socket man page on HP-UX

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socket(2)							     socket(2)

       socket() - create an endpoint for communication

   AF_CCITT Only
       The  system  call  creates  an endpoint for communication and returns a
       descriptor.  The socket descriptor returned is used in  all  subsequent
       socket-related system calls.

       The  af	parameter  specifies an address family to be used to interpret
       addresses in later operations that specify the socket.	These  address
       families	 are  defined in the include files and The only currently sup‐
       ported address families are:

	      AF_INET		  (DARPA Internet addresses)
	      AF_INET6		  (Internet Protocol version 6)
	      AF_ROUTE		  (routing messages followed by IPv4  or  IPv6
	      AF_UNIX		  (path names on a local node)
	      AF_CCITT		  (CCITT X.25 addresses)
	      AF_VME_LINK	  (backplane communications on VMEbus)

       The type specifies the semantics of communication for the socket.  Cur‐
       rently defined types are:

	      SOCK_STREAM	  Sequenced,   reliable,   two-way-connection-
				  based byte streams.

	      SOCK_DGRAM	  Datagrams  (connectionless,  unreliable mes‐
				  sages of a fixed, typically  small,  maximum

       protocol	 specifies  a  particular protocol to be used with the socket.
       Normally, only a single protocol exists to support a particular	socket
       type  using a given address family.  However, many protocols may exist,
       in which case a particular protocol must be  specified.	 The  protocol
       number  to  use depends on the communication domain in which communica‐
       tion is to take place (see services(4) and protocols(4)).  protocol can
       be specified as zero, which causes the system to choose a protocol type
       to use.

       Sockets of type SOCK_STREAM are byte streams similar to	pipes,	except
       that they are full-duplex instead of half-duplex.  A stream socket must
       be in a connected state before any data can be sent or received on  it.
       A  connection  to  another socket is created with a or call.  Once con‐
       nected, data can be transferred using some variant of the  and  or  the
       and  calls.   When a session is complete, use or calls to terminate the

       TCP, the communications protocol	 used  to  implement  SOCK_STREAM  for
       AF_INET	or  AF_INET6  sockets, ensures that data is not lost or dupli‐
       cated.  If a peer has buffer space for data and the data cannot be suc‐
       cessfully  transmitted  within a reasonable length of time, the connec‐
       tion is considered broken and the next call indicates an error with set
       to  If  is  set and the connection has been idle for two hours, the TCP
       protocol sends  "keepalive"  packets  every  75	seconds	 to  determine
       whether	the connection is active.  These transmissions are not visible
       to users and cannot be read by a call.  If the remote system  does  not
       respond within 10 minutes (after 8 "keepalive" packets have been sent),
       the next socket call returns an error with set to A signal is raised if
       a  process  sends on a broken stream.  This causes naive processes that
       do not handle the signal to exit.  An end-of-file condition (zero bytes
       read) is returned if a process tries to read on a broken stream.

       SOCK_DGRAM sockets allow sending of messages to correspondents named in
       calls.  It is also possible to receive messages at such a socket with

       The operation of sockets is controlled by socket level options  set  by
       the  system  call  described  by the getsockopt(2) manual entry.	 These
       options are defined in the file and explained in the getsockopt(2) man‐
       ual entry.

   X.25 Only
       Socket  endpoints  for  communication  over an X.25/9000 link can be in
       either address family, AF_INET or AF_CCITT.  If the socket  is  in  the
       AF_INET family, the connection behaves as described above.  TCP is used
       if the socket type is SOCK_STREAM.  UDP is used if the socket  type  is
       SOCK_DGRAM.   In	 both cases, Internet protocol (IP) and the X.25-to-IP
       interface module are used.

       If the socket is in the AF_CCITT address family, only  the  SOCK_STREAM
       socket  type  is supported.  Refer to the topic "Comparing X.25 Level 3
       Access to IP" in the for more details on the  difference	 between  pro‐
       grammatic access to X.25 via IP and X.25 Level 3.

       If  the	socket is in the AF_CCITT family, the connection and all other
       operations pass data directly from the application to the  X.25	Packet
       Level (level 3) without passing through a TCP or UDP protocol.  Connec‐
       tions of the AF_CCITT family  cannot  use  most	of  the	 socket	 level
       options	described in getsockopt(2).  However, AF_CCITT connections can
       use many X.25-specific calls.

   X/Open Sockets Compilation Environment
       See xopen_networking(7).

       Only the SOCK_STREAM type is supported.

   SCTP Only
       Stream Control Transmission Protocol  (SCTP)  provides  two  styles  of
       interfaces  for applications that want to communicate using SCTP as the
       transport protocol:  one-to-one and one-to-many.	 The one-to-one	 style
       is  similar  to	TCP mode of operation whereas the one-to-many style is
       similar to the UDP mode of operation.

       Applications can create a one-to-one style socket using	the  following


       To create a one-to-many style socket, the syntax is:


       The  first  form for both styles creates an endpoint which can use only
       IPv4 addresses.	The second form creates an endpoint which can use both
       IPv6 and IPv4 addresses.	 For more details, see sctp(7).

       Note:  SCTP  is	only  available	 when  the  SCTP  optional  bundle  is

       returns the following values:

	      Successful completion.
		     n is a valid file descriptor referring to the socket.
		     is set to indicate the error.

       If fails, is set to one of the following values.

	      The specified address family
				       is not supported in this version of the

	      The networking subsystem is not up.

	      SOCK_DGRAM sockets are currently not supported for the AF_UNIX
				       or AF_VME_LINK address families.

	      The per-process descriptor table is full.

	      The system's table of open files is temporarily full and no more
				       calls can be accepted.

	      No buffer space is available.
				       The socket cannot be created.

	      No memory is available.  The socket cannot be created.

	      The specified protocol is not supported.

	      The type of socket and protocol do not match.

	      The  specified socket type is not supported in this address fam‐

	      Connection timed out.

       Not all possible values are documented in each socket  related  manpage
       due to dependencies from the underlying protocol modules.  Refer to the
       errno(2) manpage for a complete list of error codes.

       Linking binary objects compiled to  specification  and  binary  objects
       compiled	 to  specification  to the same executable may result in unex‐
       pected behavior, including application abnormal termination  and	 unex‐
       pected socket errors.  See xopen_networking(7) for details and remedy.

       Currently,  the default behavior is the however, it might be changed to
       in a future release.  At that time, any behavior that  is  incompatible
       with might be obsoleted.	 Applications that conform to the X/Open spec‐
       ification now will avoid migration problems (see xopen_networking(7)).

       was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley.

       accept(2),   bind(2),   connect(2),   getsockname(2),	getsockopt(2),
       ioctl(2),  listen(2),  recv(2), select(2), send(2), shutdown(2), privi‐
       leges(5), thread_safety(5),  route(7P),	socket(7),  sctp(7),  TCP(7P),
       UDP(7P), UNIX(7P), xopen_networking(7).


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