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SCREEN(1)							     SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter‐
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).	  Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a	 shell	in  it
       (or  the	 specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out‐
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run	their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis‐
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained	it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous	 window;  if  none  are	 left,	screen

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win‐
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate	 a  command  to	 the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.	The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use
       the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as  arguments	 to  e.g.  the
       escape  command	or  the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  cre‐
       ates  a	new window running a shell and switches to that window immedi‐
       ately, regardless of the state of the process running  in  the  current
       window.	 Similarly,  you can create a new window with a custom command
       in it by first binding the command to a keystroke  (in  your  .screenrc
       file  or	 at  the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just like the
       "C-a c" command.	 In addition, new windows can be created by running  a
       command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from  a shell prompt within a previously created window.	 This will not
       run another copy of screen, but will instead supply  the	 command  name
       and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY environ‐
       ment variable) who will use it to create the  new  window.   The	 above
       example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its

       If "/etc/utmp" is writable by screen, an	 appropriate  record  will  be
       written	to  this  file for each window, and removed when the window is
       terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",  "script",	"shut‐
       down",  "rsend",	 "sccs"	 and  other similar programs that use the utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter‐
       minal,  the  terminal's	own  record is removed from the utmp file. See
       also "C-a L".

       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you  have  cor‐
       rectly  selected	 your  terminal	 type, just as you would for any other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing  a  lot  more
       reading,	 you should remember this one command:	"C-a ?".  Typing these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with	 the  contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider	 using a version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic
       margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update  of
       the  screen  in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the	 VT100
       style  type  and	 perfectly  suited for screen.	If all you've got is a
       "true" auto-margin terminal screen will	be  content  to	 use  it,  but
       updating	 a  character put into the last position on the screen may not
       be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved  into  a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win‐
	    dow's  termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display in
	    order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the  current	termi‐
	    nal.   By  default,	 screen	 tries to restore its old window sizes
	    when attaching to resizable terminals  (those  with	 "WS"  in  its
	    description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
	    override  the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to

       -d|-D []
	    does not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere  running	screen
	    session.  It  has  the same effect as typing "C-a d" from screen's
	    controlling terminal. -D is the equivalent	to  the	 power	detach
	    key.   If  no  session can be detached, this option is ignored. In
	    combination with the -r/-R option more  powerful  effects  can  be

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach	 a  session  and if necessary detach or even create it

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
	       the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach	 a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run‐
	       ning,  then  reattach.  If necessary detach and logout remotely
	       first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the	 user.
	       This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note:  It  is  always a good idea to check the status of your ses‐
	    sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
	    specifies the command character to be x and the character generat‐
	    ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
	    character).	 The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be  specified
	    as	"-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets the
	    default command character. In a multiuser session all users	 added
	    will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to
	    an already running session, this option changes only  the  command
	    character  of  the	attaching  user.  This option is equivalent to
	    either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
	    turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching	 mode".	  This
	    can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause	 the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the dis‐
	    play immediately when  flow-control	 is  on.   See	the  "defflow"
	    .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour‐

       -l and -ln
	    turns login mode on or off (for  /etc/utmp	updating).   This  can
	    also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
	    does  not  start screen, but prints a list of strings
	    identifying your screen sessions.  Sessions marked `detached'  can
	    be	resumed	 with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running
	    and have a controlling terminal. If the session runs in  multiuser
	    mode,  it  is  marked  `multi'.  Sessions  marked as `unreachable'
	    either live on a different host or	are  `dead'.   An  unreachable
	    session  is considered dead, when its name matches either the name
	    of the local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r
	    flag  for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions marked
	    as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and removed.	 Ask your sys‐
	    tem	 administrator	if  you are not sure. Remove sessions with the
	    -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -m   causes screen  to  ignore  the  $STY  environment  variable.  With
	    "screen  -m"  creation  of	a  new session is enforced, regardless
	    whether screen is called from within  another  screen  session  or
	    not.  This	flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
	       doesn't	attach	to  it.	 This  is  useful  for	system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
	       new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a	more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
	    true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
	    `LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP'
	    in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name
	    Preselect a window. This is usefull when you want to reattach to a
	    specific  windor or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
	    to a specific window. As with screen's select commant, "-" selects
	    the	 blank	window.	 As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
	    the windowlist on the blank window.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
	    exit  value	 is  as	 follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses‐
	    sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
	    sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
	    combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:	 10  indicates
	    that  there	 is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
	    there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
	    which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
	    resumes  a detached screen session.	 No other options (except com‐
	    binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional	prefix
	    of	[pid.]	may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
	    detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
	    another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
	    indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another	user's
	    directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   attempts to resume the first detached screen session it finds.  If
	    successful, all other command-line options	are  ignored.	If  no
	    detached  session exists, starts a new session using the specified
	    options, just as if -R had not been specified. The option  is  set
	    by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen uses
	    "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option  see

       -s   sets  the  default	shell to the program specified, instead of the
	    value in the environment variable  $SHELL  (or  "/bin/sh"  if  not
	    defined).	This can also be defined through the "shell" .screenrc

       -S sessionname
	    When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
	    meaningful	name for the session. This name identifies the session
	    for "screen -list" and "screen -r"	actions.  It  substitutes  the
	    default [] suffix.

       -t name
	    sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified pro‐
	    gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your  ter‐
	    minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
	    the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does the same as "screen  -ls",  but  removes  destroyed  sessions
	    instead of marking them as `dead'.	An unreachable session is con‐
	    sidered dead, when its name matches either the name of  the	 local
	    host,  or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
	    for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display mode).

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen  session.  You  can
	    use	 the  -d or -r option to tell screen to look only for attached
	    or detached screen sessions. Note that this command	 doesn't  work
	    if the session is password protected.

       As  mentioned,  each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by one
       other character.	 For your convenience, all commands that are bound  to
       lower-case  letters  are also bound to their control character counter‐
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as  "C-a	 C-c"  can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZA‐
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '	   (select)	 Prompt for a window name or number to	switch

       C-a "	   (windowlist -b)
				 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0	   (select 0)
	...	      ...
       C-a 9	   (select 9)
       C-a -	   (select -)	 Switch	 to  window  number  0	- 9, or to the
				 blank window.

       C-a tab	   (focus)	 Switch the input focus to the next region.

       C-a C-a	   (other)	 Toggle to the	window	displayed  previously.
				 Note  that  this binding defaults to the com‐
				 mand character typed twice,  unless  overrid‐
				 den.	For  instance,	if  you use the option
				 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a	   (meta)	 Send the command character (C-a)  to  window.
				 See escape command.

       C-a A	   (title)	 Allow	the  user to enter a name for the cur‐
				 rent window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b	   (break)	 Send a break to window.

       C-a B	   (pow_break)	 Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c	   (screen)	 Create a new window with a shell  and	switch
				 to that window.

       C-a C	   (clear)	 Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d	   (detach)	 Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D	   (pow_detach)	 Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f	   (flow)	 Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F	   (fit)	 Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g	   (vbell)	 Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h	   (hardcopy)	 Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
				 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H	   (log)	 Begins/ends logging of the current window  to
				 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i	   (info)	 Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k	   (kill)	 Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l	   (redisplay)	 Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L	   (login)	 Toggle	 this  windows	login  slot. Available
				 only if screen is configured  to  update  the
				 utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m	   (lastmsg)	 Repeat the last message displayed in the mes‐
				 sage line.

       C-a M	   (monitor)	 Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n	   (next)	 Switch to the next window.

       C-a N	   (number)	 Show the number (and title)  of  the  current

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p	   (prev)	 Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
				 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q	   (xon)	 Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q	   (only)	 Delete all regions but the current one.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r	   (wrap)	 Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting
				 (turn	the current window's automatic margins
				 on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s	   (xoff)	 Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S	   (split)	 Split the current region into two new ones.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t	   (time)	 Show system information.

       C-a v	   (version)	 Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v	   (digraph)	 Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w	   (windows)	 Show a list of window.

       C-a W	   (width)	 Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x	   (lockscreen)	 Lock this terminal.

       C-a X	   (remove)	 Kill the current region.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z	   (suspend)	 Suspend screen.   Your	 system	 must  support
				 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z	   (reset)	 Reset	the virtual terminal to its "power-on"

       C-a .	   (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?	   (help)	 Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\	   (quit)	 Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :	   (colon)	 Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc	   (copy)	 Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]	   (paste .)	 Write the contents of the paste buffer to the
				 stdin queue of the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }	   (history)	 Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >	   (writebuf)	 Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <	   (readbuf)	 Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste

       C-a =	   (removebuf)	 Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,	   (license)	 Shows where screen comes from, where it  went
				 to and why you can use it.

       C-a _	   (silence)	 Start/stop  monitoring the current window for

       C-a *	   (displays)	 Show a listing of all currently attached dis‐

       The  "socket  directory"	 defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to  /usr/local/screens  chosen  at  compile-
       time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should
       compile screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory.  If
       screen  is  not	running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/usr/local/etc/screenrc"	 and  ".screenrc"  in  the user's home
       directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that can be overridden
       in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this  override  feature  may  be
       disabled	 at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched
       in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The command line option  -c	 takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands	 in  these  files  are	used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the	begin‐
       ning  of	 your  screen session.	Commands are listed one per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and	 may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.	 A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel‐
       ligible	lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref‐
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'	if  no
       variable	 substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis‐
       tribution:  "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the	 command  mode
       type  `C-a  :'.	Note  that commands starting with "def" change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.	 To add a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg' command below.	If an optional second parameter	 is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are  represented	 as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permis‐
       sion, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe‐
       cial list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if  usernames
       consists	 of a single `*', all known users are affected.	 A command can
       be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The  user  can  type
       input to a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains
       a writelock for this window.  Other bits	 are  currently	 ignored.   To
       withdraw	 the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg username
       -w+w 2'.	 To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w
       "#"'.  As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the
       session and (per default) has full permissions for all command and win‐
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at' and others should
       also be removed or the user may be able	to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights.	 The  name  of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group	 leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the	special	 value
       "none"  is  used for groupname.	If the second parameter is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre‐
       ated  by	 the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known  users  is	 assumed.   Bits is any combination of
       access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The spe‐
       cial  username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will
       be granted to any window initially.  The special username  "??"	prede‐
       fines  the  access that not yet known users are granted to any command.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that is being moni‐
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi‐
       cation  message	can  be re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win‐
       dow  in	which  activity	 has  occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

		   'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring  is  off	for all windows by default, but can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is	 refreshed  on	window
       change.	 This  affects	all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored with "allpartial off".	This is a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set	to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual termi‐
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays  or	windows	 as  if	 it  had  been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur‐
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then	identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis‐
       play of the selected user(s). If the first parameter  is	 of  the  form
       `identifier%'  identifier  is  matched  against	displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'  may
       be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing
       appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,	 not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win‐
       dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
       display	is associated with the target windows.	These commands may not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the	 color
       of  the	text.  If  the	attribute  attrib  is  in  use,	 the specified
       attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given,  the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax
       of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"	stands
       for  high-intensity  foreground	color and "I" for high-intensity back‐
       ground color.


	      attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

	      attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most	 terminal  emulators  do  this

	      attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  com‐
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen and all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...
       backtick id

       Program	the  backtick command with the numerical id id.	 The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is	the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a	 corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.	 The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the	speci‐
       fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub‐
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back‐
       tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
       once in a while.	 In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line	of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char‐
       acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will  be  dis‐
       played  in  the	current	 background color. Otherwise the default back‐
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-
       defined by this command.	 Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced
       by  the	number	of  the window to which a bell has been sent, and each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your term‐
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

		   'Bell in window %n'

       An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").	Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the	 "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used	to  redefine  the  key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin‐
       gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"	 (meaning  "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
       as  "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.	 If no
       further argument is given, any previously established binding for  this
       key is removed.	The command argument can be any command listed in this

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is	 bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or	multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

		   bind ' ' windows
		   bind ^k
		   bind k
		   bind K kill
		   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
		   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be	avail‐
       able  as	 "C-a  space").	 The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.	 Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"	to  the	 command  that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe‐
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

		   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
		   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

		   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
		   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of	the  tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con‐
       tain  actions  programmed by the user, one for the default actions used
       for terminal emulation and one for screen's  copy  mode	to  do	cursor
       movement.  See  section	"INPUT	TRANSLATION" for a list of default key
       If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes	the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to	 which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key‐
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica‐
       tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g	 the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
       entries in the translation table. You can select the  application  mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of	 args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d
       Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes	 "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word	 "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e. escape the escape binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if no arguments
       are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal	 devices.  This command should affect the current window only.
       But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be  changed
       in  the	future.	  Calling  "breaktype"	with no parameter displays the
       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If  the	optional  argument to the "bufferfile" command is omitted, the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.	 The following
       example	will  paste  the system's password file into the screen window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
		   C-a < C-a ]
		   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells	 screen	 to  treat  the	 input
       characters  between  128	 and  159 as control functions.	 Such an 8-bit
       code is normally the same as ESC followed by  the  corresponding	 7-bit
       code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command  controls	the display of the window captions. Normally a
       caption is only used if more than one window is shown  on  the  display
       (split  screen  mode).  But if the type is set to always screen shows a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes	from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four	 character  of	set are treated as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi‐
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or	by  means  of  "C-a  :
       screen  ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would  be  the  directory  from  which  screen  was
       invoked.	  Hardcopy  and	 log  files are always written to the window's
       default directory, not the current directory of the process running  in
       the  window.  You can use this command multiple times in your .screenrc
       to start various windows in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to	enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific  window  creation	 and  changing
       settings.  Note	that  the "set" keyword no longer exists! Usually com‐
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A).  It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option
       is given, select the specified command  class.	See  also  "bind"  and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This  tells  screen  whether  to	 suppress  trailing  blank  lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note:  Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the  cur‐
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
	 h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column.
	 0, ^ and $ move to the leftmost column, to the	 first	or  last  non-
	   whitespace character on the line.
	 H,  M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center
	   or bottom line of the window.
	 + and - positions one line up and down.
	 G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
	 | moves to the specified absolute column.
	 w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
	 B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
	 C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by  the	 specified  amount  of
	   lines  while preserving the cursor position. (Default: half screen-
	 C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
	 g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
	 % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

	   Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
	   (E.g.  markkeys  "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There is no simple method for a
	   full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

	   The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text  between
	   these marks will be highlighted. Press
	 space to set the first or second mark respectively.
	 Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
	 W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
	   Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
	   pressing digits
	 0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
	   Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11  to	 15  into  the
	   paste buffer.
	 / Vi-like search forward.
	 ? Vi-like search backward.
	 C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
	 C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
	   There  are  however	some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi
	   does not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text,  but	screen
	   does. Press
	 c  or	C  to  set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat
	   count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
	   Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
	   c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

	   This	 moves	one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 col‐
	   umns left, marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets  the  left
	   column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks
	   the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
	   "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

	   and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
	 J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a  new‐
	   line	 character  (012),  lines glued seamless, lines separated by a
	   single whitespace and comma separated  lines.  Note	that  you  can
	   prepend  the newline character with a carriage return character, by
	   issuing a "crlf on".
	 v is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles  the  left
	   margin between column 9 and 1. Press
	 a  before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the con‐
	   tents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is  appended
	 A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
	 >  sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer
	   to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once
	   copy-mode is finished.
	   This	 example  demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer
	   to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".
	 C-g gives information about the current line and column.
	 x exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position.  You  can
	   use this to adjust an already placed mark.
	 @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
	 All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will	be  separated  by  the	two  character
       sequence	 `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been	compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG	debugging available and is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging output from the main  "SCREEN"
       process	correctly.  Debug  output  from attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as	 the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak	and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may be the	only  way  to  generate	 long  breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system dependant, this also  dif‐
       fers  between  serial  board  drivers.	Calling "defbreaktype" with no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for  new  win‐
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set  the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses‐
       sion  "escape" changes the command character of the calling user, where
       "defescape" changes the default command characters for users that  will
       be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as	 the flow command except that the default setting for new win‐
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying	"defflow  auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.	Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive escape charac‐
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.	This was done to make a misin‐
       terpretation  of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.	If the
       parameter status is omitted, the current default string	is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as	 the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter‐

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new  win‐
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con‐

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as	 the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting  for  dis‐
       plays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same  as	 the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that  you  can
       use  the	 special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have a depen‐
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as	 the  silence  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as	 the utf8 command except that the default setting for new win‐
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `on' if  screen  was	 started  with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as	 the wrap command except that the default setting for new win‐
       dows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with  the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as	 the writelock command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.   See

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and put it
       into the background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.	 A  detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h	option
       tells  screen  to  immediately  close  the  connection  to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a	 tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.

       digraph [preset]

       This command prompts the user for a  digraph  sequence.	The  next  two
       characters  typed  are  looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting
       character is inserted in the input stream. For  example,	 if  the  user
       enters  'a"',  an  a-umlaut  will  be  inserted. If the first character
       entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following  characters  (up
       to  three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is
       treated as user input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For	 exam‐
       ple  the	 command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to generate
       an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur‐
       rently	active	 window	  to   the   file  ".termcap"  in  the	user's
       "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores its	 sockets.  See
       the  "FILES"  section  below).	This termcap entry is identical to the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       each  window.  For  terminfo  based systems you will need to run a con‐
       verter like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a  'message  of
       the  day'.  Typically  installed	 in a global /local/etc/screenrc.  The
       option "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See	also  "sleep".
       Echo is also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell  screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding.  The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.	There is also a way to select a termi‐
       nal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the	 "KJ"  termcap

       Supported  encodings  are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R,
       CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4,	ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win‐

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating  a  literal
       command	character  (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to
       the -e option).	Each argument is either a  single  character,  a  two-
       character  sequence  of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash fol‐
       lowed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the  character),
       or  a  backslash	 followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path  newcommand  and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in  the
       window  (let  us call it "application-process") and screen itself (win‐
       dow) is controlled by the filedescriptor pattern fdpat.	 This  pattern
       is  basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An  exclamation	mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to  newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' out‐
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or  a	 pipe  symbol  (|)  is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking	 `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the cur‐
       rently running subprocess in this window. Only one  subprocess  a  time
       can be running in each window.
       When  a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer to the postscript file `doc/' for a  confusing  illustra‐
       tion  of	 all  21  possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits
       2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of	 newcommand.  The  box
       marked  `W'  is	the  usual pty that has the application-process on its
       slave side.  The box marked `P' is  the	secondary  pty	that  now  has
       screen at its master side.

       Whitespace  between  the	 word  `exec' and fdpat and the command can be
       omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omit‐
       ted.  A	simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|'; the word exec
       can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


	      exec ... /bin/sh
	      exec /bin/sh

       Creates another shell in the same window, while the original  shell  is
       still  running.	Output	of  both shells is displayed and user input is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

	      exec !.. stty 19200
	      exec ! stty 19200
	      !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of the window's tty. If your  stty	 command  operates  on
       stdout, then add another `!'.

	      exec !..| less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character `|' is
       needed to give the user control over the pager  although	 it  gets  its
       input  from  the	 window's process. This works, because less listens on
       stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the  `|')  when
       its  stdin  is  not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

	      !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the user and  the  sed  command.  The  sed
       inserts	an  additional	bell character (oct. 007) to the window output
       seen by screen.	This will cause "Bell in window x" messages,  whenever
       the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the window size to the size of the current region. This command
       is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the  flow-control	mode  for  this window.	 Without parameters it
       cycles the current window's flow-control setting	 from  "automatic"  to
       "on"  to	 "off".	 See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this
       document for full details and note, that this is subject to  change  in
       future releases.	 Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top region is selected after the bottom one. If no  subcom‐
       mand is given it defaults to `down'. `up' cycles in the opposite order,
       `top' and `bottom' go to the top and bottom region respectively. Useful
       bindings are (j and k as in vi)
	   bind j focus down
	   bind k focus up
	   bind t focus top
	   bind b focus bottom

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac‐
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and  print  the	character  with the 8th bit stripped. The default (see
       also "defgr") is not to process	GR  switching  because	otherwise  the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the	 currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where  n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified,  dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten  each	 time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines	a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the  terminal's	 hard‐
       status  line.  The first form toggles whether screen will use the hard‐
       ware status line to display messages. If the  flag  is  set  to	`off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a
       hardstatus  line	 (i.e.	the  termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set). If the type "lastline" is used, screen will
       reserve the last line of the display for the hardstatus. "message" uses
       screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never  to  display
       the  hardstatus.	  If  you prepend the word "always" to the type (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the	terminal  sup‐
       ports a hardstatus.

       The  third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is
       used as default string, i.e. the stored hardstatus of the current  win‐
       dow  (settable  via  "ESC]0;<string>^G"	or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is dis‐
       played.	You can customize this to any string you  like	including  the
       escapes	from  the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the argu‐
       ment string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as	 addi‐
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec‐
       ify  a  width  if  you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size unchanged  and	just  set  the	window
       size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not  really  a  online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands  fol‐
       lowed  by  their	 current  bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the
       custom commands, one command per key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading	each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are
       ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all  bound	 commands  for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually	users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com‐
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter of  that
       command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the `prompt character' to the left	of  the	 cursor.  This
       line  is	 pasted into this window's input queue.	 Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback  buf‐

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac‐
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"  command
       to  create  a  screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.	 If no
       command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout	 of  zero  (ot
       the  special  timeout  off)  disables  the  timer.  If no arguments are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in	searches.  Default  is


       Uses  the  message  line	 to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in the form	"(column,row)"	starting  with
       "(1,1)",	 the terminal width and height plus the size of the scrollback
       buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50",  the  current  state  of	window
       XON/XOFF	 flow  control	is shown like this (See also section FLOW CON‐

	 +flow	   automatic flow control, currently on.
	 -flow	   automatic flow control, currently off.
	 +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
	 -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap'  not)
       is  also	 shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored'
       are displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin mode,  applica‐
       tion-keypad  mode,  has	output logging, activity monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in	square
       brackets	 the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is	 in  UTF-8  mode,  the	string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator	is  in	a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
       process	(shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
       window structure is removed  and	 screen	 (your	display)  switches  to
       another	window.	  When	the  last  window  is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       you're  typing  when  a message appears, because	 the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.


       Display	the  disclaimer	 page. This is done whenever screen is started
       without	options,  which	 should	 be  often  enough.   See   also   the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock  this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck or
       /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no other is available). Screen  does  not
       accept  any  command keys until this program terminates. Meanwhile pro‐
       cesses in  the  windows	may  continue,	as  the	 windows  are  in  the
       `detached'  state.  The	screenlock  program may be changed through the
       environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be  set  in  the  shell  from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:	 When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password
       set on screen, the lock is void: One could  easily  re-attach  from  an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window.	This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current contents and the contents of the	 scrollback  history  are  not
       included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines	the name the logfiles will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The second form changes the number of seconds screen will  wait	before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database  file  for  the  current
       window.	This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is given, the login state of the window is  toggled.   Additionally  to
       that  toggle,  it  is convenient having a `log in' and a `log out' key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be
       C-a  I  and C-a O.  The default setting (in should be "on"
       for a screen that runs under suid-root.	Use the "deflogin" command  to
       change  the default login state for new windows. Both commands are only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps  are  turned  "on",  screen adds a string containing the current
       time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output  con‐
       tinues  and  more  than another two minutes have passed, a second time-
       stamp is added to document the restart of the output.  You  can	change
       this  timeout  with  the	 second form of the command. The third form is
       used for customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp  --
       %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of  timo ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no arguments
       shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap	used  for  copy/history	 mode.
       The  string  is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by
       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be the  default	binding	 for  `B'  and	`F'.   The  command  "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command	may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op
       character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do  not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.	As shown in this exam‐
       ple, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a	single	state‐

       maxwin num

       Set  the	 maximum  window  number  screen  will	create. Doesn't affect
       already existing windows. The number may only be decreased.


       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in	 the  current  window's	 input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles	activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window  is  switched  into  the	background,  you  will
       receive	the  activity  notification  message in the status line at the
       first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'  in
       the  window-status  display.   Monitoring is initially off for all win‐

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message  is  cur‐
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines	the  time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is  singleuser.	In  multiuser  mode  the  commands `acladd', `aclchg',
       `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)  other	 users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil‐
       iar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the  nethack-style  messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS.


       Switch to the next window.  This command	 can  be  used	repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell  screen  how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con‐
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out‐
       put.  If	 nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on
       is treated as 1s). If the display  still	 doesn't  receive  characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock  the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [n]

       Change  the  current  windows  number. If the given number n is already
       used by another window, both windows  exchange  their  numbers.	If  no
       argument is specified, the current window number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the	output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no
       more data will be read from the windows. The default value is  256.  If
       you  have  a  fast  display (like xterm), you can set it to some higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed  previously.  If	this  window  does  no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines	whether	 the  display  should be refreshed (as with redisplay)
       after switching to the current window. This command  only  affects  the
       current	window.	  To immediately affect all windows use the allpartial
       command.	 Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is	useful
       if  you	have  privileged programs running under screen and you want to
       protect your session from reattach attempts by another user  masquerad‐
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci‐
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp‐
       tion  in	 the  paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the	 specified  registers  to  the
       stdin  queue  of the current window. The register '.' is treated as the
       paste buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a  sin‐
       gle  register  to paste.	 The paste buffer can be filled with the copy,
       history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled  with  the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
       argument, the contents of the specified registers is  pasted  into  the
       named  destination  register  rather than the window. If '.' is used as
       the second argument, the displays  paste	 buffer	 is  the  destination.
       Note,  that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a second
       argument is specified no current window	is  needed.  When  the	source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to	 include  font	information  in	 the paste buffer. The
       default is not to do so. This command is especially  useful  for	 multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen  the  window's  terminal	line  and  send a break condition. See


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  sig‐
       nal  to	the  parent process of screen.	CAUTION: This will result in a
       logout, when screen was started from your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per‐
       formed.	It  may	 be  used  as a replacement for a logout message or to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.	 This command  can  be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If  cmd	is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capa‐
       bilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [  5  i,  but
       pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
       or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a	command	 displays  the
       current	setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the
       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write	access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The  text
       is  parsed  as  if  it had been typed in from the user's keyboard. This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi‐
       nals  the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bind‐
       ings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4  when  selecting	window
       no.  4.	Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove a key

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the  paste	 buffer.   You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also  "buffer‐
       file" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does  one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or
       one arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the  reg‐
       ister  specified	 or entered at the prompt. With two arguments it reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the  screen-exchange  file  into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen
       the encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example will
       paste the system's password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
		   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full  redisplay  when  in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save  the  specified  string  to the register key.  The encoding of the
       string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the	 "paste"  com‐


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks	the  screen-exchange  file used by the commands "writebuf" and


       Reset the virtual  terminal  to	its  "power-on"	 values.  Useful  when
       strange	settings  (like	 scroll regions or graphics character set) are
       left over from an application.


       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or  added  to
       the region below or if there's not enough space from the region above.

	      resize +N	  increase current region height by N

	      resize -N	  decrease current region height by N

	      resize  N	  set current region height to N

	      resize  =	  make all windows equally high

	      resize  max maximize current region height

	      resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option  (-M)	 turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this window.	 If an optional number n in the range 0..9  is	given,
       the  window  number  n  is assigned to the newly created window (or, if
       this number is already in-use, the next available number).  If  a  com‐
       mand  is	 specified  after "screen", this command (with the given argu‐
       ments) is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is created.	 Thus,
       if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

		   # example for .screenrc:
		   screen 1
		   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the	 title
       "foobar"	 in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of the
       telnet session.	Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi‐
       tional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in
       your ".screenrc" file. When the	initialization	is  completed,	screen
       switches	 to  the  last	window specified in your .screenrc file or, if
       none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See  also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set  the	 size  of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num
       lines. The default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also  the  "defscroll‐
       back" command and use "C-a i" to view the current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param‐
       eter  is	 optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for an identifier.
       When a new  window  is  established,  the  first	 available  number  is
       assigned	 to  this  window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by
       "select 0".  The number of windows is limited at	 compile-time  by  the
       MAXWIN  configuration  parameter.  There are two special WindowIDs, "-"
       selects the internal blank window and "." selects the  current  window.
       The latter is useful if used with screen's "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that for "screen -list" the name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit‐
       ted,  the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY environ‐
       ment variables still reflects the old name. This may result  in	confu‐
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec‐
       ified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.   If	no  parameters
       are  specified,	the user will be prompted for both variable and value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win‐
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will be in the same process group as the screen backend	process.  This
       also  breaks job-control, so be careful.	 The default is on, of course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This	overrides  the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program	speci‐
       fied  in	 $SHELL. If the command begins with a '-' character, the shell
       will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the  C-A  C-c
       command.	  For  details about what a title is, see the discussion enti‐
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned  on  and
       an  affected  window  is switched into the background, you will receive
       the silence notification message in the status line after  a  specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds  instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that	all  windows monitored for silence should wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num  sec‐
       onds.   Keyboard	 activity  will end the sleep.	It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current  window  by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written character by character.	screen will make a pause of msec  mil‐
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not  an	absolute  path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of the running source command file is used to search for the  new  com‐
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note  that  termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo	 commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached  via	the  default  screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change  the  way screen does highlighting for text marking and printing
       messages.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modi‐
       fiers.  The default is currently "=s dd" (standout, default colors).


       Split  the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display
       are resized to make room for the new region. The blank window  is  dis‐
       played  on  the	new  region. Use the "remove" or the "only" command to
       delete regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the  copyright  notice  during  startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the input buffer of the current window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.  You can‐
       not paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for
       key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for  all  parame‐
       ters  that  are omitted. If passwords are specified as parameters, they
       have to be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched  against
       the systems passwd database, the second password is matched against the
       screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".	  "Su"
       may  be	useful	for the screen administrator to test multiuser setups.
       When the identification fails, the user	has  access  to	 the  commands
       available  for  user nobody.  These are "detach", "license", "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.	The windows are in the `detached' state, while	screen
       is  suspended.  This  feature  relies on the shell being able to do job

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in the local termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to  -	say  -
       "vt100".	 This  won't do much harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI compatible.
       The use of the "term" command is discouraged for	 non-default  purpose.
       That  is,  one  may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100)
       for the next "screen rlogin  othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without	 going
       through	all  the  hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.
       Plus, you can optionally customize the termcap generated for  the  win‐
       dows.   You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If your system works uses the terminfo database	rather	than  termcap,
       screen  will  understand	 the  `terminfo'  command,  which has the same
       effects as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are  provided,
       as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo‐
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil‐
       ities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term‐
       cap syntax, you can use the command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just  a
       shorthand  for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with identi‐
       cal arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should  be  affected  by
       this definition.	 You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them with `|'s.	Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match  all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each  tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated by
       `:'s) to be inserted at the start of  the  appropriate  termcap	entry,
       enhancing  it  or overriding existing values.  The first tweak modifies
       your terminal's termcap, and contains definitions  that	your  terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win‐
       dow  termcaps,  and  should contain definitions that screen understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin  with  `xterm'  have  firm
       auto-margins  that  allow the last position on the screen to be updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to
       turn  entries  off).   Note  that we assume `LP' for all terminal names
       that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a  termcap  command
       for that terminal.

	      termcap vt*  LP
	      termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP'  capability	for all terminals that
       begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your  termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""	 l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the  insert  mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im'  and  `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap will cause
       screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert	capability  in
       each  window's termcap.	Each window will also get the delete-character
       capability (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate  into
       a  line-update  for  the	 terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each	window's  termcap  entry,  you
       should  instead	set  the  $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.
       See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this  manual,  and  the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line to display the time of day, the host name, and
       the load averages over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this  is	 available  on
       your system).  For window specific information use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a  default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci‐
       fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as `aka' in previ‐
       ous releases.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa.	 Omit‐
       ting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's	 "-U"  option).	 See also "defutf8", which changes the default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window.  Omitting	the  parameter
       toggles	the  setting.  If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the status
       line  when the bell character (^G) is received.	Visual bell support of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell	 is  used.   See  also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if
       the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set	to  "on",  but
       the  terminal  does  not support a visual bell.	The default message is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".	Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of	screen's  visual  bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a win‐
       dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
       Without parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write  a message to all displays. The message will appear in the termi‐
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
       columns	if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
       and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap"  command  for
       more  information.  You	can  also  specify a new height if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to  leave  the  display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection. The desired
       window can be selected via the standard movement keys (see  the	"copy"
       command)	 and activated via the return key.  If the -b option is given,
       screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the  list,  so
       that  the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the
       order of the windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen  uses
       its internal most-recently-used list.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by	 using
       the  string  setting.  The default setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).


       Uses  the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each win‐
       dow is listed by number with the name of process that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a `*';
       the previous window is marked with a `-';  all  the  windows  that  are
       "logged	in"  are  marked  with	a  `$';	 a  background window that has
       received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored  and  has  had activity occur is marked with an `@'; a window
       which has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows	 occu‐
       pied  by	 other	users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state
       are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at the last  col‐
       umn  of	a  line	 will  wrap to the start of the following line.	 As an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought	of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding	 is  specified	the  paste  buffer  is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to  the	same  window at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode
       and grants exclusive input permission to the user who is the  first  to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the  current
       window  is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues
       the command "writelock on" he  keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission
       while switching to other windows.


       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands	two  different
       modes  when  it	detects	 a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".	If the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.	In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands.  If  the
       mode  is	 set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of	 two  keys  is
       specified  to  the  zombie  command,  `dead' windows will remain in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a  window.  Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the	 window.  The  process
       that  was initially running in the window will be launched again. Call‐
       ing zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus  mak‐
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As  the	zombie-setting	is  manipulated globally for all windows, this
       command should only be called defzombie. Until we need this  as	a  per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes‐
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its	 term‐
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily	interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on	termi‐
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

	      echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA‐
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window types are all special cases of
       the normal type. They have been added in order to allow	screen	to  be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       ·  The  normal  window  contains	 a  shell (default, if no parameter is
	  given) or any other system command that could	 be  executed  from  a
	  shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       ·  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec‐
	  ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
	  to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
	  /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the	 device	 node,
	  an  exclusive	 open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
	  line as busy.	 An optional parameter	is  allowed  consisting	 of  a
	  comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

		 Usually  300,	1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
		 as well as receive speed.

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software	 flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
		 for sending data.

	  ixoff or -ixon
		 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

	  You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as  applicable.
	  Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame‐
	  ter values of the connection.	 These values are system dependant and
	  may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

	  For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
	  lines in the status line. These may  include	`RTS',	`CTS',	'DTR',
	  `DSR',  `CD'	and more.  This depends on the available ioctl()'s and
	  system header files as well as the on the physical  capabilities  of
	  the  serial  board.	Signals	 that  are logical low (inactive) have
	  their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
	  is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
	  available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
	  When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of	modem  signals
	  is  placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC‐
	  SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe‐
	  sis, respectively.

	  For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
	  (TxD) to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected  to
	  be  interpreted  as break signal on the other side.  No data is sent
	  and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       ·  If the first	parameter  is  "//telnet",  the	 second	 parameter  is
	  expected  to	be  a  host  name, and an optional third parameter may
	  specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
	  to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
	  to communicate with that server.
	  For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connec‐
	  tion in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	  b	 BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

	  e	 ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	  c	 SGA.  The  connection	is in `character mode' (default: `line

	  t	 TTYPE. The terminal type has been  requested  by  the	remote
		 host.	 Screen sends the name "screen" unless instructed oth‐
		 erwise (see also the command `term').

	  w	 NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

	  f	 LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow	 control  information.
		 (Ignored at the moment.)

	  Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and

	  For telnet windows, the command break	 sends	the  telnet  code  IAC
	  BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

	  This	window	type is only available if screen was compiled with the
	  BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur‐
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of a window's  hardstatus	'^%'  ('^E')  is  used

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all  window  numbers  and	 names. With '-' quailifier: up to the
	      current window; with '+' qualifier:  starting  with  the	window
	      after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the  part	 to  the  next	'%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape
	      inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill).	 If  a
	      number  is  specified,  pad  to  the  percentage of the window's
	      width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen  to	treat  the  number  as
	      absolute	position.  You can specify to pad relative to the last
	      absolute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad	 rela‐
	      tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
	      string if the specified position lies before the	current	 posi‐
	      tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the	 current  text	position for the next truncation. When
	      screen needs to do truncation, it tries to do it in a  way  that
	      the  marked  position  gets moved to the specified percentage of
	      the output area. (The area starts from  the  last	 absolute  pad
	      position	and ends with the position specified by the truncation
	      operator.) The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the  truncated
	      parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute  with	the output of a 'backtick' command. The length
	      qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use
       zero  instead  of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier also makes
       the '=' escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '='  escapes	under‐
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window  flags  if
       'L' is given.

       An  attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the
       color settings. Its format is  "[attribute  modifier]  [color  descrip‐
       tion]".	The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type indi‐
       cator if it can be confused with	 a  color  desciption.	The  following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify‐
       ing  the	 desired  background and foreground color (in that order). The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors.  You  can
       also  use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the
       color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or	 back‐
       ground  color  dependant	 on the current attributes: if reverse mode is
       set, the background color is changed instead of the  foreground	color.
       If  you	don't  like this, prefix the color with a ".". If you want the
       same behaviour for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As  a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were
       set before the last change was made (i.e. pops one level of the	color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear  all  attributes,  write  in default color on yellow back‐

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The available windows centered at the current window  and	 trun‐
	      cated  to	 the  available width. The current window is displayed
	      white on blue.  This can be used	with  "hardstatus  alwayslast‐

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The  window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one
	      is set.  Also use a red background if this is the active	focus.
	      Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When  flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF char‐
       acters, which allows the user to send them to the  current  program  by
       simply  typing  them  (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for output from a	"normal"  pro‐
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and XOFF characters are used to immediately pause  the  output  of  the
       current	window.	  You  can  still send these characters to the current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically  "C-a	 q"  (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).	 The xon/xoff commands
       are also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that  intercepts
       these characters.

       Each  window  has  an initial flow-control value set with either the -f
       option or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows  are
       set  to	automatic  flow-switching.  It can then be toggled between the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic  flow-switching  mode  deals with flow control using the
       TIOCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does  not  support
       TIOCPKT,	 screen	 tries to find out the right mode based on the current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned  off  and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing  the
       interrupt  key  (usually	 C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the display until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter‐
       rupt"  option  (add  the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command in your
       .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the	output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One disadvantage is that the virtual  terminal's	 memory	 contains  the
       non-flushed  version of the output, which in rare cases can cause minor
       inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if  you  switch  screens  and
       return,	or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version of
       the output you would have gotten without "interrupt" being  on.	 Also,
       you  might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to turn
       it off automatically) when running a program that expects you  to  type
       the  interrupt  character  as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con‐
       trol  is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with
       "C-a l" will restore it.	 Give each mode a try, and use whichever  mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com‐
       mands.	Normally  the name displayed is the actual command name of the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis‐
       tinguish	 various  programs  of the same name or to change the name on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,	 there	  is	the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can  be
       output  from an application to control the window's name under software
       control, and the latter will prompt for a name  when  typed.   You  can
       also  bind  pre-defined	names  to keys with the "title" command to set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by  set‐
       ting  the  window's  name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por‐
       tion  specifies	an end-of-prompt search string, while the name portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.	 If the name ends in a
       `:'  screen will add what it believes to be the current command running
       in the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g.  "name:cmd").
       Otherwise  the  current command name supersedes the shell name while it
       is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell	 prompt	 to  output  a
       null  title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as	a part of your prompt.
       The last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you	speci‐
       fied  for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up, screen
       will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous	 command  name
       and  get	 ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received
       from the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If	found,
       it  will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as the
       command name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or  '^'
       screen  will  use  the  first  word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps  csh  users  get	better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

	      screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

		   shelltitle '> |csh'
		   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell  with	 the  given  shelltitle.   The
       title  specified	 is an auto-title that would expect the prompt and the
       typed command to look something like the following:

	      /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the	 command  name).   The	window	status
       would  show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert to
       "csh" upon completion.

	      bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence  "C-a
       R"  to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".  For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

		   % !em
		   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the	previ‐
       ously   entered	 "emacs"   command.   The  window  status  would  show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the command, and revert to	simply
       "root:" at its completion.

		   bind o title
		   bind E title ""
		   bind u title (unknown)

       The  first  binding  doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you
       for a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear  an
       auto-title's  current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null  title-escape-sequence  to
       your  prompt  is that some shells (like the csh) count all the non-con‐
       trol characters as part of the prompt's	length.	  If  these  invisible
       characters  aren't  a  multiple	of  8 then backspacing over a tab will
       result in an incorrect display.	One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

	      set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not	 only normalizes the character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac‐
       ters  up	 to  8.	  Bash	users  will  probably  want to echo the escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

	      PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100	 terminal,  with  some
       extra  functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other ter‐
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI  standard  as
       possible.  But  if your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emula‐
       tion may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the	appli‐
       cations	that  some  of the features are missing. This is no problem on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo this method fails. Because of this, screen  offers  a  way  to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the  contents
       of your $TERM variable.	If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or  more)).   If  even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor‐
       tant feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you  can	 build	a  new
       termcap/terminfo	 entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which
       this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed  on  your
       machines	 you  are able to do a rlogin and still keep the correct term‐
       cap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable  of
       all new windows.	 Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur‐
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win‐

       The  actual  set	 of  capabilities  supported  by  the virtual terminal
       depends on the capabilities supported by the  physical  terminal.   If,
       for  instance,  the physical terminal does not support underscore mode,
       screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities  into	 the  window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.	However, a minimum number of capabili‐
       ties must be supported by a terminal in order  to  run  screen;	namely
       scrolling,  clear  screen,  and	direct cursor addressing (in addition,
       screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on	terminals  that	 over-

       Also,  you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the
       "termcap" .screenrc command, or by  defining  the  variable  $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be  the
       full  terminal  definition,  or	a filename where the terminal "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the	system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When  the  boolean  `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.	 This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.	The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup‐
       ported: lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO),	lock  shift  G2,  lock
       shift  G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.	 When a virtual termi‐
       nal is created or reset, the ASCII character set is  designated	as  G0
       through	G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence  the
       terminal	 uses  to  enable  and start the graphics character set rather
       than SI.	 `E0' is the corresponding replacement for SO.	`C0'  gives  a
       character  by  character	 translation  string that is used during semi-
       graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc'  terminfo  capabil‐

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term‐
       cap entry, applications running in a screen window can send  output  to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli‐
       cation in one window sending output to a printer connected to the  ter‐
       minal,  while  all  other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each  chunk  of  output).	  As  a	 side-
       effect,	programs  running  in different windows can send output to the
       printer simultaneously.	Data sent to the printer is not	 displayed  in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a  window  gets
       selected,  the  display's  hardstatus will be updated to match the win‐
       dow's hardstatus line. If the display has no hardstatus the  line  will
       be  displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can be
       changed	 with	the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command	(APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\".  As	a  convenience	for  xterm  users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of  the  vir‐
       tual  terminal  if  they can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM‐
       CAP  variable  if  the  terminal	 supports either delete line itself or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the  ses‐
       sion  is	 reattached  on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.   Set  the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of control sequences recognized by screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func‐
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p			  Cursor Visibility (97801)

	   Pn = 6		  Invisible

		7		  Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device  Control  String.   Outputs  a string
				  directly to the host terminal without inter‐

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating  System Command (Hardstatus, xterm
				  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only  works  if
				  multi-user  support is compiled into screen.
				  The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to	 check
				  the  access  control list. Use "addacl :win‐
				  dow: -rwx #?"	 to  create  a	user  with  no
				  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H		  Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn J		  Erase in Display

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Screen

		  1		  From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K		  Erase in Line

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Line

		  1		  From Beginning of Line to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X		  Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m	  Select Graphic Rendition

	     Ps = None or 0	  Default Rendition

		  1		  Bold

		  2	     (A)  Faint

		  3	     (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

		  4		  Underlined

		  5		  Blinking

		  7		  Negative Image

		  22	     (A)  Normal Intensity

		  23	     (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

		  24	     (A)  Not Underlined

		  25	     (A)  Not Blinking

		  27	     (A)  Positive Image

		  30	     (A)  Foreground Black

		  31	     (A)  Foreground Red

		  32	     (A)  Foreground Green

		  33	     (A)  Foreground Yellow

		  34	     (A)  Foreground Blue

		  35	     (A)  Foreground Magenta

		  36	     (A)  Foreground Cyan

		  37	     (A)  Foreground White

		  39	     (A)  Foreground Default

		  40	     (A)  Background Black


		  49	     (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g		  Tab Clear

	     Pn = None or 0	  Clear Tab at Current Position

		  3		  Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l	  Reset Mode

	     Ps = 4	     (A)  Insert Mode

		  20	     (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

		  34		  Normal Cursor Visibility

		  ?1	     (V)  Application Cursor Keys

		  ?3	     (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

		  ?5	     (V)  Reverse Video

		  ?6	     (V)  Origin Mode

		  ?7	     (V)  Wrap Mode

		  ?9		  X10 mouse tracking

		  ?25	     (V)  Visible Cursor

		  ?47		  Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

		  ?1000	     (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

		  ?1047		  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

		  ?1049		  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize  the  window  to  `Ph' lines and `Pw'
				  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send	VT220  Secondary   Device   Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

       In  order  to  do  a  full  VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a
       sequence of characters in the input stream was generated by a  keypress
       on  the	user's	keyboard  and  insert the VT100 style escape sequence.
       Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it  possible  to
       map  arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For stan‐
       dard VT100 emulation the command will always insert  a  string  in  the
       input  buffer  of the window (see also command stuff in the command ta‐
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach	 from  a  different terminal type, it is possible to bind com‐
       mands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the  correct
       binding	after  each  reattach.	See  the  bindkey  command for further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the  com‐
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name		 Termcap name	 Command
       Cursor up	     ku		 stuff \033[A
					 stuff \033OA	 (A)
       Cursor down	     kd		 stuff \033[B
					 stuff \033OB	 (A)
       Cursor right	     kr		 stuff \033[C
					 stuff \033OC	 (A)
       Cursor left	     kl		 stuff \033[D
					 stuff \033OD	 (A)
       Function key 0	     k0		 stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1	     k1		 stuff \033OP
       Function key 2	     k2		 stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3	     k3		 stuff \033OR
       Function key 4	     k4		 stuff \033OS
       Function key 5	     k5		 stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6	     k6		 stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7	     k7		 stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8	     k8		 stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9	     k9		 stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10	     k;		 stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11	     F1		 stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12	     F2		 stuff \033[24~
       Home		     kh		 stuff \033[1~
       End		     kH		 stuff \033[4~
       Insert		     kI		 stuff \033[2~
       Delete		     kD		 stuff \033[3~
       Page up		     kP		 stuff \033[5~
       Page down	     kN		 stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0		     f0		 stuff 0
					 stuff \033Op	 (A)
       Keypad 1		     f1		 stuff 1
					 stuff \033Oq	 (A)
       Keypad 2		     f2		 stuff 2
					 stuff \033Or	 (A)
       Keypad 3		     f3		 stuff 3
					 stuff \033Os	 (A)
       Keypad 4		     f4		 stuff 4
					 stuff \033Ot	 (A)
       Keypad 5		     f5		 stuff 5
					 stuff \033Ou	 (A)
       Keypad 6		     f6		 stuff 6
					 stuff \033Ov	 (A)
       Keypad 7		     f7		 stuff 7
					 stuff \033Ow	 (A)
       Keypad 8		     f8		 stuff 8
					 stuff \033Ox	 (A)
       Keypad 9		     f9		 stuff 9
					 stuff \033Oy	 (A)
       Keypad +		     f+		 stuff +
					 stuff \033Ok	 (A)
       Keypad -		     f-		 stuff -
					 stuff \033Om	 (A)
       Keypad *		     f*		 stuff *
					 stuff \033Oj	 (A)
       Keypad /		     f/		 stuff /
					 stuff \033Oo	 (A)
       Keypad =		     fq		 stuff =
					 stuff \033OX	 (A)
       Keypad .		     f.		 stuff .
					 stuff \033On	 (A)
       Keypad ,		     f,		 stuff ,
					 stuff \033Ol	 (A)
       Keypad enter	     fe		 stuff \015
					 stuff \033OM	 (A)

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog‐
       nized by screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.   You  can	 place
       these  capabilities  in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use
       them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in  your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
		    that  this	capability is obsolete because screen uses the
		    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width  and
		    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal  doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct
		    to the application. Same as 'flow off'.  The  opposite  of
		    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.  Default  is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
		    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the	'autonuke'  command  for  more

       OL   (num)   Set	 the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
		    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com‐
		    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
		    This capability will almost always	be  set	 to  '\E[3%dm'
		    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set	 default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
		    on	the current font. More details follow in the next sec‐

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,	 mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
		    by default).

       Screen  has  a  powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.	 Use this fea‐
       ture  if	 you  want  to	work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac‐
       ters over several national language font pages.

	   <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
	   <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <desig‐
       nator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K':  german,  etc.)   to  strings.	 Every
       <mapping>  describes  to	 what string a single character will be trans‐
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a  lot  in  common  (for	 example strings to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template>  gets  substituted  with
       the  <template-arg>  specified  together	 with  the  character. If your
       strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a  template  and	 place
       the  full  string  in  <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe‐
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

	   termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a german charset. '\304'
       gets  translated	 to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is built,	there‐
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another	extension  was	added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when‐
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset	switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

	   termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a	 part of the german ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be	 sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS	      Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
       HOME	      Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES	      Number of	 lines	on  the	 terminal  (overrides  termcap
       LOCKPRG	      Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH	      Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC	      Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL	      Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
       STY	      Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM	      Terminal name.
       TERMCAP	      Terminal description.
       WINDOW	      Window number of a window (at creation time).

       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the  screen  distribution
					 package  for  private and global ini‐
					 tialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc		 screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc			 Read in after /usr/local/etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login>		 Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>	 Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap	 Written by the "termcap" output func‐
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange	 or
       /tmp/screen-exchange		 screen	  `interprocess	 communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]			 Screen images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]			 Output	 log  files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*		 or
       /etc/termcap			 Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp			 Login records
       $LOCKPRG				 Program that locks a terminal.

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was  produced
       by Wayne Davison, Juergen Weigert and Michael Schroeder.

       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
	    Juergen Weigert (
	    Michael Schroeder (
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version 2, or (at your option) any
       later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it	will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT	ANY  WARRANTY;	without	 even  the  implied  warranty  of MER‐
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program (see the file COPYING); if not,  write	 to  the  Free
       Software	 Foundation,  Inc.,  59	 Temple	 Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Ken Beal (,
       Rudolf Koenig (,
       Toerless Eckert (,
       Wayne Davison (,
       Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (,
       Nathan Glasser (,
       Larry W. Virden (,
       Howard Chu (,
       Tim MacKenzie (,
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (,
       Ken Stillson (,
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (,
       Don Smith (,
       Frank van der Linden (,
       Martin Schweikert (,
       David Vrona (,
       E. Tye McQueen (,
       Matthew Green (,
       Christopher Williams (,
       Matt Mosley (,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (,
       Pablo Averbuj (

       This is version 4.0.2. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7
       by  Wayne  Davison and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version
       2.0. Note that all versions numbered 2.x are copyright by  Oliver  Lau‐

       The  latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp from, or any other GNU distribution  site.  The
       home site of screen is, in the directory pub/utili‐
       ties/screen. The subdirectory `private' contains the latest beta	 test‐
       ing  release.  If  you  want  to help, send a note to screen@uni-erlan‐

       ·  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not	handled	 correctly  (they  are
	  ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       ·  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
	  this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       ·  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP  when
	  reattaching under a different terminal type.

       ·  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
	  capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       ·  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       ·  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
	  in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty device
	  file for each window.	 Special permission may also  be  required  to
	  write the file "/etc/utmp".

       ·  Entries  in  "/etc/utmp"  are not removed when screen is killed with
	  SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs  (like  "w"  or  "rwho")  to
	  advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       ·  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       ·  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
	  (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to  send  a	HANGUP
	  signal.   To	detach	a screen session use the -D or -d command line

       ·  If a password is set, the command  line  options  -d	and  -D	 still
	  detach a session without asking.

       ·  Both	"breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
	  method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a  win‐
	  dow  specific	 setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
	  default for new windows.

       ·  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file  is
	  not  sourced.	 Each  user's personal settings have to be included in
	  the .screenrc file from which the session is booted, or have	to  be
	  changed manually.

       ·  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the

       ·  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza

4th Berkeley Distribution	   Aug 2003			     SCREEN(1)

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