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string(n)		     Tcl Built-In Commands		     string(n)

______________________________________________________________________________

NAME
       string - Manipulate strings

SYNOPSIS
       string option arg ?arg ...?
_________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION
       Performs	 one  of  several string operations, depending on option.  The
       legal options (which may be abbreviated) are:

       string bytelength string
	      Returns a decimal string giving the number of bytes used to rep‐
	      resent  string in memory.	 Because UTF-8 uses one to three bytes
	      to represent Unicode characters, the byte length will not be the
	      same  as	the  character	length	in general.  The cases where a
	      script cares about the byte length  are  rare.   In  almost  all
	      cases,  you  should  use	the string length operation (including
	      determining the length of a Tcl ByteArray object).  Refer to the
	      Tcl_NumUtfChars  manual entry for more details on the UTF-8 rep‐
	      resentation.

       string compare ?-nocase? ?-length int? string1 string2
	      Perform a character-by-character comparison of  strings  string1
	      and  string2.  Returns -1, 0, or 1, depending on whether string1
	      is lexicographically  less  than,	 equal	to,  or	 greater  than
	      string2.	 If  -length  is specified, then only the first length
	      characters are used in the comparison.  If -length is  negative,
	      it  is  ignored.	 If -nocase is specified, then the strings are
	      compared in a case-insensitive manner.

       string equal ?-nocase? ?-length int? string1 string2
	      Perform a character-by-character comparison of  strings  string1
	      and string2.  Returns 1 if string1 and string2 are identical, or
	      0 when not.  If -length is specified, then only the first length
	      characters  are used in the comparison.  If -length is negative,
	      it is ignored.  If -nocase is specified, then  the  strings  are
	      compared in a case-insensitive manner.

       string first string1 string2 ?startIndex?
	      Search  string2  for a sequence of characters that exactly match
	      the characters in string1.  If found, return the	index  of  the
	      first  character in the first such match within string2.	If not
	      found, return -1.	 If startIndex is specified  (in  any  of  the
	      forms  accepted  by  the	index method), then the search is con‐
	      strained to start with the character in string2 specified by the
	      index.  For example,
		     string first a 0a23456789abcdef 5
	      will return 10, but
		     string first a 0123456789abcdef 11
	      will return -1.

       string index string charIndex
	      Returns  the  charIndex'th  character of the string argument.  A
	      charIndex of 0 corresponds to the first character of the string.
	      charIndex may be specified as follows:

	      integer	The char specified at this integral index.

	      end	The last char of the string.

	      end-integer
			The  last char of the string minus the specified inte‐
			ger offset (e.g. end-1	would  refer  to  the  "c"  in
			"abcd").

	      If  charIndex  is	 less  than  0 or greater than or equal to the
	      length of the string then an empty string is returned.

       string is class ?-strict? ?-failindex varname? string
	      Returns 1 if string is a valid member of the specified character
	      class,  otherwise	 returns  0.  If -strict is specified, then an
	      empty string returns 0, otherwise and empty string will return 1
	      on  any class.  If -failindex is specified, then if the function
	      returns 0, the index in the string where the class was no longer
	      valid will be stored in the variable named varname.  The varname
	      will not be set if the function returns 1.  The following	 char‐
	      acter  classes  are  recognized  (the class name can be abbrevi‐
	      ated):

	      alnum	Any Unicode alphabet or digit character.

	      alpha	Any Unicode alphabet character.

	      ascii	Any character with a value  less  than	\u0080	(those
			that are in the 7-bit ascii range).

	      boolean	Any of the forms allowed to Tcl_GetBoolean.

	      control	Any Unicode control character.

	      digit	Any  Unicode digit character.  Note that this includes
			characters outside of the [0-9] range.

	      double	Any of the valid forms	for  a	double	in  Tcl,  with
			optional   surrounding	 whitespace.	In   case   of
			under/overflow in the value, 0	is  returned  and  the
			varname will contain -1.

	      false	Any  of	 the forms allowed to Tcl_GetBoolean where the
			value is false.

	      graph	Any Unicode printing character, except space.

	      integer	Any of the valid forms for a 32-bit  integer  in  Tcl,
			with  optional	surrounding  whitespace.   In  case of
			under/overflow in the value, 0	is  returned  and  the
			varname will contain -1.

	      lower	Any Unicode lower case alphabet character.

	      print	Any Unicode printing character, including space.

	      punct	Any Unicode punctuation character.

	      space	Any Unicode space character.

	      true	Any  of	 the forms allowed to Tcl_GetBoolean where the
			value is true.

	      upper	Any upper case alphabet character in the Unicode char‐
			acter set.

	      wordchar	Any  Unicode word character.  That is any alphanumeric
			character, and any Unicode connector punctuation char‐
			acters (e.g. underscore).

	      xdigit	Any hexadecimal digit character ([0-9A-Fa-f]).

	      In  the  case  of	 boolean, true and false, if the function will
	      return 0, then the varname will always be set to 0, due  to  the
	      varied nature of a valid boolean value.

       string last string1 string2 ?lastIndex?
	      Search  string2  for a sequence of characters that exactly match
	      the characters in string1.  If found, return the	index  of  the
	      first character in the last such match within string2.  If there
	      is no match, then return -1.  If lastIndex is specified (in  any
	      of  the forms accepted by the index method), then only the char‐
	      acters in string2 at or before the specified lastIndex  will  be
	      considered by the search.	 For example,
		     string last a 0a23456789abcdef 15
	      will return 10, but
		     string last a 0a23456789abcdef 9
	      will return 1.

       string length string
	      Returns  a  decimal  string  giving  the number of characters in
	      string.  Note that this is not necessarily the same as the  num‐
	      ber  of  bytes  used  to	store  the string.  If the object is a
	      ByteArray object (such as those returned from reading  a	binary
	      encoded  channel),  then this will return the actual byte length
	      of the object.

       string map ?-nocase? charMap string
	      Replaces characters in string based on the  key-value  pairs  in
	      charMap.	 charMap  is  a list of key value key value ...	 as in
	      the form returned by array get.  Each instance of a key  in  the
	      string  will  be	replaced  with	its  corresponding  value.  If
	      -nocase is specified, then matching is done  without  regard  to
	      case differences. Both key and value may be multiple characters.
	      Replacement is done in an ordered manner, so the	key  appearing
	      first  in	 the list will be checked first, and so on.  string is
	      only iterated over once, so earlier key replacements  will  have
	      no affect for later key matches.	For example,
		     string map {abc 1 ab 2 a 3 1 0} 1abcaababcabababc
	      will return the string 01321221.

       string match ?-nocase? pattern string
	      See  if  pattern	matches	 string;  return 1 if it does, 0 if it
	      doesn't.	If -nocase is specified, then the pattern attempts  to
	      match  against the string in a case insensitive manner.  For the
	      two strings to match, their contents must	 be  identical	except
	      that the following special sequences may appear in pattern:

	      *		Matches	 any sequence of characters in string, includ‐
			ing a null string.

	      ?		Matches any single character in string.

	      [chars]	Matches any character in the set given by chars.  If a
			sequence  of  the  form x-y appears in chars, then any
			character between x  and  y,  inclusive,  will	match.
			When  used  with  -nocase, the end points of the range
			are converted to lower case  first.   Whereas  {[A-z]}
			matches	 '_' when matching case-sensitively ('_' falls
			between the 'Z' and 'a'), with -nocase this is consid‐
			ered  like  {[A-Za-z]} (and probably what was meant in
			the first place).

	      \x	Matches the single character x.	 This provides	a  way
			of  avoiding the special interpretation of the charac‐
			ters *?[]\ in pattern.

       string range string first last
	      Returns a range of consecutive characters from string,  starting
	      with  the	 character  whose  index  is first and ending with the
	      character whose index is last. An index of 0 refers to the first
	      character of the string.	first and last may be specified as for
	      the index method.	 If first is less than zero then it is treated
	      as  if it were zero, and if last is greater than or equal to the
	      length of the string then it is treated as if it were  end.   If
	      first is greater than last then an empty string is returned.

       string repeat string count
	      Returns string repeated count number of times.

       string replace string first last ?newstring?
	      Removes  a range of consecutive characters from string, starting
	      with the character whose index is	 first	and  ending  with  the
	      character	 whose	index  is  last.   An index of 0 refers to the
	      first character of the string.  First and last may be  specified
	      as  for the index method.	 If newstring is specified, then it is
	      placed in the removed character range.  If first	is  less  than
	      zero  then  it  is  treated  as  if it were zero, and if last is
	      greater than or equal to the length of the  string  then	it  is
	      treated as if it were end.  If first is greater than last or the
	      length of the initial string, or last is less than 0,  then  the
	      initial string is returned untouched.

       string tolower string ?first? ?last?
	      Returns a value equal to string except that all upper (or title)
	      case letters have been converted to lower	 case.	 If  first  is
	      specified,  it  refers  to the first char index in the string to
	      start modifying.	If last is specified, it refers	 to  the  char
	      index  in the string to stop at (inclusive).  first and last may
	      be specified as for the index method.

       string totitle string ?first? ?last?
	      Returns a value equal to string except that the first  character
	      in  string  is  converted	 to its Unicode title case variant (or
	      upper case if there is no title case variant) and	 the  rest  of
	      the  string  is converted to lower case.	If first is specified,
	      it refers to the first char index in the string to start modify‐
	      ing.   If	 last is specified, it refers to the char index in the
	      string to stop at (inclusive).  first and last may be  specified
	      as for the index method.

       string toupper string ?first? ?last?
	      Returns a value equal to string except that all lower (or title)
	      case letters have been converted to upper	 case.	 If  first  is
	      specified,  it  refers  to the first char index in the string to
	      start modifying.	If last is specified, it refers	 to  the  char
	      index  in the string to stop at (inclusive).  first and last may
	      be specified as for the index method.

       string trim string ?chars?
	      Returns a value equal to	string	except	that  any  leading  or
	      trailing characters from the set given by chars are removed.  If
	      chars is not specified then  white  space	 is  removed  (spaces,
	      tabs, newlines, and carriage returns).

       string trimleft string ?chars?
	      Returns  a value equal to string except that any leading charac‐
	      ters from the set given by chars are removed.  If chars  is  not
	      specified	 then  white space is removed (spaces, tabs, newlines,
	      and carriage returns).

       string trimright string ?chars?
	      Returns a value equal to string except that any trailing charac‐
	      ters  from  the set given by chars are removed.  If chars is not
	      specified then white space is removed (spaces,  tabs,  newlines,
	      and carriage returns).

       string wordend string charIndex
	      Returns  the  index  of the character just after the last one in
	      the word containing character charIndex  of  string.   charIndex
	      may  be specified as for the index method.  A word is considered
	      to be any contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode  letters  or
	      decimal  digits)	or  underscore (Unicode connector punctuation)
	      characters, or any single character other than these.

       string wordstart string charIndex
	      Returns the index of the first character in the word  containing
	      character	 charIndex  of	string.	 charIndex may be specified as
	      for the index method.  A word is considered to be any contiguous
	      range  of	 alphanumeric  (Unicode	 letters or decimal digits) or
	      underscore (Unicode connector punctuation)  characters,  or  any
	      single character other than these.

SEE ALSO
       expr(n), list(n)

KEYWORDS
       case  conversion,  compare, index, match, pattern, string, word, equal,
       ctype

Tcl				      8.1			     string(n)
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