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SAIL(6)								       SAIL(6)

NAME
       sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS
       sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]

DESCRIPTION
       Sail is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail orig‐
       inally developed by S. Craig Taylor.

       Players of Sail take command of an old fashioned Man of War  and	 fight
       other  players or the computer.	They may re-enact one of the many his‐
       torical sea battles recorded in the game, or they  can  choose  a  fic‐
       tional battle.

       As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over
       the workings of his ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set
       of  his	sails,	and  judge  the right moment to let loose the terrible
       destruction of his broadsides.  In addition to fighting the  enemy,  he
       must  harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.
       The outcome of many battles during the age of sail was decided  by  the
       ability of one captain to hold the `weather gage.'

       The flags are:

       -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

       -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.

       -x     Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

       -b     No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION
       Sail  is	 really	 two programs in one.  Each player starts up a process
       which runs his own ship.	 In addition, a driver process is  forked  (by
       the  first  player)  to	run the computer ships and take care of global
       bookkeeping.

       Because the driver must calculate moves for each ship it controls,  the
       more ships the computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.

       If  a  player  joins  a	game in progress, he will synchronize with the
       other players (a rather slow process for everyone),  and	 then  he  may
       play along with the rest.

       To implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operat‐
       ing system Sail was first written under,	 the  communicating  processes
       must use a common temporary file as a place to read and write messages.
       In addition, a locking mechanism must be provided to  ensure  exclusive
       access  to  the	shared	file.  For example, Sail uses a temporary file
       named /tmp/#sailsink.21 for scenario 21, and corresponding  file	 names
       for  the other scenarios.  To provide exclusive access to the temporary
       file, Sail uses a technique stolen from an old game  called  "pubcaves"
       by Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the loop

		for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30; n++)
					   sleep(2);

       until  they  are	 able  to  create  a link to a file named "/tmp/#sail‐
       lock.??".  The "??" correspond to the  scenario	number	of  the	 game.
       Since  UNIX  guarantees	that  a	 link will point to only one file, the
       process that succeeds in linking will have exclusive access to the tem‐
       porary file.

       Whether	or not this really works is open to speculation.  When ucbmiro
       was rebooted after a crash, the file system check program found 3 links
       between the Sail temporary file and its link file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
       When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
       the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
       For  example,  if  a  player  wants  to move in a certain direction, he
       writes a message into the temporary file requesting the driver to  move
       his  ship.   Each ``turn,'' the driver reads all the messages sent from
       the players and decides what happened.  It then writes  back  into  the
       temporary file new values of variables, etc.

       The  most  noticeable  effect this communication has on the game is the
       delay in moving.	 Suppose a player types a move for his ship  and  hits
       return.	What happens then?  The player process saves up messages to be
       written to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds or so,  the
       player  process	gets exclusive access to the temporary file and writes
       out its buffer to the file.  The driver, running	 asynchronously,  must
       read  in	 the  movement command, process it, and write out the results.
       This takes two exclusive accesses to the temporary file.	 Finally, when
       the  player  process  gets around to doing another 7 second update, the
       results of the move are displayed on the screen.	 Hence, every movement
       requires four exclusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7
       to 21 seconds depending upon asynchrony) before	the  player  sees  the
       results of his moves.

       In  practice,  the  delays  are	not  as annoying as they would appear.
       There is room for "pipelining"  in  the	movement.   After  the	player
       writes out a first movement message, a second movement command can then
       be issued.  The first message will be in the temporary file waiting for
       the  driver,  and  the  second will be in the file buffer waiting to be
       written to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of  the
       time, the player can sail around quite quickly.

       If  the	player	types  several	movement commands between two 7 second
       updates, only the last movement command	typed  will  be	 seen  by  the
       driver.	 Movement  commands  within  the  same update "overwrite" each
       other, in a sense.

THE HISTORY OF SAIL
       I wrote the first version of Sail on a PDP 11/70 in the fall  of	 1980.
       Needless	 to say, the code was horrendous, not portable in any sense of
       the word, and didn't work.  The program was not very  modular  and  had
       fseeks()	 and  fwrites()	 every	few lines.  After a tremendous rewrite
       from the top down, I got the first working version up by	 1981.	 There
       were  several  annoying	bugs  concerning firing broadsides and finding
       angles.	Sail uses no floating point, by the way, so the direction rou‐
       tines are rather tricky.	 Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981 to
       be more correct (although it still  doesn't  work  perfectly),  and  he
       added  code to let a player select which ship he wanted at the start of
       the game (instead of the first one available).

       Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making Sail portable for
       the  first  time.  This was no easy task, by the way.  Constants like 2
       and 10 were very frequent in the code.  I also became famous for	 using
       "Riggle	Memorial Structures" in Sail.  Many of my structure references
       are so long that they run off the line printer page.  Here is an	 exam‐
       ple, if you promise not to laugh.

	     specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts

       Sail  received  its  fourth and most thorough rewrite in the summer and
       fall of 1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code	(a  monumental
       feat)  almost  from scratch.  Although he introduced many new bugs, the
       final result was very much cleaner and (?)  faster.   He	 added	window
       movement commands and find ship commands.

HISTORICAL INFO
       Old  Square  Riggers  were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate
       sailing.	 Their only disadvantage was an inability to sail  very	 close
       to  the wind.  The design of a wooden ship allowed only for the guns to
       bear to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect  (usually
       6  or  9 pounders) could point forward, but their effect was small com‐
       pared to a 68 gun broadside of  24  or  32  pounders.   The  guns  bear
       approximately like so:

	      \
	       b----------------
	   ---0
	       \
		\
		 \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
		  \
		   \
		    \

       An  interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired down the
       length of an enemy ship.	 The shot tended to bounce along the deck  and
       did  several  times  more  damage.   This phenomenon was called a rake.
       Because the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller target
       than  the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes
       more damage than a bow rake.

			       b
			      00   ----	 Stern rake!
				a

       Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large,	 close
       range  cannons.	 American  ships  from the revolution until the War of
       1812 were almost entirely armed with carronades.

       The period of history covered in Sail is approximately from the	1770's
       until  the  end of Napoleonic France in 1815.  There are many excellent
       books about the age of sail.  My favorite author is  Captain  Frederick
       Marryat.	 More contemporary authors include C.S. Forester and Alexander
       Kent.

       Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by	armament.   The	 main‐
       stays  of  any  fleet  were its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle
       Ships".	They were so named because  these  ships  fought  together  in
       great lines.  They were close enough for mutual support, yet every ship
       could fire both its broadsides.	We get the modern words "ocean liner,"
       or  "liner," and "battleship" from "ship of the line."  The most common
       size was the the 74 gun two decked ship of the line.  The two gun decks
       usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.

       The  pride  of  the  fleet were the first rates.	 These were huge three
       decked ships of the line mounting 80 to 136  guns.   The	 guns  in  the
       three tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top
       to bottom.

       Various other ships came next.  They were almost all "razees," or ships
       of  the line with one deck sawed off.  They mounted 40-64 guns and were
       a poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship.  They neither
       had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.

       Next  came the "eyes of the fleet."  Frigates came in many sizes mount‐
       ing anywhere from 32 to 44 guns.	 They were very handy  vessels.	  They
       could  outsail anything bigger and outshoot anything smaller.  Frigates
       didn't fight in lines of battle as the much bigger 74's did.   Instead,
       they  harassed  the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships.  They were
       much more useful in missions away from the fleet, such as  cutting  out
       expeditions or boat actions.  They could hit hard and get away fast.

       Lastly,	there  were  the  corvettes,  sloops,  and  brigs.  These were
       smaller ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns.   A	 corvette  was
       only  slightly smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30 guns.
       Sloops were used for carrying dispatches	 or  passengers.   Brigs  were
       something you built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS
       Ships  in Sail are represented by two characters.  One character repre‐
       sents the bow of the ship, and the other represents the	stern.	 Ships
       have  nationalities  and	 numbers.   The first ship of a nationality is
       number 0, the second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first British  ship
       in a game would be printed as "b0".  The second Brit would be "b1", and
       the fifth Don would be "s4".

       Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend on extra  can‐
       vas  called  Full  Sails.   A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight
       indeed, and it can move much faster than a  ship	 under	Battle	Sails.
       The  only  trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on
       sail and rigging that a well aimed round shot can  burst	 a  sail  into
       ribbons	where  it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.  For
       this reason, rigging damage is doubled on a ship with full  sails  set.
       Don't  let  that	 discourage you from using full sails.	I like to keep
       them up right into the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails set  has
       a  capital  letter  for its nationality.	 E.g., a Frog, "f0", with full
       sails set would be printed as "F0".

       When a ship is battered into  a	listing	 hulk,	the  last  man	aboard
       "strikes	 the  colors."	 This ceremony is the ship's formal surrender.
       The nationality character of a surrendered  ship	 is  printed  as  "!".
       E.g., the Frog of our last example would soon be "!0".

       A  ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it reaches
       the stage of listing hulk.  A sinking ship has a "~"  printed  for  its
       nationality, and a ship on fire and about to explode has a "#" printed.

       Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew.	 Therefore, if
       an American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will have an
       "a"  printed  for  its  nationality.   In  addition, the ship number is
       changed to "&","'", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon the  original
       number,	be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5.	E.g., the "b0" captured by an American
       becomes the "a&".  The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".

       The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit  captured	by  an
       American: "#&".

MOVEMENT
       Movement is the most confusing part of Sail to many.  Ships can head in
       8 directions:

					0      0      0
	       b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
	       0	0					      0

       The stern of a ship moves when it turns.	 The bow  remains  stationary.
       Ships  can  always  turn,  regardless  of  the  wind  (unless  they are
       becalmed).  All ships drift when they lose headway.  If a ship  doesn't
       move  forward  at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship
       has begun to drift, then it must move forward before it	turns,	if  it
       plans to do more than make a right or left turn, which is always possi‐
       ble.

       Movement commands to Sail are a string of forward moves and turns.   An
       example	is  "l3".   It	will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3
       spaces.	In the drawing above, the "b0" made 7 successive  left	turns.
       When Sail prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import.
       E.g.,
	    move (7, 4):
       The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including
       turns.	The second number is the maximum number of turns you can make.
       Between the numbers is sometimes printed a quote "'".  If the quote  is
       present,	 it  means that your ship has been drifting, and you must move
       ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some of  the
       possible moves for the example above are as follows:

	    move (7, 4): 7
	    move (7, 4): 1
	    move (7, 4): d	/* drift, or do nothing */
	    move (7, 4): 6r
	    move (7, 4): 5r1
	    move (7, 4): 4r1r
	    move (7, 4): l1r1r2
	    move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

       Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
       any point in a movement command you turn into the  wind,	 the  movement
       stops there.  E.g.,

	    move (7, 4): l1l4
	    Movement Error;
	    Helm: l1l

       Moreover,  whenever  you	 make a turn, your movement allowance drops to
       min(what's left, what you would have at the new attitude).   In	short,
       if  you	turn closer to the wind, you most likely won't be able to sail
       the full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

       Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the  wind.	  Cap‐
       tains  in  Sail	are no different.  A ship's ability to move depends on
       its attitude to the wind.  The best angle possible is to have the  wind
       off  your  quarter, that is, just off the stern.	 The direction rose on
       the side of the screen gives the possible movements for	your  ship  at
       all  positions  to  the	wind.  Battle sail speeds are given first, and
       full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.

			    0 1(2)
			   \|/
			   -^-3(6)
			   /|\
			    | 4(7)
			   3(6)

       Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the  wind
       is  blowing from the bottom to the top of the page.  The numbers at the
       bottom "3(6)" will be your speed under battle or full sails in  such  a
       situation.   If the wind is off your quarter, then you can move "4(7)".
       If the wind is off your beam, "3(6)".  If the wind  is  off  your  bow,
       then you can only move "1(2)".  Facing into the wind, you can't move at
       all.  Ships facing into the wind were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
       The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little  weather  vane  on
       the side of the screen.	The number in the middle of the vane indicates
       the wind speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction.  The  wind
       blows  from  the	 +  sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).
       E.g.,

			   |
			   3
			   +

       The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed,  1  =	light  breeze,	2  =  moderate
       breeze, 3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7
       = hurricane.  If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING
       If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming  tangled  together.
       This is called "fouling."  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither
       can move.  They can unfoul each other if they want to.	Boarding  par‐
       ties  can  only be sent across to ships when the antagonists are either
       fouled or grappled.

       Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the  rigging  of
       the other.

       The  number  of	fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper
       right of the screen.

BOARDING
       Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of  human  life.   Boarding
       parties	may  be	 formed	 in  Sail  to either board an enemy ship or to
       defend your own ship against attack.  Men organized as Defensive Board‐
       ing  Parties fight twice as hard to save their ship as men left unorga‐
       nized.

       The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and  upon  the
       number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY
       The British seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities.	 Amer‐
       ican sailors, however, were actually the	 best  seamen  in  the	world.
       Because	the  American  Navy offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy,
       British seamen who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.

       In Sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.	 "Elite" crews
       can  outshoot  and outfight all other sailors.  "Crack" crews are next.
       "Mundane" crews are average, and "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below
       average.	 A good rule of thumb is that "Crack" or "Elite" crews get one
       extra hit per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews.  Don't expect  too
       much from "Green" crews.

BROADSIDES
       Your  two  broadsides  may  be  loaded  with four kinds of shot: grape,
       chain, round, and double.  You have guns and  carronades	 in  both  the
       port  and starboard batteries.  Carronades only have a range of two, so
       you have to get in close to be able to fire them.  You have the	choice
       of  firing at the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the
       ship is greater than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.

       The types of shot and their advantages are:

ROUND
       Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

DOUBLE
       Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging  hits.   Double  takes  two
       turns to load.

CHAIN
       Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.	 Cannot damage hull or
       guns, though.

GRAPE
       Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

       On the side of the screen is displayed  some  vital  information	 about
       your ship:

		      Load  D! R!
		      Hull  9
		      Crew  4  4  2
		      Guns  4  4
		      Carr  2  2
		      Rigg  5 5 5 5

       "Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
       loaded with.  A "!" after the type of shot indicates that it is an ini‐
       tial  broadside.	 Initial broadside were loaded with care before battle
       and before the decks ran red with blood.	  As  a	 consequence,  initial
       broadsides are a little more effective than broadsides loaded later.  A
       "*" after the type of shot indicates that the gun crews are still load‐
       ing  it,	 and you cannot fire yet.  "Hull" shows how much hull you have
       left.  "Crew" shows your three sections of crew.	  As  your  crew  dies
       off,  your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns" and "Carr" show your port
       and starboard guns.  As you lose guns, your ability to fire  decreases.
       "Rigg"  shows  how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.  As rig‐
       ging is shot away, you lose mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
       It is very dramatic when a ship fires its  thunderous  broadsides,  but
       the  mere  opportunity  to fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many
       factors influence the destructive force of a broadside.	First of  all,
       and the chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at range
       ten than it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.	Raking
       fire,  as  mentioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.
       Next, crew size and quality affects the damage  done  by	 a  broadside.
       The  number  of	guns  firing  also  bears  on  the point, so to speak.
       Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the  seas  are
       high  (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can't even
       be opened to run out the guns.  This gives  frigates  and  other	 flush
       decked  vessels	an  advantage in a storm.  The scenario Pellew vs. The
       Droits de L'Homme takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS
       Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
       two  points  per	 three turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be
       printed if no more repairs can be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
       Computer ships in Sail follow all the rules above  with	a  few	excep‐
       tions.	Computer  ships never repair damage.  If they did, the players
       could never beat them.  They play well enough as it is.	As a  consola‐
       tion,  the  computer ships can fire double shot every turn.  That fluke
       is a good reason to keep your distance.	The  Driver  figures  out  the
       moves  of  the  computer	 ships.	  It computes them with a typical A.I.
       distance function and a depth first search to find the maximum "score."
       It  seems  to  work fairly well, although I'll be the first to admit it
       isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY
       Commands are given to Sail by typing a single character.	 You will then
       be  prompted  for  further input.  A brief summary of the commands fol‐
       lows.

COMMAND SUMMARY
	   'f'	Fire broadsides if they bear
	   'l'	Reload
	   'L'	Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
	   'm'	Move
	   'i'	Print the closest ship
	   'I'	Print all ships
	   'F'	Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
	   's'	Send a message around the fleet
	   'b'	Attempt to board an enemy ship
	   'B'	Recall boarding parties
	   'c'	Change set of sail
	   'r'	Repair
	   'u'	Attempt to unfoul
	   'g'	Grapple/ungrapple
	   'v'	Print version number of game
	  '^L'	Redraw screen
	   'Q'	Quit

	   'C'	    Center your ship in the window
	   'U'	      Move window up
	   'D','N'  Move window down
	   'H'	      Move window left
	   'J'	      Move window right
	   'S'	    Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS
       Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:

Ranger vs. Drake:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Ranger	     19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Drake	     17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This is John Paul Jones' first  famous  battle.	 Aboard	 the  Bonhomme
       Richard,	 he  was  able	to overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by
       quickly boarding her.

       (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Serapis	     44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) America	     64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Befford	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Adamant	     50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) London	     98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Royal Oak	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Neptune	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Conquerant	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Provence	     64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Romulus	     44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Monmouth	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Hero		     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Isis		     50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Superb	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Burford	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Flamband	     50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Annibal	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Severe	     64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Brilliant	     80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (f) Sphinx	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Nymphe	     36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (f) Cleopatre	     36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
       (b) Mars		     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Hercule	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Ambuscade	     32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Baionnaise	     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:
       Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Insurgent	     36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Vengeance	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Amphion	     32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (b) Active	     38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
       (b) Volage	     22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Cerberus	     32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (f) Favorite	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Flore	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Danae	     40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Bellona	     32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Corona	     40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
       (f) Carolina	     32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constitution	     44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Guerriere	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Macedonian	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constitution	     44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Java		     38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Chesapeake	     38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Shannon	     38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Lawrence	     20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Niagara	     20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Lady Prevost	     13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
       (b) Detroit	     19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Q. Charlotte	     17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Wasp		     20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Reindeer	     18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
       Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Constitution	     44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)  (b)	 Cyane
       24  gun	Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts) (b) Levant		  20 gun Sloop
       (crack crew) (10 pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Amazon	     36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Droits L'Hom	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (b) Caesar	     80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (b) Pompee	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Spencer	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Hannibal	     98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (s) Real-Carlos	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (s) San Fernando	     96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (s) Argonauta	     80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
       (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
       (f) Indomptable	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Desaix	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Saratoga	     26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
       (a) Eagle	     20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (a) Ticonderoga	     17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Preble	     7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
       (b) Confiance	     37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Linnet	     16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
       (b) Chubb	     11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) President	     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Endymion	     40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Pomone	     44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Tenedos	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:
       Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

       A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against
       heavy odds and winds.  Hint: don't try to board the Natividad, her crew
       is much bigger, albeit green.

       (b) Lydia	     36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (s) Natividad	     50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

       (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:
       Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) USS Scurvy	     136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (b) HMS Tahiti	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Australian	     32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Bikini Atoll	     7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one
       ship and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.

       (b) Sutherland	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Turenne	     80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Nightmare	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Paris	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Napoleon	     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

Cape Horn:
       Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) Concord	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Berkeley	     98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Thames	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Madrid	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Musket	     80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:
       Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Watch that little Cypress go!

       (a) Alligator	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (b) Firefly	     74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Cypress	     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Shark	     64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Coral Snake	     44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Sea Lion	     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
       Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

       (a) Seaview	     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (a) Flying Sub	     40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Mermaid	     136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (s) Giant Squid	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Killdeer	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (b) Sandpiper	     40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (s) Curlew	     38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:
       Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Enterprise	     80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (a) Yorktown	     80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Hornet	     74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Akagi	     112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (j) Kaga		     96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Soryu	     80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

Star Trek:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Enterprise	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Yorktown	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Reliant	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Galileo	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Klingon II	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Red Orion	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Blue Orion	     450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

CONCLUSION
       Sail has been a group effort.

AUTHOR
       Dave Riggle

CO-AUTHOR
       Ed Wang

REFITTING
       Craig Leres

CONSULTANTS
       Chris Guthrie
       Captain Happy
       Horatio Nelson
	    and many valiant others...

REFERENCES
       Wooden Ships & Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
       Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
       Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
       The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
	     Mr. Midshipman Easy
	     Peter Simple
	     Jacob Faithful
	     Japhet in Search of a Father
	     Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
	     Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS
       Probably a few, and please report them  to  "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu"
       and "edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"

4th Berkeley Distribution	 June 1, 1994			       SAIL(6)
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