  get
	      enabled).	  If you’d care to make this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

		 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in a command such as this

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a  does	not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will
	      re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the destination’s setgid bit on newly-cre‐
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination’s  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This option causes  rsync	 to  preserve  the  executability  (or
	      non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
	      A regular file is considered to be executable if	at  least  one
	      ’x’  is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destina‐
	      tion file’s executability differs from that of the corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file’s permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     ’x’ permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync turns on each ’x’ per‐
		     mission that has a corresponding ’r’ permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

	      The  source  and	destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
	      entries for this option to work properly.	 See the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat‐

       -X, --xattrs
	      This option causes rsync	to  update  the	 destination  extended
	      attributes to be the same as the source ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys‐
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values
	      (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat  the	option
	      (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all xattrs" mode cannot be used with

	      This option tells rsync to apply	one  or	 more  comma-separated
	      "chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the files in the transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
	      that  the	 sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
	      this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In  addition  to	the  normal  parsing  rules  specified	in the
	      chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
	      to  a  directory	by prefixing it with a ’D’, or specify an item
	      that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it	 with  a  ’F’.
	      For  example, the following will ensure that all directories get
	      marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both  are
	      user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
	      executability across all bits:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result‐
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans‐

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv‐
	      ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
	      receiving side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir‐
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus‐

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the receiving pro‐
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
	      receiving side.

	      The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

	      This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
	      files to the remote system  to  recreate	these  devices.	  This
	      option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
	      super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
	      files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I,	causing	 all  files  to	 be  updated  (though  rsync’s
	      delta-transfer  algorithm	 will make the update fairly efficient
	      if the files haven’t actually changed, you’re  much  better  off
	      using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi‐
	      fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn’t run by the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just the current user’s groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and	 copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will  get	 errors	 if  the receiving side isn’t being run as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

	      When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi‐
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
	      This includes the file’s owner and  group	 (if  it  is  not  the
	      default),	 the  file’s  device  info (device & special files are
	      created as empty text files), and any permission	bits  that  we
	      won’t allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
	      u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner’s	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

	      This is a good way to backup data without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option only affects the side where the option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec‐
	      tion, specify an rsync path:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

	      Since  there  is	only  one  "side" in a local copy, this option
	      affects both the sending and receiving of files.	You’ll need to
	      specify a copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, pos‐
	      sibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support  directory)
	      as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

	      This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon’s rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with --inplace because it’s
	      not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This makes rsync perform a  trial	 run  that  doesn’t  make  any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
	      is most commonly used in	combination  with  the	-v,  --verbose
	      and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync com‐
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
	      same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery and system call failures); if it isn’t, that’s  a  bug.
	      Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
	      areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send	the  actual  data  for
	      file  transfers,	so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
	      "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
	      are  too	small,	and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this option rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm	 is  not  used
	      and  the	whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
	      faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des‐
	      tination	are  specified	as  local  paths,  but	only   if   no
	      batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
	      recursing.  This does not limit the user’s  ability  to  specify
	      items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync’s recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and  also	 the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo‐
	      ries from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
	      at  each	mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the
	      mounted directory because those of  the  underlying  mount-point
	      directory are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
	      is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
	      that  do	not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
	      combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
	      updated  (which  can  be	useful if all you want to do is delete
	      extraneous files).

	      This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn’t
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn’t affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
	      the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
	      nothing would get done).	See also --existing.

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn’t  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the files that the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
	      --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
	      got interrupted.	Since a --link-dest run is copied into	a  new
	      directory	 hierarchy  (when it is used properly), using --ignore
	      existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don’t  get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
	      existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
	      (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the	 transfer  and
	      have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

	      Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
	      are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
	      in  a  particular directory over to another host, make sure that
	      the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
	      directly	written into it, so that rsync can’t possibly transfer
	      a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can’t first	 write
	      the  files  into	a different directory, you should use a naming
	      idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
	      finished	(e.g.  name  the  file	""  when it is written,
	      rename it to "foo" when it is done,  and	then  use  the	option
	      --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

	      This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
	      side (ones that aren’t on the sending side), but	only  for  the
	      directories  that	 are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
	      rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using  a	wildcard  for  the directory’s contents (e.g. "dir/*")
	      since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
	      a	 request  to  transfer individual files, not the files’ parent
	      directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option or mark the rules as only matching on  the	 sending  side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior  to	 rsync	2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
	      --recursive was enabled.	Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!	 It is a  very
	      good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
	      files on the  destination.   You	can  override  this  with  the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The   --delete   option	may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
	      --delete-WHEN   options	without	  conflict,   as    well    as
	      --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none	of  the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
	      algorithm	 when  talking	to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
	      --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
	      also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	 However,  it  does  introduce a delay
	      before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
	      transfer	to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
	      memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
	      scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
	      so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
	      doing the deletions prior	 to  any  per-directory	 filter	 files
	      being  updated.	This  option  was first added in rsync version
	      2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)	for  more  details  on

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com‐
	      puted during  the	 transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
	      removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com‐
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
	      than  using  --delete-after  (but	 can behave differently, since
	      --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass	 after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
	      receiving	 side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
	      you shouldn’t see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
	      the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
	      --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive	 is  doing  an
	      incremental  scan).   See	 --delete  (which is implied) for more
	      details on file-deletion.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      after  the  transfer  has	 completed.  This is useful if you are
	      sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
	      and  you	want  their  exclusions	 to take effect for the delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
	      old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
	      scan all the files in the transfer  into	memory	at  once  (see
	      --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
	      not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
	      files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu‐
	      sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
	      files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when using --delete-after, and  it  used	to  be	non-functional
	      unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

	      This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo‐
	      ries.  If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output and	 rsync
	      exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

	      Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
	      warned about any extraneous files	 in  the  destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim‐
	      ited", so if you don’t know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  older  ver‐
	      sions didn’t warn when the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn’t
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn’t affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      The  suffixes  are  as  follows:	"K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
	      (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),	 and  "G"  (or
	      "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).	If you want the multi‐
	      plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or	 "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	   --max-size=1.5mb-1	 is    1499999	  bytes,   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
	      than  the	 specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
	      small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
	      of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync’s delta-transfer algo‐
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being updated.  See the technical report for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and remote
	      copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
	      remote shell connection, rather than  through  a	direct	socket
	      connection  to  a	 running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
	      NECTION" above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com‐
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument (but not back‐
	      slashes).	 Note that  doubling  a	 single-quote  inside  a  sin‐
	      gle-quoted  string  gives	 you a single-quote; likewise for dou‐
	      ble-quotes (though you need to pay  attention  to	 which	quotes
	      your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	 the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

	      Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the	remote
	      machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
	      default		remote-shell’s		 path		 (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that	PROGRAM is run
	      with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
	      command  sequence you’d care to run, so long as it does not cor‐
	      rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com‐

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
	      the remote machine for use  with	the  --relative	 option.   For

		  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
	      that you often don’t want to transfer between systems. It uses a
	      similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following	 items
	      (these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG	cvslog.*   tags	  TAGS
		     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
		     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	 *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

	      then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
	      cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync’s filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you’re combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless of  where  the	-C  was	 placed	 on  the  com‐
	      mand-line.   This makes them a lower priority than any rules you
	      specified explicitly.  If you want to control  where  these  CVS
	      excludes	get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
	      the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of	--fil‐
	      ter=:C  and  --filter=-C	(either	 on  your  command-line	 or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan‐
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
	      import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer‐
	      tain files from the list of files to  be	transferred.  This  is
	      most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
	      like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the rule to rsync as a single argument.	The  text  below  also
	      mentions	that  you  can	use an underscore to replace the space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	exclude	 rule  and  does  not  allow  the full
	      rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

	      This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	 lines	starting  with	’;’ or ’#’ are
	      ignored.	If FILE is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard

	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to  an  include	rule  and  does	 not  allow  the  full
	      rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	 and  lines  starting  with  ’;’  or  ’#’  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

	      Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of	 files
	      to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs (-d) option  is	 implied,  which  will	create
		     directories  specified  in	 the  list  on the destination
		     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use	 --no-dirs  or
		     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The  --archive  (-a)  option’s  behavior  does  not imply
		     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

	      o	     These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of  the  --files-from	 option	 on  the  com‐
		     mand-line	has no bearing on how other options are parsed
		     (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as
		     does --no-R and all other options).

	      The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed	 and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even	 "/bin"),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
	      host.  If it contains "bin/"  (note  the	trailing  slash),  the
	      immediate	 contents of the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
	      that dir’s entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not	 force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
	      host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the transfer".  For example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
	      file that was located on the remote "src" host.

	      If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and  the
	      --files-from  filenames are being sent from one host to another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the sending host’s charset
	      to the receiving host’s charset.

	      NOTE:  sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
	      rsync to be more efficient, as it	 will  avoid  re-visiting  the
	      path  elements that are shared between adjacent entries.	If the
	      input is not sorted, some path  elements	(implied  directories)
	      may  end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventu‐
	      ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list  ele‐

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
	      are terminated by a null (’\0’) character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
	      It  does	not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
	      .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
	      This option sends all filenames and most options to  the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
	      means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
	      special  characters  are	not  translated	 (such	as ~, $, ;, &,
	      etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by	 rsync
	      (instead of the shell doing it).

	      If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
	      remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
	      character-set.   The  translation	 happens before wild-cards are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR as	 a  scratch  directory
	      when  creating  temporary copies of the files transferred on the
	      receiving side.  The default behavior is to create  each	tempo‐
	      rary  file  in  the same directory as the associated destination

	      This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
	      does  not	 have  enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
	      file in the transfer.  In	 this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
	      directory	 is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
	      able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
	      associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
	      place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
	      destination  file,  which	 means	that the destination file will
	      contain truncated data during this copy.	If this were not  done
	      this  way	 (even if the destination file were first removed, the
	      data locally copied to  a	 temporary  file  in  the  destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
	      open),  and  thus	 there might not be enough room to fit the new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
	      of   disk	  space,   you	 may  wish  to	combine	 it  with  the
	      --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied	 files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await‐
	      ing the end of the transfer.  If you don’t have enough  room  to
	      duplicate	 all  the arriving files on the destination partition,
	      another way to tell rsync that you aren’t overly concerned about
	      disk  space  is  to use the --partial-dir option with a relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will use the partial-dir as a staging area  to  bring  over  the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify‐
	      ing a --partial-dir with an absolute path	 does  not  have  this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
	      any destination file that is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
	      looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
	      file that has an identical size and modified-time,  or  a	 simi‐
	      larly-named  file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note that the use of the --delete option might get  rid  of  any
	      potential	 fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This option instructs  rsync  to	use  DIR  on  the  destination
	      machine  as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
	      against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti‐
	      nation  directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
	      to the sender’s file, the file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
	      destination  directory.	This  is  useful for creating a sparse
	      backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
	      may  be  provided,  which will cause rsync to search the list in
	      the order specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is	 found
	      that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans‐

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
	      copy unchanged files found in DIR to the	destination  directory
	      using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination while leaving existing files intact, and then	 doing
	      a	 flash-cutover	when  all  files have been successfully trans‐

	      Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be	provided,  which  will
	      cause  rsync  to	search	the list in the order specified for an
	      unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --copy-dest, but	 unchanged  files  are
	      hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
	      must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	 files	to  be	linked
	      together.	 An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If file’s aren’t linking, double-check their  attributes.	  Also
	      check  if	 some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync’s
	      control, such a mount option that	 squishes  root	 to  a	single
	      user,  or	 mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
	      as OS X’s "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
	      order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
	      differs  only  in	 attributes,  a	 local	copy  is  made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans‐

	      This option works best when copying into	an  empty  destination
	      hierarchy,  as  rsync treats existing files as definitive (so it
	      never looks in  the  link-dest  dirs  when  a  destination  file
	      already  exists),	 and  as  malleable  (so  it  might change the
	      attributes  of  a	 destination  file,  which  affects  all   the
	      hard-linked versions).

	      Note  that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
	      to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the amount of data
	      being transmitted -- something that is useful over a  slow  con‐

	      Note  that  this	option	typically  achieves better compression
	      ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote	 shell
	      or  a  compressing  transport  because it takes advantage of the
	      implicit information in the matching data blocks	that  are  not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf‐
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

	      Explicitly set the compression level  to	use  (see  --compress)
	      instead  of  letting it default.	If NUM is non-zero, the --com‐
	      press option is implied.

	      Override the list of file suffixes that will not be  compressed.
	      The  LIST	 should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
	      separated by slashes (/).

	      You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file	should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
	      of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and ’-’ has no spe‐
	      cial meaning).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe‐
	      cial meaning.

	      Here’s  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
	      (in this version of rsync):

	      7z avi bz2 deb gz iso jpeg jpg mov mp3 mp4 ogg rpm tbz tgz z zip

	      This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
	      but one situation: a copy from a	daemon	rsync  will  add  your
	      skipped  suffixes	 to its list of non-compressing files (and its
	      list may be configured to a different default).

	      With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group names and mapping them at both

	      By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to	deter‐
	      mine  what  ownership  to	 give files. The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

	      If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
	      match on the destination system, then the numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments on the
	      "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot setting affects rsync’s ability to look up the
	      names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

	      This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
	      wait  for	 its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.	If the
	      timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect‐
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
	      specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the	 options you may be able to set. By default no
	      special socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.	  If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
	      rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.	  (Note	 that ssh prefers non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are	 being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
	      receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11	letters	 long.
	      The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output if they are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

	      o	     A < means that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A	>  means that a file is being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A h means that the item is a hard link  to	 another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have attributes that are being modified).

	      o	     A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con‐
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
	      directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S	for  a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
	      that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
	      being  updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
	      are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
	      (2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
	      unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap‐
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
		     flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular

	      o	     A s means the size of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification time is different and is being
		     updated to the sender’s  value  (requires	--times).   An
		     alternate	value  of  T  means that the modification time
		     will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
		     symlink is changed and the receiver can’t set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A	p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
		     updated to the sender’s value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender’s value (requires --owner and super-user priv‐

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender’s value (requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The u slot is reserved for future use.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The x  means  that	 the  extended	attribute  information

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.   A default format	of  "%n%L"  is
	      assumed  if  -v is specified (which reports the name of the file
	      and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a  full  list
	      of  the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
	      in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying the --out-format option will mention each file,  dir,
	      etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file,
	      a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).   In	 addi‐
	      tion,  if	 the  itemize-changes  escape  (%i) is included in the
	      string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the log‐
	      ging  of	names increases to mention any item that is changed in
	      any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).   See
	      the  --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of

	      Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file’s trans‐
	      fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
	      in which case the logging is done	 at  the  end  of  the	file’s
	      transfer.	 When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
	      also specified, rsync will also output  the  name	 of  the  file
	      being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
	      of course, by the out-format output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a	 file.
	      This  is	similar	 to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
	      requested for the client	side  and/or  the  server  side	 of  a
	      non-daemon  transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
	      logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here’s  a	 example  command that requests the remote side to log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug	why  a	connection  is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This  allows  you	 to specify exactly what per-update logging is
	      put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also  be	specified for this option to have any effect).	If you
	      specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
	      the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
	      option is not is ’%i %n%L’.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
	      file transfer,  allowing	you  to	 tell  how  effective  rsync’s
	      delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,

	      o	     Number  of files transferred is the count of normal files
		     that were updated via rsync’s  delta-transfer  algorithm,
		     which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o	     Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any size  for  directories
		     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to	the  receiver  for  it to recreate the
		     updated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don’t
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test them to see if they’re
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard‐
	      less of this option’s setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig‐
	      its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol‐
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this option was specified once, these  units  are	 K  (1000),  M
	      (1000*1000),  and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
	      the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

	      By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	 interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the	--par‐
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which should
	      make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

	      A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to  specify  a  DIR  that	 will be used to hold the partial data
	      (instead of writing it out to the	 destination  file).   On  the
	      next  transfer,  rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
	      to speed up the resumption of the transfer and  then  delete  it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified (or implied), any par‐
	      tial-dir file that is found for a file  that  is	being  updated
	      will  simply  be	removed	 (since rsync is sending files without
	      using rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file’s directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync’s  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur‐
	      ing unless you don’t need rsync to use any of the left-over par‐
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You  can	also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par‐
	      tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.	For  instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
	      you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to turn on the use of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config’s  "refuse	options"  set‐
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file’s	destination directory, but if you’ve specified
	      the --partial-dir option, that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with	--inplace  and

	      This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso‐
	      lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can’t be renamed into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc‐
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files	 using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note  that  the  use  of	transfer rules, such as the --min-size
	      option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
	      does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
	      directory match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
	      affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
	      However, keep in mind that excluded files	 and  directories  can
	      prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
	      hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
	      perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of certain empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter ’protect emptydir/’

	      Here’s an example that copies all .pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo‐
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include=’*.pdf’ -f ’hide,! */’ src/ dest

	      If you didn’t want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn’t already specified.

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender’s file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
	      of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

	      These  statistics	 can  be  misleading if rsync’s delta-transfer
	      algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender’s file consists
	      of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%	 146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses‐
	      sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
	      total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur‐
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      This option allows you to provide	 a  password  in  a  file  for
	      accessing an rsync daemon.  The file must not be world readable.
	      It should contain just the password as the  first	 line  of  the
	      file (all other lines are ignored).

	      This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell trans‐
	      port such as ssh; to learn how to do that,  consult  the	remote
	      shell’s  documentation.	When accessing an rsync daemon using a
	      remote shell as the  transport,  this  option  only  comes  into
	      effect  after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
	      if you have also specified a password  in	 the  daemon’s	config

	      This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a	 file-listing  command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau‐
	      tion:  keep  in  mind  that  a  source  arg  with a wild-card is
	      expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

	      Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files
	      from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
	      an  error	 if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
	      because a file listing implies the --dirs	 option	 w/o  --recur‐
	      sive,  and  older	 rsyncs don’t have that option.	 To avoid this
	      problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don’t  need
	      to  expand  a  directory’s  content),  or	 turn on recursion and
	      exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

	      This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per  second. This option is most effective when using
	      rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
	      nature  of  rsync	 transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait	before
	      sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
	      rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no

	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
	      details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system via some other
	      means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this media fills to capacity before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
	      changes (as long as you don’t mind a partially updated  destina‐
	      tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system  because  this  allows  the	 batched  data	to  be
	      diverted	from  the sender into the batch file without having to
	      flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can’t write the batch).

	      Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen‐
	      erated by --write-batch.	If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
	      read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for

	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file (assuming you can’t upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
	      option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
	      default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
	      can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
	      remote   charset	 separated   by	  a   comma   in   the	 order
	      --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This	 order
	      ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you’re push‐
	      ing  or  pulling	files.	 Finally,  you	can   specify	either
	      --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
	      The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
	      also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup‐
	      ports, you can run "iconv --list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans‐
	      late  the	 filenames  you	 specify  on the command-line that are
	      being sent to  the  remote  host.	  See  also  the  --files-from

	      Note  that  rsync	 does not do any conversion of names in filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is  up  to  you  to
	      ensure  that  you’re specifying matching rules that can match on
	      both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
	      two sides that need to be accounted for.

	      When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that	allows
	      it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con‐
	      figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you	 actu‐
	      ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.	  This
	      only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the outgoing socket when directly contacting  an	rsync  daemon.
	      See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

	      If  rsync	 was  complied	without	 support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
	      option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
	      if this is the case.

	      Set  the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
	      seed is included in each block and  file	checksum  calculation.
	      By  default  the	checksum  seed	is generated by the server and
	      defaults to the current time() .	This option is used to	set  a
	      specific	checksum  seed,	 which is useful for applications that
	      want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the  case	 where
	      the  user	 wants	a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0
	      causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.	  See  also the "address" global option in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
	      can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value  will  be  rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
	      client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

	      This specifies an alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running  over  a
	      remote  shell program and the remote user is not the super-user;
	      in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory
	      (typically $HOME).

	      When  running  as	 a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
	      detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
	      required	when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
	      useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
	      or AIX’s System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom‐
	      mended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on rather than the default of 873.	 See also  the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to use the given log-file
	      name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

	      This option tells the rsync  daemon  to  use  the	 given	FORMAT
	      string  instead  of using the "log format" setting in the config
	      file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the  string  is
	      empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs
	      during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae‐
	      mon’s verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module’s con‐
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock‐
	      ets  that	 the  rsync daemon will use to listen for connections.
	      One of these options may be required in older versions of	 Linux
	      to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
	      already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
	      specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

	      If  rsync	 was  complied	without	 support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
	      option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
	      if this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ‐
	      ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to	trans‐
       fer  (include)  and  which  files  to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or  they  specify  a  way  to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of	 include/exclude  pat‐
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is	 not skipped; if no matching pattern is found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com‐
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You  have  your	choice	of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.	 If you use a short-named rule, the ’,’ separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol‐
       lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an	under‐
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect,	P  specifies a pattern for protecting files from dele‐
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above -- they  only  allow  the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a	file).
       If  a  pattern  does  not  begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ "  (for  an  include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a	 short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options  on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).	The include/exclude rules  each	 specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched	against	 the  names  of	 the files that are going to be trans‐
       ferred.	These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu‐
	      lar  spot	 in  the  hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is similar to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule)	or  in
	      the  merge-file’s	 directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).  An
	      unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo"  anywhere  in  the
	      tree  because  the algorithm is applied recursively from the top
	      down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at	 being
	      the  end	of  the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would
	      match at any point in the hierarchy  where  a  "foo"  was	 found
	      within  a	 directory  named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING
	      INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
	      a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern	ends with a / then it will only match a direc‐
	      tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match	 and  wildcard
	      matching	by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
	      wildcard characters: ’*’, ’?’, and ’[’ .

       o      a ’*’ matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a ’?’ matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a	 ’[’  introduces  a  character	class,	such   as   [a-z]   or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild‐
	      card character, but it is matched literally  when	 no  wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if  the  pattern	contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
	      "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn’t contain a / or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
	      filename.	  (Remember  that the algorithm is applied recursively
	      so "full filename" can actually be any portion of	 a  path  from
	      the starting directory on down.)

       o      a	 trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
	      "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the  directory
	      (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been specified).  This behavior was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent’s
       full  name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must	not  be	 excluded).   The  exclude  patterns  actually
       short-circuit  the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files
       to send.	 If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory,  it  can
       render  a  deeper  include  pattern  ineffectual	 because rsync did not
       descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.	This  is  par‐
       ticularly important when using a trailing ’*’ rule.  For instance, this
       won’t work:

	      + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      + /file-is-included
	      - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  ’*’
       rule,  so  rsync	 never	visits	any  of	 the  files  in	 the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.	For  instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

	      + /some/
	      + /some/path/
	      + /some/path/this-file-is-found
	      + /file-also-included
	      - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"	 would	exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc‐

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named  bar	 two  or  more
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc‐

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
	      directories  and	C  source files but nothing else (see also the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+  foo/bar.c",  and	 "-  *"	 would
	      include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
	      must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/ /usr/local/etc/passwd" would exclude	the  passwd  file  any
	      time  the	 transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory,
	      and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is	 in  a
	      dir  named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude	 rules
	      should  be  inserted  as	excludes in place of the "-C".	No arg
	      should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies  to  the  sending
	      side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
	      from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to	affect
	      both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default rules become sender-side only.  See also	the  hide  (H)
	      and  show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send‐
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the  receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the  protect  (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is  perishable,	 meaning  that	it  is
	      ignored  in  directories	that are being deleted.	 For instance,
	      the -C option’s default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that was removed on the source from being deleted on the	desti‐

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two	kinds  of  merged  files  -- single-instance (’.’) and
       per-directory (’:’).  A single-instance merge file is  read  one	 time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
       "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every	direc‐
       tory  that  it  traverses for the named file, merging its contents when
       the file exists into  the  current  list	 of  inherited	rules.	 These
       per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it
       is the sending side that is being scanned for the  available  files  to
       transfer.   These  rule	files  may  also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don’t get  deleted

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      . /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	 - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat‐
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat‐
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 C  is	a  way	to  specify  that the file should be read in a
	      CVS-compatible manner.  This turns on ’n’,  ’w’,	and  ’-’,  but
	      also  allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.	 If no
	      filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto‐

       o      A w specifies  that  the	rules  are  word-split	on  whitespace
	      instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com‐
	      ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
	      is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
	      rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
	      the file default to having that modifier set (except for	the  !
	      modifier,	 which	would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
	      .excl" would  treat  the	contents  of  .excl  as	 absolute-path
	      excludes,	 while	"dir-merge,s  .filt" and ":sC" would each make
	      all their per-directory rules apply only on  the	sending	 side.
	      If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod‐
	      ifier or both), then the rules in	 the  file  must  not  specify
	      sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the direc‐
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the ’n’ modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory’s  rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so  it
       is  possible  to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file’s directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here’s an example filter	 file  which  you’d  specify  via  --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      - *.gz
	      dir-merge .rules
	      + *.[ch]
	      - *.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also  turns  the  ".rules"  filename  into  a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par‐
       ent  dirs  from	that  starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a	common	filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc‐
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file in the
       directories that are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par‐
       ent-dir scan and only looks  for	 the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig‐
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)	option’s  inclusion   of   the
       per-directory  .cvsignore  file	gets placed into your rules by putting
       the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.	 Without  this,	 rsync
       would  add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all
       your other rules (giving it a lower  priority  than  your  command-line
       rules).	For example:

	      cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      + foo.o
	      - *.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG‐
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent’s rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file’s  directory).   If you think of the
       transfer as a subtree of names that  are	 being	sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs	 where	patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let’s  say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note missing "me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note missing "you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you’re not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without	a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude  the  merge  files	 them‐
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the ’e’ mod‐
       ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two  equivalent  com‐

	      rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
	      rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	 if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you’ll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,	because	 this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to	delete

	      rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com‐
       mand  line),  or	 you’ll	 need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is	 this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’
	  --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is	 excluding  the	 .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don’t
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to	 control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi‐
       cal systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number  of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to  do
       this  using  batch  mode,  rsync	 is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.	The  write-batch  option causes the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all	 the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi‐
       ple  destination	 trees.	 Multicast  transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to	many  hosts  at	 once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience,	a  script  file	 is  also  created  when   the
       write-batch  option  is	used:	it will be named the same as the batch
       file with ".sh" appended.  This script  file  contains  a  command-line
       suitable	 for  updating	a  destination tree using the associated batch
       file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, option‐
       ally  passing  in  an alternate destination tree pathname which is then
       used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful when the
       destination  tree path on the current host differs from the one used to
       create the batch file.


	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ scp foo* remote:
	      $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is	used  to   update   /adest/dir/	  from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be
	      local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host	 using
	      either  the  remote-shell	 syntax	 or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as

       o      The first example uses the created  ""  file  to  get  the
	      right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
	      remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
	      that  the	 batch	file  doesn’t  need to be copied to the remote
	      machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
	      needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
	      the script file if you wished to make use of it  (just  be  sure
	      that  no	other  option is trying to use standard input, such as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination	 trees
       is  encountered	the  update  might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)	 or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.	This  means  that  it  should  be  safe	 to  re-run  a
       read-batch  operation  if  the command got interrupted.	If you wish to
       force the batched-update to  always  be	attempted  regardless  of  the
       file’s  size  and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If
       an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in  a  partially
       updated	state.	In  that  case,	 rsync	can  be	 used  in  its regular
       (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the  protocol	 version  in  the  batch  file	is  too	 new  for  the
       batch-reading  rsync  to	 handle.  See also the --protocol option for a
       way to have the creating rsync generate a  batch	 file  that  an	 older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will  not

       When  reading  a	 batch	file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn’t set  them  to
       the  same as the batch-writing command.	Other options can (and should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from  is	 dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The  code  that	creates	 the	file   transforms   any	  fil‐
       ter/include/exclude  options  into  a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An  advanced	user  can  use
       this  to	 modify	 the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred	 at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar‐
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync  can  also	 distinguish  "safe"  and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
       example where this might be used is a web site mirror  that  wishes  to
       ensure  that  the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to /usr/local/etc/passwd in  the  public  section	of  the	 site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file
       they point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
       links  to  be  omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe  if	 they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty,  or if they contain enough ".." components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here’s a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn’t men‐
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe sym‐

	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe  sym‐

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp‐
       tic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is  "protocol  ver‐
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is	 using
       for  its	 transport.  The  way  to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly	 then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains	some  text  or
       data.  Look  at	the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or  .profile)	 that  contain	output	statements for
       non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify‐
       ing  the	 -vv  option.	At this level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu‐
	      late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
	      option was specified that is supported by the client and not  by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat‐
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      Specify  a  default --iconv setting using this environment vari‐
	      able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

	      The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to	 override  the
	      default  shell  used  as	the transport for rsync.  Command line
	      options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae‐
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required password allows you to
	      run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync  daemon  without
	      user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
	      a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to  do	 that,
	      consult the remote shell’s documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The  USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
	      the default username sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
	      set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man page is current for version 3.0.9 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed	 by  a	user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an	 exam‐
       ple  script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file	 COPY‐
       ING for details.

       A  WEB site is available at  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover  questions  unanswered  by  this	manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We  would  be  delighted	 to  hear  from	 you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Special	thanks	go  out	 to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,	 Martin	 Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth‐
       well and David Bell.  I’ve probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync  was  originally  written	by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.  It is	 currently  maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing	 lists	 for   support	 and   development  are	 available  at

				  23 Sep 2011			      rsync(1)

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