snmpusm man page on Oracle

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SNMPUSM(1)			   Net-SNMP			    SNMPUSM(1)

       snmpusm - creates and maintains SNMPv3 users on a network entity

       snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] [-Cw] AGENT create USER [CLONEFROM-USER]
       snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] AGENT delete USER
       snmpusm	[COMMON	 OPTIONS] [-Ca] [-Cx] AGENT passwd OLD-PASSPHRASE NEW-
       snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] <-Ca  |	 -Cx>  -Ck  AGENT  passwd  OLD-KEY-OR-
       snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] [-Ca] [-Cx] AGENT changekey [USER]

       snmpusm	is  an	SNMP application that can be used to do simple mainte‐
       nance on the users known to an SNMP agent, by manipulating the  agent's
       User-based Security Module (USM) table.	The user needs write access to
       the usmUserTable MIB table.  This tool can be used to  create,  delete,
       clone,  and change the passphrase of users configured on a running SNMP

       Common options for all snmpusm commands:

       -CE ENGINE-ID
	      Set usmUserEngineID to be used as	 part  of  the	index  of  the
	      usmUserTable.  Default is to use the contextEngineID (set via -E
	      or probed) as the usmUserEngineID.

       -Cp STRING
	      Set the usmUserPublic value of the (new) user to	the  specified

       Options for the passwd and changekey commands:

       -Ca    Change the authentication key.

       -Cx    Change the privacy key.

       -Ck    Allows  one to use localized key (must start with 0x) instead of
	      passphrase.  When this option is used, either  the  -Ca  or  -Cx
	      option (but not both) must also be used.

       An unauthenticated SNMPv3 user can be created using the command

	      snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] AGENT create USER

       This  constructs	 an  (inactive)	 entry	in  the	 usmUserTable, with no
       authentication or privacy settings.  In principle, this user should  be
       useable for 'noAuthNoPriv' requests, but in practise the Net-SNMP agent
       will not allow such an entry to be made active.	The user can  be  cre‐
       ated  via  the  createAndWait  operation instead by using the -Ca flag.
       This will prevent the user from being marked as	active	in  any	 agent
       until explicitly activated later via the activate command.

       In order to activate this entry, it is necessary to "clone" an existing
       user, using the command


       The USER entry then inherits the same authentication and	 privacy  set‐
       tings (including pass phrases) as the CLONEFROM user.

       These two steps can be combined into one, by using the command


       The  two	 forms	of  the create sub-command require that the user being
       created does not already exist.	 The  cloneFrom	 sub-command  requires
       that the user being cloned to does already exist.

       Cloning	is  the	 only  way to specify which authentication and privacy
       protocols to use for a given user, and it is only possible to  do  this
       once.  Subsequent attempts to reclone onto the same user will appear to
       succeed, but will be silently ignored.  This (somewhat unexpected)  be‐
       haviour	is  mandated  by the SNMPv3 USM specifications (RFC 3414).  To
       change the authentication and privacy settings for a given user, it  is
       necessary to delete and recreate the user entry.	 This is not necessary
       for simply changing the pass phrases (see below).  This means that  the
       agent  must  be initialized with at least one user for each combination
       of authentication and privacy protocols.	 See the snmpd.conf(5)	manual
       page for details of the createUser configuration directive.

       A user can be deleted from the usmUserTable using the command

	      snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] AGENT delete USER

       User  profiles contain private keys that are never transmitted over the
       wire in clear text (regardless of whether the  administration  requests
       are encrypted or not).  To change the secret key for a user, it is nec‐
       essary to specify the user's old passphrase as well  as	the  new  one.
       This uses the command

	      snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] [-Ca] [-Cx] AGENT passwd OLD-PASSPHRASE

       After cloning a new user	 entry	from  the  appropriate	template,  you
       should immediately change the new user's passphrase.

       If  USER	 is  not specified, this command will change the passphrase of
       the (SNMPv3) user issuing the command.  If the -Ca or -Cx  options  are
       specified,  then	 only  the authentication or privacy keys are changed.
       If these options are not specified, then both  the  authentication  and
       privacy keys are changed.

	      snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] [-Ca] [-Cx] AGENT changekey [USER]

       This command changes the key in a perfect-forward-secrecy compliant way
       through a diffie-helman exchange.  The remote agent  must  support  the
       SNMP-USM-DH-OBJECTS-MIB	for  this command to work.  The resulting keys
       are printed to the console and may be then set in future command	 invo‐
       cations	 using	the  --defAuthLocalizedKey  and	 --defPrivLocalizedKey
       options or in your snmp.conf file  using	 the  defAuthLocalizedKey  and
       defPrivLocalizedKey keywords.

       Note  that  since  these	 keys are randomly generated based on a diffie
       helman exchange, they are no longer derived from a  more	 easily	 typed
       password.  They are, however, much more secure.

       To  change from a localized key back to a password, the following vari‐
       ant of the passwd sub-command is used:

	      snmpusm [COMMON OPTIONS] <-Ca | -Cx> -Ck AGENT  passwd  OLD-KEY-

       Either  the  -Ca	 or the -Cx option must be specified.  The OLD-KEY-OR-
       PASSPHRASE and/or  NEW-KEY-OR-PASSPHRASE	 arguments  can	 either	 be  a
       passphrase  or  a localized key starting with "0x", e.g. as printed out
       by the changekey sub-command.

       Note that snmpusm REQUIRES  an argument specifying the agent  to	 query
       as described in the .I snmpcmd(1) manual page.

       Let's  assume for our examples that the following VACM and USM configu‐
       rations lines were in the snmpd.conf file for a Net-SNMP agent.	 These
       lines  set  up  a default user called "initial" with the authentication
       passphrase "setup_passphrase" so that we can perform the initial	 setup
       of an agent:

	      # VACM configuration entries
	      rwuser initial
	      # lets add the new user we'll create too:
	      rwuser wes
	      # USM configuration entries
	      createUser initial MD5 setup_passphrase DES

       Note:  the  "initial"  user's  setup should be removed after creating a
       real user that you grant administrative privileges to  (like  the  user
       "wes" we'll be creating in this example.

       Note: passphrases must be 8 characters minimum in length.

   Create a new user
       snmpusm	-v3  -u initial -n "" -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -A setup_passphrase
       localhost create wes initial

	      Creates a new user, here named "wes" using the user "initial" to
	      do  it.	"wes"  is  cloned from "initial" in the process, so he
	      inherits that user's passphrase ("setup_passphrase").

   Change the user's passphrase
       snmpusm -v 3 -u wes -n "" -l  authNoPriv	 -a  MD5  -A  setup_passphrase
       localhost passwd setup_passphrase new_passphrase

	      After  creating  the  user "wes" with the same passphrase as the
	      "initial" user, we need to change his passphrase for  him.   The
	      above  command  changes  it  from	 "setup_passphrase", which was
	      inherited from the initial user, to "new_passphrase".

   Test the new user
       snmpget -v 3 -u wes -n "" -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -A new_passphrase local‐
       host sysUpTime.0

	      If  the above commands were successful, this command should have
	      properly performed an authenticated SNMPv3 GET  request  to  the

       Now, go remove the vacm "group" snmpd.conf entry for the "initial" user
       and you have a valid user 'wes' that you can use	 for  future  transac‐
       tions instead of initial.

       Manipulating the usmUserTable using this command can only be done using
       SNMPv3.	This command will not work with the community-based  versions,
       even if they have write access to the table.

       snmpd.conf(5), snmp.conf(5), RFC 3414

V5.7.2				  11 Dec 2009			    SNMPUSM(1)

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