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SND_HDA(4)		 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		    SND_HDA(4)

     snd_hda — Intel High Definition Audio bridge device driver

     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device sound
	   device snd_hda

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):


     The High Definition (HD) Audio specification was developed by Intel as
     the logical successor of the old AC'97 specification and has several
     advantages, such as higher bandwidth which allows more channels and more
     detailed formats, support for several logical audio devices, and general
     purpose DMA channels.

     The snd_hda driver is a HDA bus controller driver and HDA codecs audio
     functions bridge driver that allows the generic audio driver, sound(4),
     to be used with this hardware.  Only audio functions are supported by
     snd_hda.  Modem and other possible functions are not implemented.

     The snd_hda driver supports hardware that conforms with revision 1.0 of
     the Intel High Definition Audio specification and tries to behave much
     like the Microsoft Universal Audio Architecture (UAA) draft (revision
     0.7b) for handling audio devices.

     According to HDA and UAA specifications, depending on the number of HDA
     buses and codecs present in system, their audio capabilities and BIOS
     provided configuration, the snd_hda driver often provides several PCM
     audio devices.  For example, one device for main rear 7.1 output and
     inputs, one device for independent headset connectors at front and one
     device for SPDIF or HDMI audio input/output.  The assignment of audio
     inputs and outputs may be tuned with device.hints(5).  The driver's ver‐
     bose boot messages provide a lot of information about the operation of
     the driver and present audio setup.

     The default audio device may be tuned by setting the hw.snd.default_unit
     sysctl, as described in sound(4), or explicitly specified in application

   Boot-time Configuration
     The following variables are available at boot-time through the
     device.hints(5) file:

	   hint.hdac.%d.config	Configures a range of possible options.	 Pos‐
				sible values are: “dmapos”, “eapdinv”,
				“gpio0”, “gpio1”, “gpio2”, “gpio3”, “gpio4”,
				“gpio5”, “gpio6”, “gpio7”, “gpioflush”,
				“ivref”, “ivref50”, “ivref80”, “ivref100”,
				“fixedrate”, “forcestereo”, “ovref”,
				“ovref50”, “ovref80”, “ovref100”, “senseinv”,
				“softpcmvol”, and “vref”.  An option prefixed
				with “no”, such as “nofixedrate”, will do the
				opposite and takes precedence.	Options can be
				separated by whitespace and commas.

				“GPIOs” are a codec's General Purpose I/O pins
				which system integrators sometimes use to con‐
				trol external muters, amplifiers and so on.
				If you have no sound, or sound volume is not
				adequate, you may have to experiment a bit
				with the GPIO setup to find the optimal setup
				for your system.

				The “ivrefX” and “ovrefX” options control the
				voltage used to power external microphones.

	   hint.hdac.%d.msi	Controls MSI (Message Signaled Interrupts)

				Overrides codec pin configuration set by BIOS.
				May be specified as a 32-bit hexadecimal value
				with a leading “0x”, or as a set of space-sep‐
				arated “option=value” pairs.

     Pin configuration is the UAA driver's main source of information about
     codec usage.  This information is usually provided by the codec manufac‐
     turer and tuned by system integrators for specific system requirements.
     The snd_hda driver allows users to override it to fix integrator mistakes
     or to use the available codec in alternative ways (for example to get
     stereo output and 2 inputs instead of a single 5.1 output).

     The following options are supported:

	   as	    Association number.	 Associations are used to group indi‐
		    vidual pins to form a complex multi-pin device.  For exam‐
		    ple, to group 4 connectors for 7.1 output, or to treat
		    several input connectors as sources for the same input
		    device.  Association numbers can be specified as numeric
		    values from 0 to 15.  A value of 0 means disabled pin.  A
		    value of 15 is a set of independent unassociated pins.
		    Each association includes only pins of the same direction
		    (in/out) and is detected atomically (all pins or none).  A
		    separate PCM audio device is created for every pair of
		    input and output associations.

	   seq	    Sequence number.  A unique, per-association number used to
		    order pins inside the particular association.  Sequence
		    numbers can be specified as numeric values from 0 to 15.

		    For output assotiations sequence numbers encode speaker
		    pairs positions: 0 - Front, 1 - Center/LFE, 2 - Back, 3 -
		    Front Wide Center, 4 - Side.  Standard combinations are:
		    (0) - Stereo; (0, 2), (0, 4) - Quadro; (0, 1, 2), (0, 1,
		    4) - 5.1; (0, 1, 2, 4) - 7.1.

		    The sequence number 15 has a special meaning for output
		    associations.  Output pins with this number and device
		    type “Headphones” will duplicate (with automatic mute if
		    jack detection is supported) the first pin in that associ‐

	   device   Device type.  Can be specified as a number from 0 to 15 or
		    as a name: “Line-out”, “Speaker”, “Headphones,” “CD”,
		    “SPDIF-out”, “Digital-out”, “Modem-line”, “Modem-handset”,
		    “Line-in”, “AUX”, “Mic”, “Telephony”, “SPDIF-in”,
		    “Digital-in”, “Res.E”, or “Other”.	The device type also
		    describes the pin direction (in/out).  For example, “CD”
		    always means an input pin, while “Headphones” always means
		    an output.

	   conn	    Connection type.  Can be specified as a number from 0 to
		    3.	The connection type can also be specified as one of
		    the special names “Jack”, “None”, “Fixed”, or “Both”.
		    Pins with a connection type of “None” are disabled.

	   ctype    Connector physical type.  Can be specified as a number
		    from 0 to 15.  This is a reference only value.  It is
		    ignored by the snd_hda driver.

	   color    Connector color.  Can be specified as a number from 0 to
		    15 or as one of the names “Unknown”, “Black”, “Grey”,
		    “Blue”, “Green”, “Red”, “Orange”, “Yellow”, “Purple”,
		    “Pink”, “Res.A”, “Res.B”, “Res.C”, “Res.D”, “White”, or
		    “Other”.  This is a reference only value.  It is ignored
		    by the snd_hda driver.

	   loc	    Connector physical location.  Can be specified as a number
		    from 0 to 63.  This is a reference only value.  It is
		    ignored by the snd_hda driver.

	   misc	    Misc bits.	Can be specified as a number from 0 to 15.
		    Bit 0 has a special meaning.  When set it means that jack
		    detection is not implemented in hardware.

   Runtime Configuration
     The following sysctl(8) variables are available in addition to those
     available to all sound(4) devices:

	   dev.hdac.%d.polling	Enables polling mode.  In this mode the driver
				operates by querying the device state on timer
				ticks using callout(9) instead of interrupts.
				Polling is disabled by default.	 Do not enable
				it unless you are facing weird interrupt prob‐
				lems or if the device cannot generate inter‐
				rupts at all.

				Controller/Jack Sense polling interval (1-1000

	   dev.hdac.%d.pindump	Setting this to a non-zero value dumps the
				current pin configuration, main capabilities
				and jack sense status to console and syslog.

     Taking HP Compaq DX2300 with Realtek ALC888 HDA codec for example.	 This
     system has two audio connectors on a front side, three audio connectors
     on a rear side and one internal speaker.  According to verbose driver
     output and the codec datasheet, this codec has five stereo DACs and two
     stereo ADCs, all of them are routable to any codec pin (external connec‐
     tor).  All codec pins are reversible (could be configured either as input
     or output).

     So high codec uniformity and flexibility allow driver to configure it in
     many different ways, depending on requested pins usage decribed by pins
     configuration.  The driver reports such default pin configuration when
     verbose messages enabled:

     hdac0: nid 20 0x01014020 as  2 seq	 0   Line-out  Jack jack 1 loc	1 color	  Green misc 0
     hdac0: nid 21 0x99130110 as  1 seq	 0    Speaker Fixed jack 3 loc 25 color Unknown misc 1
     hdac0: nid 22 0x411111f0 as 15 seq	 0    Speaker  None jack 1 loc	1 color	  Black misc 1
     hdac0: nid 23 0x411111f0 as 15 seq	 0    Speaker  None jack 1 loc	1 color	  Black misc 1
     hdac0: nid 24 0x01a19830 as  3 seq	 0	  Mic  Jack jack 1 loc	1 color	   Pink misc 8
     hdac0: nid 25 0x02a1983f as  3 seq 15	  Mic  Jack jack 1 loc	2 color	   Pink misc 8
     hdac0: nid 26 0x01813031 as  3 seq	 1    Line-in  Jack jack 1 loc	1 color	   Blue misc 0
     hdac0: nid 27 0x0221401f as  1 seq 15 Headphones  Jack jack 1 loc	2 color	  Green misc 0
     hdac0: nid 28 0x411111f0 as 15 seq	 0    Speaker  None jack 1 loc	1 color	  Black misc 1
     hdac0: nid 30 0x411111f0 as 15 seq	 0    Speaker  None jack 1 loc	1 color	  Black misc 1
     hdac0: nid 31 0x411111f0 as 15 seq	 0    Speaker  None jack 1 loc	1 color	  Black misc 1

     Here we can see, that the nodes with ID (nid) 25 and 27 are front panel
     connectors (Jack, loc 2), nids 20, 24 and 26 are rear panel connectors
     (Jack, loc 1) and nid 21 is a built-in speaker (Fixed, loc 25).  Pins
     with nids 22, 23, 28, 30 and 31 will be disabled by driver due to "None"
     connectivity. So the pin count and description matches to connectors that
     we have.

     Using association (as) and sequence (seq) fields values pins are grouped
     into 3 associations:

     hdac0: Association 0 (1) out:
     hdac0:   Pin nid=21 seq=0
     hdac0:   Pin nid=27 seq=15
     hdac0: Association 1 (2) out:
     hdac0:   Pin nid=20 seq=0
     hdac0: Association 2 (3) in:
     hdac0:   Pin nid=24 seq=0
     hdac0:   Pin nid=26 seq=1
     hdac0:   Pin nid=25 seq=15

     Each pcm(4) device uses two associations: one for playback and one for
     recording.	 Associations processed and assigned to pcm(4) devices in
     increasing numerical order.  In this case association #0 (1) will become
     pcm0 device playback, using the internal speakers and Headphones jack
     with speaker automute on the headphones jack connection.  Association #1
     (2) will become pcm1 playback, using the Line-out jack.  Association #2
     (3) will become pcm0 recording, using the external microphones and the
     Line-in jack.

     The snd_hda driver provides extensive verbose messages to diagnose its
     operation logic and describe its current codec configuration.

     Using device.hints(5) it is possible to modify the configuration of the
     existing pins, allowing a broad range of different audio setups.  Here
     are a few examples of some setups possible for this particular hardware:

   Example 1
     Setting the device.hints(5) options


     will swap line-out and speaker functions.	So the pcm0 device will play
     to the line-out and headphones jacks. Line-out will be muted on the head‐
     phones jack connection.  Recording on pcm0 will go from two external
     microphones and line-in jacks.  pcm1 playback will go to the internal

   Example 2
     Setting the device.hints(5) options

     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid20.config="as=1 seq=15 device=Headphones"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid27.config="as=2 seq=0"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid25.config="as=4 seq=0"

     will split the headphones and one of the microphones to a separate
     device.  The pcm0 device will play to the internal speaker and to the
     line-out jack, with speaker automute on the line-out jack connection.
     Recording on pcm0 will use input from one external microphone and the
     line-in jacks.  The pcm1 device will be completely dedicated to a headset
     (headphones and mic) connected to the front connectors.

   Example 3
     Setting the device.hints(5) options

     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid20.config="as=1 seq=0"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid26.config="as=2 seq=0"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid27.config="as=3 seq=0"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid25.config="as=4 seq=0"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid24.config="as=5 seq=0 device=Line-out"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid21.config="as=6 seq=0"

     will give 4 independent devices: pcm0 (line-out and line-in), pcm1
     (headphones and mic), pcm2 (additional line-out via retasked rear mic
     jack), and pcm3 (internal speaker).

   Example 4
     Setting the device.hints(5) options

     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid20.config="as=1 seq=0"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid24.config="as=1 seq=1 device=Line-out"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid26.config="as=1 seq=2 device=Line-out"
     hint.hdac.0.cad0.nid21.config="as=2 seq=0"

     will give 2 devices: pcm0 for 5.1 playback via 3 rear connectors (line-
     out and retasked mic and line-in) and headset (headphones and mic) at
     front connectors.	pcm1 for internal speaker playback.  On headphones
     connection rear connectors will be muted.

     Depending on codec configuration, these controls and signal sources could
     be reported to sound(4):

	   vol	    overall output level (volume)

	   rec	    overall recording level

	   igain    input-to-output monitoring loopback level

	   ogain    external amplifier control

	   pcm	    PCM playback

	   mix	    input mix

	   mic	    first external or second internal microphone input

	   monitor  first internal or second external microphone input

	   line, line1, line2, line3
		    analog (line) inputs

	   dig1, dig2, dig3
		    digital (S/PDIF, HDMI or DisplayPort) inputs

	   cd	    CD input

	   speaker  PC speaker input

	   phin, phout, radio. video
		    other random inputs

     Controls have different precision. Some could be just an on/off triggers.
     Most of controls use logarithmic scale.

     The snd_hda driver supports many Intel HDA compatible audio chipsets
     including the following:

     ·	 ATI SB450
     ·	 ATI SB600
     ·	 Intel 631x/632xESB
     ·	 Intel 82801F (ICH6)
     ·	 Intel 82801G (ICH7)
     ·	 Intel 82801H (ICH8)
     ·	 Intel 82801I (ICH9)
     ·	 Intel 82801J (ICH10)
     ·	 Intel US15W (SCH)
     ·	 nVidia MCP51
     ·	 nVidia MCP55
     ·	 nVidia MCP61A
     ·	 nVidia MCP61B
     ·	 nVidia MCP63
     ·	 nVidia MCP65A
     ·	 nVidia MCP65B
     ·	 nVidia MCP67A
     ·	 nVidia MCP67B
     ·	 nVidia MCP68
     ·	 nVidia MCP69
     ·	 nVidia MCP73
     ·	 nVidia MCP78
     ·	 nVidia MCP79
     ·	 nVidia MCP89
     ·	 SiS 966
     ·	 VIA VT8251/8237A

     The following and many other codecs have been verified to work:

     ·	 Analog Devices AD1981HD
     ·	 Analog Devices AD1983
     ·	 Analog Devices AD1984
     ·	 Analog Devices AD1986A
     ·	 Analog Devices AD1988
     ·	 Analog Devices AD1988B
     ·	 CMedia CMI9880
     ·	 Conexant CX20549 (Venice)
     ·	 Conexant CX20551 (Waikiki)
     ·	 Conexant CX20561 (Hermosa)
     ·	 Realtek ALC260
     ·	 Realtek ALC262
     ·	 Realtek ALC268
     ·	 Realtek ALC660
     ·	 Realtek ALC861
     ·	 Realtek ALC861VD
     ·	 Realtek ALC880
     ·	 Realtek ALC882
     ·	 Realtek ALC883
     ·	 Realtek ALC885
     ·	 Realtek ALC888
     ·	 Realtek ALC889
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9205
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9220
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9220D / 9223D
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9221
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9221D
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9227D
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9227X
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9228D
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9228X
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9229D
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9229X
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9230D
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9230X
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9271D
     ·	 Sigmatel STAC9872AK
     ·	 VIA VT1708
     ·	 VIA VT1708B
     ·	 VIA VT1709

     sound(4), snd_ich(4), device.hints(5), loader.conf(5), sysctl(8)

     The snd_hda device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 6.3.

     The snd_hda driver was written by Stephane E. Potvin
     ⟨⟩, Ariff Abdullah ⟨⟩ and Alexander
     Motin ⟨⟩.  This manual page was written by Joel Dahl
     ⟨⟩, Alexander Motin ⟨⟩ and Giorgos
     Keramidas ⟨⟩.

     A few Hardware/OEM vendors tend to screw up BIOS settings, thus rendering
     the snd_hda driver useless, which usually results in a state where the
     snd_hda driver seems to attach and work, but without any sound. Some of
     that cases can be solved by tuning loader.conf variables. But before try‐
     ing to fix problem that way, make sure that problem is really exists and
     the PCM audio device you are using really corresponds to expected audio

     Some vendors use non-standardized General Purpose I/O (GPIO) pins of
     codec to control external amplifiers. In some cases setting proper combi‐
     nation of GPIO bits may be needed to make sound work on specific device.

     HDMI and DisplayPort audio may also require support from video driver.

BSD			       January 22, 2010				   BSD

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