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sendmail(8)							   sendmail(8)

       sendmail, newaliases, mailq - send mail over the internet

       /usr/lib/sendmail [ flags ] [ address ...  ]



       The  command sends a message to one or more people, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  The  command  does  internetwork
       forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       The  command  is	 not intended as a user interface routine.  Other pro‐
       grams provide user-friendly front ends, while is used only  to  deliver
       preformatted messages.

       With no flags, reads its standard input up to a Ctrl/D or a line with a
       single dot and sends a copy of the letter found there  to  all  of  the
       addresses listed.  It determines the network to use based on the syntax
       and contents of the addresses.

       The program looks up local addresses in a file and aliases them	appro‐
       priately.   Aliasing  can  be prevented by preceding the address with a
       backslash.  Normally the sender is not included	in  any	 alias	expan‐
       sions,  for  example,  if `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes
       `john' in the expansion, then the  letter  will	not  be	 delivered  to

       If  the first character of the user name is a vertical bar, the rest of
       the user name is used as the name of a program to pipe the mail to.  It
       may be necessary to quote the name of the user to keep from suppressing
       the blanks from between arguments.

       returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes  are  defined
       in <sysexits.h> header file:

       EX_OK		   Successful completion on all addresses

       EX_NOUSER	   Username not recognized

       EX_UNAVAILABLE	   Catchall   meaning  necessary  resources  were  not

       EX_SYNTAX	   Syntax error in address

       EX_SOFTWARE	   Internal software error, including bad arguments

       EX_OSERR		   Temporary operating system error, such as

       EX_NOHOST	   Host name not recognized

       EX_TEMPFAIL	   Message could not  be  sent	immediately,  but  was

       If  invoked as will rebuild the alias database If invoked as will print
       the contents of the mail queue.

       -ba	      Go into ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end  with  a
		      CR-LF,  and  all messages will be generated with a CR-LF
		      at the end.  Also, the `From:' and `Sender:' fields  are
		      examined for the name of the sender.

       -bd	      Run as a daemon.	This requires Berkeley IPC.

       -bi	      Initialize the alias database.

       -bm	      Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp	      Print a listing of the queue.

       -bs	      Use  the	SMTP  protocol	as described in RFC 821.  This
		      flag implies all the operations of the -ba flag that are
		      compatible with SMTP.

       -bt	      Run in address test mode.	 This mode reads addresses and
		      shows the steps in parsing; it  is  used	for  debugging
		      configuration tables.

       -bv	      Verify  names  only.  Do not try to collect or deliver a
		      message.	Verify mode is normally	 used  for  validating
		      users or mailing lists.

       -bz	      Create the configuration freeze file.

       -Cfile	      Use an alternate configuration file.

       -Ffullname     Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname	      Sets the name of the from person, that is, the sender of
		      the mail.	 The flag can only be used by the users and or
		      when you are sending the mail and use your name.

       -hN	      Set  the	hop  count to N.  The hop count is incremented
		      every time the mail is processed.	  When	it  reaches  a
		      limit,  the  mail is returned with an error message, the
		      victim of an aliasing loop.

       -n	      Do not do aliasing.

       -ox value      Set the x option to the specified	 value.	  Options  are
		      described below.

       -q[ time ]     Process  saved messages in the queue at given intervals.
		      If time is omitted, process the queue  once.   The  time
		      argument	is given as a tagged number, with `s' seconds,
		      `m' minutes, `h' hours, `d' days, and  `w'  weeks.   For
		      example,	`-q1h30m' or `-q90m' will both set the timeout
		      to one hour thirty minutes.

       -rname	      An alternate and obsolete form of the flag.

       -t	      Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and  Bcc:	 lines
		      are  scanned  for	 people	 to send to.  The Bcc: line is
		      deleted before transmission.  Any addresses in the argu‐
		      ment list are suppressed.

       -v	      Go into verbose mode.  For example, alias expansions are

       A number of processing options that may be set.	 Normally,  these  are
       only  used by a system administrator.  Options may be set either on the
       command line using the flag or in the configuration file.

       Afile	      Use an alternate alias file.

       c	      Do not initiate immediate connection to mailers that are
		      considered  expensive  to	 connect  to.	This  requires

       dx	      Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i'  for
		      interactive  (synchronous)  delivery, `b' for background
		      (asynchronous) delivery, and `q' for queue only  -  that
		      is,  actual  delivery is done the next time the queue is

       D	      Try to automatically rebuild the alias database if  nec‐

       ex	      Set  error processing to mode x.	Valid modes are `m' to
		      mail back the error message, `w' to write back the error
		      message  (or  mail  it  back if the sender is not logged
		      in), `p' to print the errors on the terminal  (default),
		      `q'  to  throw  away error messages (only exit status is
		      returned), and `e' to  do	 special  processing  for  the
		      BerkNet.	 If the text of the message is not mailed back
		      by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender is local  to  this
		      machine,	a  copy of the message is appended to the file
		      in the sender's home directory.

       Fmode	      The mode to use when creating temporary files.

       f	      Save UNIX From lines at the front of messages.

       gN	      The default group id to use when calling mailers.

       G{T|t|Y|y}     A Boolean argument used to turn on/off  the  fuzzy  fea‐
		      ture.  By default, the option is true.  The first letter
		      of the Boolean argument, if it is present,  is  compared
		      to  the  four  letters  T, t, Y, y.  If the first letter
		      matches any of those four, the option is	set  to	 true;
		      otherwise	 it  is	 set to false.	The option defaults to
		      true if the Boolean argument is absent.

       Hfile	      The SMTP help file.

       i	      Do not take dots on a line by themselves	as  a  message

       Ln	      The log level.

       m	      Send  to	me  (the sender) also if my nameis in an alias

       o	      If set, this message may have old style headers.	If not
		      set,  this message is guaranteed to have new style head‐
		      ers  (that  is,  commas  instead	 of   spaces   between
		      addresses).   If set, an adaptive algorithm is used that
		      will correctly  determine	 the  header  format  in  most

       Qqueuedir      Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       rtimeout	      The  timeout  on	reads; if none is set, will wait for a

       Sfile	      Save statistics in the named file.

       s	      Always instantiate the queue file,  even	under  circum‐
		      stances where it is not strictly necessary.

       Ttime	      Set  the	timeout on messages in the queue to the speci‐
		      fied time.  After sitting in the queue for  this	amount
		      of  time,	 they  will  be	 returned  to the sender.  The
		      default is three days.

       tstz,dtz	      Set the name of the time zone.

       uN	      Set the default user id for mailers.

       converts blanks in addresses to dots.  This is incorrect	 according  to
       the  old	 ARPANET  mail protocol RFC 733 (NIC 41952), but is consistent
       with the new protocols (RFC 822).

       Except for these pathnames are all specified in Thus, these values  are

       Raw data for alias names.

       Database of alias names.

       Raw data for alias names.

       Yellow Pages alias database.  DOMAINNAME is the YP
			   domainname for the local area network.

       Yellow Pages alias database.  DOMAINNAME is the YP
			   domainname for the local area network.

       Raw data for alias names.

       BIND/Hesiod alias database.

       Configuration file.

       Frozen configuration.

       Help file.

       Collected statistics.

       To deliver	   mail.

       To deliver ARPANET mail.

       Temp files.

See Also
       biff(1), binmail(1), mail(1), rmail(1), aliases(5), mailaddr(7)
       DARPA Internet Request For Comments: RFC 819, RFC 821, RFC 822
       Sendmail - An Internetwork Mail Router


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