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SETKEY(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		     SETKEY(8)

NAME
     setkey — manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

SYNOPSIS
     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

DESCRIPTION
     The setkey utility adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association
     Database (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries
     in the kernel.

     The setkey utility takes a series of operations from the standard input
     (if invoked with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f
     filename).

     -D	     Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are dumped.

     -F	     Flush the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a	     The setkey utility usually does not display dead SAD entries with
	     -D.  If with -a, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.
	     A dead SAD entry means that it has been expired but remains in
	     the system because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -h	     Add hexadecimal dump on -x mode.

     -l	     Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v	     Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY
	     socket, including messages sent from other processes to the ker‐
	     nel.

     -x	     Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to PF_KEY
	     socket.  -xx makes each timestamps unformatted.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following configu‐
     ration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs (‘#’) are treated as com‐
     ment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
	     Add an SAD entry.	add can fail with multiple reasons, including
	     when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
	     Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
	     Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
	     Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
	     Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
	     Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy ;
	     Add an SPD entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
	     Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
	     Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same
	     functionality.

     spddump ;
	     Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same
	     functionality.

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     src
     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
	     IPv4/v6 address.  The setkey utility can resolve a FQDN into
	     numeric addresses.	 If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses,
	     setkey will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by
	     trying all possible combinations.	-4, -6 and -n restricts the
	     address resolution of FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict
	     results into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.	 -n avoids
	     FQDN resolution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

     protocol
	     protocol is one of following:
	     esp	 ESP based on rfc2406
	     esp-old	 ESP based on rfc1827
	     ah		 AH based on rfc2402
	     ah-old	 AH based on rfc1826
	     ipcomp	 IPComp
	     tcp	 TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must
	     be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with ‘0x’ prefix.
	     SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
	     and they cannot be used.  TCP-MD5 associations must use 0x1000
	     and therefore only have per-host granularity at this time.

     extensions
	     take some of the following:
	     -m mode	 Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
			 one of following: transport, tunnel or any.  The
			 default value is any.
	     -r size	 Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
			 size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
			 is zero or not specified, replay check does not take
			 place.
	     -u id	 Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD.
			 See policy.
	     -f pad_option
			 defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
			 is one of following:
			 zero-pad    All of the padding are zero.
			 random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
			 seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
				     started from 1 are set.
	     -f nocyclic-seq
			 Do not allow cyclic sequence number.
	     -lh time
	     -ls time	 Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.

     algorithm
	     -E ealgo key
			 Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
	     -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
			 Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
			 payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
	     -A aalgo key
			 Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
	     -C calgo [-R]
			 Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
			 specified, the spi field value will be used as the
			 IPComp CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as
			 is.  If -R is not specified, the kernel will use
			 well-known CPI on wire, and spi field will be used
			 only as an index for kernel internal usage.

	     key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of hexa‐
	     decimal digits preceded by ‘0x’.

	     Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in sepa‐
	     rate section.

     src_range
     dst_range
	     These are selections of the secure communication specified as
	     IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
	     TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:

	     address
	     address/prefixlen
	     address[port]
	     address/prefixlen[port]

	     prefixlen and port must be a decimal number.  The square brackets
	     around port are necessary and are not manpage metacharacters.
	     For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst apply
	     here as well.

     upperspec
	     The upper layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of the
	     words in /etc/protocols as upperspec, as well as icmp6, ip4, or
	     any.  The word any stands for “any protocol”.  The protocol num‐
	     ber may also be used to specify the upperspec.  A type and code
	     related to ICMPv6 may also be specified as an upperspec.  The
	     type is specified first, followed by a comma and then the rele‐
	     vant code.	 The specification must be placed after icmp6.	The
	     kernel considers a zero to be a wildcard but cannot distinguish
	     between a wildcard and an ICMPv6 type which is zero.  The follow‐
	     ing example shows a policy where IPSec is not required for
	     inbound Neighbor Solicitations:

		   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;

	     NOTE: upperspec does not work in the forwarding case at this
	     moment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node, which
	     is not implemented at this moment.	 Although there are many pro‐
	     tocols in /etc/protocols, protocols other than TCP, UDP and ICMP
	     may not be suitable to use with IPsec.

     policy  policy is expressed in one of the following three formats:

	   -P direction discard
	   -P direction none
	   -P direction ipsec protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

	     The direction of a policy must be specified as one of: out, in,
	     discard, none, or ipsec.  The discard direction means that pack‐
	     ets matching the supplied indices will be discarded while none
	     means that IPsec operations will not take place on the packet and
	     ipsec means that IPsec operation will take place onto the packet.
	     The protocol/mode/src-dst/level statement gives the rule for how
	     to process the packet.  The protocol is specified as ah, esp or
	     ipcomp.  The mode is either transport or tunnel.  If mode is
	     tunnel, you must specify the end-point addresses of the SA as src
	     and dst with a dash, ‘-’, between the addresses.  If mode is
	     transport, both src and dst can be omitted.  The level is one of
	     the following: default, use, require or unique.  If the SA is not
	     available in every level, the kernel will request the SA from the
	     key exchange daemon.  A value of default tells the kernel to use
	     the system wide default protocol e.g. the one from the
	     esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when the kernel processes the
	     packet.  A value of use means that the kernel will use an SA if
	     it is available, otherwise the kernel will pass the packet as it
	     would normally.  A value of require means that an SA is required
	     whenever the kernel sends a packet matched that matches the pol‐
	     icy.  The unique level is the same as require but, in addition,
	     it allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound SA.	 For
	     example, if you specify the policy level unique, racoon(8) will
	     configure the SA for the policy.  If you configure the SA by man‐
	     ual keying for that policy, you can put the decimal number as the
	     policy identifier after unique separated by colon ‘:’ as in the
	     following example: unique:number.	In order to bind this policy
	     to the SA, number must be between 1 and 32767, which corresponds
	     to extensions -u of manual SA configuration.

	     When you want to use an SA bundle, you can define multiple rules.
	     For example, if an IP header was followed by an AH header fol‐
	     lowed by an ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol
	     header, the rule would be:
		   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
	     The rule order is very important.

	     Note that “discard” and “none” are not in the syntax described in
	     ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are small, but important, differences
	     in the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3) for details.

ALGORITHMS
     The following list shows the supported algorithms.	 The protocol and
     algorithm are almost completely orthogonal.  The following list of
     authentication algorithms can be used as aalgo in the -A aalgo of the
     protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   hmac-md5	   128		   ah: rfc2403
			   128		   ah-old: rfc2085
	   hmac-sha1	   160		   ah: rfc2404
			   160		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   keyed-md5	   128		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   128		   ah-old: rfc1828
	   keyed-sha1	   160		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   160		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   null		   0 to 2048	   for debugging
	   hmac-sha2-256   256		   ah: 96bit ICV
					   (draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-sha-256-00)
			   256		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-384   384		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   384		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-512   512		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   512		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-ripemd160  160		   ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
					   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   aes-xcbc-mac	   128		   ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
			   128		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   tcp-md5	   8 to 640	   tcp: rfc2385

     The following is the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as
     the ealgo in the -E ealgo of the protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   des-cbc	   64		   esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
	   3des-cbc	   192		   rfc2451
	   null		   0 to 2048	   rfc2410
	   blowfish-cbc	   40 to 448	   rfc2451
	   cast128-cbc	   40 to 128	   rfc2451
	   des-deriv	   64		   ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
	   3des-deriv	   192		   no document
	   rijndael-cbc	   128/192/256	   rfc3602
	   aes-ctr	   160/224/288	   draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03
	   camllia-cbc	   128/192/256	   rfc4312

     Note that the first 128/192/256 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as
     AES key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.

     The following are the list of compression algorithms that can be used as
     the calgo in the -C calgo of the protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   comment
	   deflate	   rfc2394

EXIT STATUS
     The setkey utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

EXAMPLES
     Add an ESP SA between two IPv6 addresses using the des-cbc encryption
     algorithm.

     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
	     -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     Add an authentication SA between two FQDN specified hosts:

     add -6 myhost.example.com yourhost.example.com ah 123456
	     -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     Use both ESP and AH between two numerically specified hosts:

     add 10.0.11.41 10.0.11.33 esp 0x10001
	     -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
	     -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     Get the SA information associated with first example above:

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     Flush all entries from the database:

     flush ;

     Dump the ESP entries from the database:

     dump esp ;

     Add a security policy between two networks that uses ESP in tunnel mode:

     spdadd 10.0.11.41/32[21] 10.0.11.33/32[any] any
	     -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/192.168.0.1-192.168.1.2/require ;

     Use TCP MD5 between two numerically specified hosts:

     add 10.1.10.34 10.1.10.36 tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;

SEE ALSO
     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec, October 1999,
     http://www.kame.net/newsletter/19991007/.

HISTORY
     The setkey utility first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The utility was completely re-designed in June 1998.

BUGS
     The setkey utility should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets (can‐
     not inspect upper-layer headers).

BSD				 May 13, 2006				   BSD
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