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SA(8)			OpenBSD System Manager's Manual			 SA(8)

     sa - print system accounting statistics

     sa [-abcDdfijKklmnqrstu] [-v cutoff] [file ...]

     The sa utility reports on, cleans up, and generally maintains system
     accounting files.	See accton(8) for details on enabling system

     sa is able to condense the information in /var/account/acct into the
     summary files /var/account/savacct and /var/account/usracct, which
     contain system statistics according to command name and login ID,
     respectively.  This condensation is desirable because on a large system,
     /var/account/acct can grow by hundreds of blocks per day.	The summary
     files are normally read before the accounting file, so that reports
     include all available information.

     If file names are supplied, they are read instead of /var/account/acct.
     After each file is read, if the summary files are being updated, an
     updated summary will be saved to disk.  Only one report is printed, after
     the last file is processed.

     The labels used in the output indicate the following, except where
     otherwise specified by individual options:

	   avio	  Average number of I/O operations per execution.
	   cp	  Sum of user and system time, in minutes.
	   cpu	  Same as cp.
	   k	  CPU time averaged core usage, in 1k units.
	   k*sec  CPU storage integral, in 1k-core seconds.
	   re	  Real time, in minutes.
	   s	  System time, in minutes.
	   tio	  Total number of I/O operations.
	   u	  User time, in minutes.

     The options are as follows:

     -a	     List all command names, including those containing unprintable
	     characters and those used only once.  By default, sa places all
	     names containing unprintable characters and those used only once
	     under the name ``***other''.

     -b	     If printing command statistics, sort output by the sum of user
	     and system time divided by number of calls.

     -c	     In addition to the number of calls and the user, system and real
	     times for each command, print their percentage of the total over
	     all commands.

     -D	     If printing command statistics, sort and print by the total
	     number of disk I/O operations.

     -d	     If printing command statistics, sort by the average number of
	     disk I/O operations.  If printing user statistics, print the
	     average number of disk I/O operations per user.

     -f	     Force no interactive threshold comparison with the -v option.

     -i	     Do not read in the summary files.

     -j	     Instead of the total minutes per category, give seconds per call.

     -K	     If printing command statistics, print and sort by the CPU-storage

     -k	     If printing command statistics, sort by the CPU time average
	     memory usage.  If printing user statistics, print the CPU time
	     average memory usage.

     -l	     Separate system and user time; normally they are combined.

     -m	     Print per-user statistics rather than per-command statistics.

     -n	     Sort by number of calls.

     -q	     Create no output other than error messages.

     -r	     Reverse order of sort.

     -s	     Truncate the accounting files when done and merge their data into
	     the summary files.

     -t	     For each command, report the ratio of real time to the sum of
	     user and system CPU times.	 If the CPU time is too small to
	     report, ``*ignore*'' appears in this field.

     -u	     Superseding all other flags, for each entry in the accounting
	     file, print the user ID, total seconds of CPU usage, total memory
	     usage, number of I/O operations performed, and command name.

     -v cutoff
	     For each command used cutoff times or fewer, print the command
	     name and await a reply from the terminal.	If the reply begins
	     with ``y'', add the command to the category ``**junk**''.	This
	     flag is used to strip garbage from the report.

     By default, per-command statistics will be printed.  The number of calls,
     the total elapsed time in minutes, total CPU and user time in minutes,
     average number of I/O operations, and CPU time averaged core usage will
     be printed.  If the -m option is specified, per-user statistics will be
     printed, including the user name, the number of commands invoked, total
     CPU time used (in minutes), total number of I/O operations, and CPU
     storage integral for each user.  If the -u option is specified, the UID,
     user and system time (in seconds), CPU storage integral, I/O usage, and
     command name will be printed for each entry in the accounting data file.

     If the -u flag is specified, all flags other than -q are ignored.	If the
     -m flag is specified, only the -b, -d, -i, -k, -q, and -s flags are

     /var/account/acct	   raw accounting data file
     /var/account/savacct  per-command accounting summary database
     /var/account/usracct  per-user accounting summary database

     The sa utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     lastcomm(1), acct(5), ac(8), accton(8)

     sa was written for NetBSD 0.9a from the specification provided by various
     systems' manual pages.  Its date of origin is unknown to the author.

     Chris G. Demetriou <>

     While the behavior of the options in this version of sa was modeled after
     the original version, there are some intentional differences and
     undoubtedly some unintentional ones as well.  In particular, the -q
     option has been added, and the -m option now understands more options
     than it used to.

     The formats of the summary files created by this version of sa are very
     different than those used by the original version.	 This is not
     considered a problem, however, because the accounting record format has
     changed as well (since user IDs are now 32 bits).

     The number of options to this program is absurd, especially considering
     that there's not much logic behind their lettering.

     The field labels should be more consistent.

     OpenBSD's VM system does not record the CPU storage integral.

OpenBSD 4.9		       September 3, 2010		   OpenBSD 4.9

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