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SYSTAT(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		     SYSTAT(1)

NAME
     systat — display system statistics

SYNOPSIS
     systat [-display] [refresh-interval]

DESCRIPTION
     The systat utility displays various system statistics in a screen ori‐
     ented fashion using the curses screen display library, ncurses(3).

     While systat is running the screen is usually divided into two windows
     (an exception is the vmstat display which uses the entire screen).	 The
     upper window depicts the current system load average.  The information
     displayed in the lower window may vary, depending on user commands.  The
     last line on the screen is reserved for user input and error messages.

     By default systat displays the processes getting the largest percentage
     of the processor in the lower window.  Other displays show swap space
     usage, disk I/O statistics (a la iostat(8)), virtual memory statistics (a
     la vmstat(8)), network ``mbuf'' utilization, TCP/IP statistics, and net‐
     work connections (a la netstat(1)).

     Input is interpreted at two different levels.  A ``global'' command
     interpreter processes all keyboard input.	If this command interpreter
     fails to recognize a command, the input line is passed to a per-display
     command interpreter.  This allows each display to have certain display-
     specific commands.

     Command line options:

     -display	       The - flag expects display to be one of: icmp, icmp6,
		       ifstat, iostat, ip, ip6, mbufs, netstat, pigs, swap,
		       tcp, or vmstat.	These displays can also be requested
		       interactively (without the “-”) and are described in
		       full detail below.

     refresh-interval  The refresh-value specifies the screen refresh time
		       interval in seconds.

     Certain characters cause immediate action by systat.  These are

     ^L		 Refresh the screen.

     ^G		 Print the name of the current ``display'' being shown in the
		 lower window and the refresh interval.

     :		 Move the cursor to the command line and interpret the input
		 line typed as a command.  While entering a command the cur‐
		 rent character erase, word erase, and line kill characters
		 may be used.

     The following commands are interpreted by the ``global'' command inter‐
     preter.

     help	 Print the names of the available displays on the command
		 line.

     load	 Print the load average over the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes on
		 the command line.

     stop	 Stop refreshing the screen.

     [start] [number]
		 Start (continue) refreshing the screen.  If a second,
		 numeric, argument is provided it is interpreted as a refresh
		 interval (in seconds).	 Supplying only a number will set the
		 refresh interval to this value.

     quit	 Exit systat.  (This may be abbreviated to q.)

     The available displays are:

     pigs	 Display, in the lower window, those processes resident in
		 main memory and getting the largest portion of the processor
		 (the default display).	 When less than 100% of the processor
		 is scheduled to user processes, the remaining time is
		 accounted to the ``idle'' process.

     icmp	 Display, in the lower window, statistics about messages
		 received and transmitted by the Internet Control Message Pro‐
		 tocol (“ICMP”).  The left half of the screen displays infor‐
		 mation about received packets, and the right half displays
		 information regarding transmitted packets.

		 The icmp display understands two commands: mode and reset.
		 The mode command is used to select one of four display modes,
		 given as its argument:
		 rate:	     show the rate of change of each value in packets
			     (the default) per second
		 delta:	     show the rate of change of each value in packets
			     per refresh interval
		 since:	     show the total change of each value since the
			     display was last reset
		 absolute:   show the absolute value of each statistic

		 The reset command resets the baseline for since mode.	The
		 mode command with no argument will display the current mode
		 in the command line.

     icmp6	 This display is like the icmp display, but displays statis‐
		 tics for IPv6 ICMP.

     ip		 Otherwise identical to the icmp display, except that it dis‐
		 plays IP and UDP statistics.

     ip6	 Like the ip display, except that it displays IPv6 statics.
		 It does not display UDP statistics.

     tcp	 Like icmp, but with TCP statistics.

     iostat	 Display, in the lower window, statistics about processor use
		 and disk throughput.  Statistics on processor use appear as
		 bar graphs of the amount of time executing in user mode
		 (``user''), in user mode running low priority processes
		 (``nice''), in system mode (``system''), in interrupt mode
		 (``interrupt''), and idle (``idle'').	Statistics on disk
		 throughput show, for each drive, megabytes per second, aver‐
		 age number of disk transactions per second, and average kilo‐
		 bytes of data per transaction.	 This information may be dis‐
		 played as bar graphs or as rows of numbers which scroll down‐
		 ward.	Bar graphs are shown by default.

		 The following commands are specific to the iostat display;
		 the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.

		 numbers     Show the disk I/O statistics in numeric form.
			     Values are displayed in numeric columns which
			     scroll downward.
		 bars	     Show the disk I/O statistics in bar graph form
			     (default).
		 kbpt	     Toggle the display of kilobytes per transaction.
			     (the default is to not display kilobytes per
			     transaction).

     swap	 Show information about swap space usage on all the swap areas
		 compiled into the kernel.  The first column is the device
		 name of the partition.	 The next column is the total space
		 available in the partition.  The Used column indicates the
		 total blocks used so far; the graph shows the percentage of
		 space in use on each partition.  If there are more than one
		 swap partition in use, a total line is also shown.  Areas
		 known to the kernel, but not in use are shown as not avail‐
		 able.

     mbufs	 Display, in the lower window, the number of mbufs allocated
		 for particular uses, i.e., data, socket structures, etc.

     vmstat	 Take over the entire display and show a (rather crowded) com‐
		 pendium of statistics related to virtual memory usage,
		 process scheduling, device interrupts, system name transla‐
		 tion caching, disk I/O etc.

		 The upper left quadrant of the screen shows the number of
		 users logged in and the load average over the last one, five,
		 and fifteen minute intervals.	Below this line are statistics
		 on memory utilization.	 The first row of the table reports
		 memory usage only among active processes, that is processes
		 that have run in the previous twenty seconds.	The second row
		 reports on memory usage of all processes.  The first column
		 reports on the number of kilobytes in physical pages claimed
		 by processes.	The second column reports the number of kilo‐
		 bytes in physical pages that are devoted to read only text
		 pages.	 The third and fourth columns report the same two fig‐
		 ures for virtual pages, that is the number of kilobytes in
		 pages that would be needed if all processes had all of their
		 pages.	 Finally the last column shows the number of kilobytes
		 in physical pages on the free list.

		 Below the memory display is a list of the average number of
		 processes (over the last refresh interval) that are runnable
		 (`r'), in page wait (`p'), in disk wait other than paging
		 (`d'), sleeping (`s'), and swapped out but desiring to run
		 (`w').	 The row also shows the average number of context
		 switches (`Csw'), traps (`Trp'; includes page faults), system
		 calls (`Sys'), interrupts (`Int'), network software inter‐
		 rupts (`Sof'), and page faults (`Flt').

		 Below the process queue length listing is a numerical listing
		 and a bar graph showing the amount of system (shown as `='),
		 interrupt (shown as `+'), user (shown as `>'), nice (shown as
		 `-'), and idle time (shown as ` ').

		 Below the process display are statistics on name transla‐
		 tions.	 It lists the number of names translated in the previ‐
		 ous interval, the number and percentage of the translations
		 that were handled by the system wide name translation cache,
		 and the number and percentage of the translations that were
		 handled by the per process name translation cache.

		 To the right of the name translations display are lines show‐
		 ing the number of dirty buffers in the buffer cache
		 (`dtbuf'), desired maximum size of vnode cache (`desvn'),
		 number of vnodes actually allocated (`numvn'), and number of
		 allocated vnodes that are free (`frevn').

		 At the bottom left is the disk usage display.	It reports the
		 number of kilobytes per transaction, transactions per second,
		 megabytes per second and the percentage of the time the disk
		 was busy averaged over the refresh period of the display (by
		 default, five seconds).  The system keeps statistics on most
		 every storage device.	In general, up to seven devices are
		 displayed.  The devices displayed by default are the first
		 devices in the kernel's device list.  See devstat(3) and
		 devstat(9) for details on the devstat system.

		 Under the date in the upper right hand quadrant are statis‐
		 tics on paging and swapping activity.	The first two columns
		 report the average number of pages brought in and out per
		 second over the last refresh interval due to page faults and
		 the paging daemon.  The third and fourth columns report the
		 average number of pages brought in and out per second over
		 the last refresh interval due to swap requests initiated by
		 the scheduler.	 The first row of the display shows the aver‐
		 age number of disk transfers per second over the last refresh
		 interval; the second row of the display shows the average
		 number of pages transferred per second over the last refresh
		 interval.

		 Below the paging statistics is a column of lines regarding
		 the virtual memory system.  The first few lines describe, in
		 units (except as noted below) of pages per second averaged
		 over the sampling interval, pages copied on write (`cow'),
		 pages zero filled on demand (`zfod'), pages optimally zero
		 filled on demand (`ozfod'), the ratio of the (average) ozfod
		 / zfod as a percentage (`%ozfod'), pages freed by the page
		 daemon (`daefr'), pages freed by exiting processes (`prcfr'),
		 total pages freed (`totfr'), pages reactivated from the free
		 list (`react'), the average number of times per second that
		 the page daemon was awakened (`pdwak'), pages analyzed by the
		 page daemon (`pdpgs'), and in-transit blocking page faults
		 (`intrn').  Note that the units are special for `%ozfod' and
		 `pdwak'.  The next few lines describe, as amounts of memory
		 in kilobytes, pages wired down (`wire'), active pages
		 (`act'), inactive pages (`inact'), pages on the cache queue
		 (`cache'), and free pages (`free').  Note that the values
		 displayed are the current transient ones; they are not aver‐
		 ages.

		 At the bottom of this column is a line showing the amount of
		 virtual memory, in kilobytes, mapped into the buffer cache
		 (`buf').  This statistic is not useful.  It exists only as a
		 placeholder for the corresponding useful statistic (the
		 amount of real memory used to cache disks).  The most impor‐
		 tant component of the latter (the amount of real memory used
		 by the vm system to cache disks) is not available, but can be
		 guessed from the `inact' amount under some system loads.

		 Running down the right hand side of the display is a break‐
		 down of the interrupts being handled by the system.  At the
		 top of the list is the total interrupts per second over the
		 time interval.	 The rest of the column breaks down the total
		 on a device by device basis.  Only devices that have inter‐
		 rupted at least once since boot time are shown.

		 The following commands are specific to the vmstat display;
		 the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.

		 boot	       Display cumulative statistics since the system
			       was booted.
		 run	       Display statistics as a running total from the
			       point this command is given.
		 time	       Display statistics averaged over the refresh
			       interval (the default).
		 zero	       Reset running statistics to zero.

     netstat	 Display, in the lower window, network connections.  By
		 default, network servers awaiting requests are not displayed.
		 Each address is displayed in the format ``host.port'', with
		 each shown symbolically, when possible.  It is possible to
		 have addresses displayed numerically, limit the display to a
		 set of ports, hosts, and/or protocols (the minimum unambigu‐
		 ous prefix may be supplied):

		 all	       Toggle the displaying of server processes
			       awaiting requests (this is the equivalent of
			       the -a flag to netstat(1)).
		 numbers       Display network addresses numerically.
		 names	       Display network addresses symbolically.
		 proto protocol
			       Display only network connections using the
			       indicated protocol.  Supported protocols are
			       ``tcp'', ``udp'', and ``all''.
		 ignore [items]
			       Do not display information about connections
			       associated with the specified hosts or ports.
			       Hosts and ports may be specified by name
			       (``vangogh'', ``ftp''), or numerically.	Host
			       addresses use the Internet dot notation
			       (``128.32.0.9'').  Multiple items may be speci‐
			       fied with a single command by separating them
			       with spaces.
		 display [items]
			       Display information about the connections asso‐
			       ciated with the specified hosts or ports.  As
			       for ignore, [items] may be names or numbers.
		 show [ports|hosts]
			       Show, on the command line, the currently
			       selected protocols, hosts, and ports.  Hosts
			       and ports which are being ignored are prefixed
			       with a `!'.  If ports or hosts is supplied as
			       an argument to show, then only the requested
			       information will be displayed.
		 reset	       Reset the port, host, and protocol matching
			       mechanisms to the default (any protocol, port,
			       or host).

     ifstat	 Display the network traffic going through active interfaces
		 on the system.	 Idle interfaces will not be displayed until
		 they receive some traffic.

		 For each interface being displayed, the current, peak and
		 total statistics are displayed for incoming and outgoing
		 traffic.  By default, the ifstat display will automatically
		 scale the units being used so that they are in a human-read‐
		 able format.  The scaling units used for the current and peak
		 traffic columns can be altered by the scale command.

		 scale [units]	Modify the scale used to display the current
				and peak traffic over all interfaces.  The
				following units are recognised: kbit, kbyte,
				mbit, mbyte, gbit, gbyte and auto.

     Commands to switch between displays may be abbreviated to the minimum
     unambiguous prefix; for example, ``io'' for ``iostat''.  Certain informa‐
     tion may be discarded when the screen size is insufficient for display.
     For example, on a machine with 10 drives the iostat bar graph displays
     only 3 drives on a 24 line terminal.  When a bar graph would overflow the
     allotted screen space it is truncated and the actual value is printed
     ``over top'' of the bar.

     The following commands are common to each display which shows information
     about disk drives.	 These commands are used to select a set of drives to
     report on, should your system have more drives configured than can nor‐
     mally be displayed on the screen.

     ignore [drives]
		   Do not display information about the drives indicated.
		   Multiple drives may be specified, separated by spaces.
     display [drives]
		   Display information about the drives indicated.  Multiple
		   drives may be specified, separated by spaces.
     only [drives]
		   Display only the specified drives.  Multiple drives may be
		   specified, separated by spaces.
     drives	   Display a list of available devices.
     match type,if,pass [| ...]
		   Display devices matching the given pattern.	The basic
		   matching expressions are the same as those used in
		   iostat(8) with one difference.  Instead of specifying mul‐
		   tiple -t arguments which are then ORed together, the user
		   instead specifies multiple matching expressions joined by
		   the pipe (‘|’) character.  The comma separated arguments
		   within each matching expression are ANDed together, and
		   then the pipe separated matching expressions are ORed
		   together.  Any device matching the combined expression will
		   be displayed, if there is room to display it.  For example:

			 match da,scsi | cd,ide

		   This will display all SCSI Direct Access devices and all
		   IDE CDROM devices.

			 match da | sa | cd,pass

		   This will display all Direct Access devices, all Sequential
		   Access devices, and all passthrough devices that provide
		   access to CDROM drives.

FILES
     /boot/kernel/kernel  For the namelist.
     /dev/kmem		  For information in main memory.
     /etc/hosts		  For host names.
     /etc/networks	  For network names.
     /etc/services	  For port names.

SEE ALSO
     netstat(1), kvm(3), icmp(4), icmp6(4), ip(4), ip6(4), tcp(4), udp(4),
     gstat(8), iostat(8), vmstat(8)

HISTORY
     The systat program appeared in 4.3BSD.  The icmp, ip, and tcp displays
     appeared in FreeBSD 3.0; the notion of having different display modes for
     the ICMP, IP, TCP, and UDP statistics was stolen from the -C option to
     netstat(1) in Silicon Graphics' IRIX system.

BUGS
     Certain displays presume a minimum of 80 characters per line.  The vmstat
     display looks out of place because it is (it was added in as a separate
     display rather than created as a new program).

BSD			       October 14, 2007				   BSD
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