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TIFFCROP(1)							   TIFFCROP(1)

       tiffcrop	 - select, copy, crop, convert, extract, and/or process one or
       more TIFF files.

       tiffcrop [ options ] src1.tif ... srcN.tif dst.tif

       Tiffcrop processes one or more files created according to the Tag Image
       File Format, Revision 6.0, specification into one or more TIFF file(s).
       Tiffcrop is most often used to extract portions of an  image  for  pro‐
       cessing	with  bar  code	 recognizer or OCR software when that software
       cannot restrict the region of interest to a  specific  portion  of  the
       image  or  to  improve  efficiency when the regions of interest must be
       rotated.	 It can also be used to subdivide all or part of  a  processed
       image into smaller sections and export individual images or sections of
       images as separate files or separate images within one  or  more	 files
       derived from the original input image or images.

       The available functions can be grouped broadly into three classes:

	      Those  that  select individual images or sections of images from
	      the input files.	The options -N for sequences or lists of indi‐
	      vidual  images in the input files, -Z for zones, -z for regions,
	      -X and -Y for fixed sized selections, -m	for  margins,  -U  for
	      units,  and  -E  for edge reference provide a variety of ways to
	      specify portions of the input image.

	      Those that allow the  individual	images	or  selections	to  be
	      exported	to one or more output files in different groupings and
	      control the organization of the data in the output  images.  The
	      options  -P for page size grouping, -S for subdivision into col‐
	      umns and rows and -e for export mode options that produce one or
	      more  files  from	 each  input image. The options -r, -s, -t, -w
	      control strip and tile format and sizes while -B -L -c -f modify
	      the  endian  addressing scheme, the compression options, and the
	      bit fill sequence of images as they are written.

	      Those that perform some action on each image  that  is  selected
	      from  the input file.  The options include -R for rotate, -I for
	      inversion of the photometric interpretation and/or data  values,
	      and -F to flip (mirror) the image horizontally or vertically.

       Functions  are  applied	to  the input image(s) in the following order:
       cropping, fixed area extraction, zone and region extraction, inversion,
       mirroring, rotation.

       Functions  are  applied	to the output image(s) in the following order:
       export mode options for grouping zones, regions, or images into one  or
       more  files,  or	 row and column divisions with output margins, or page
       size divisions with page orientation options.

       Finally, strip, tile, byte order, output	 resolution,  and  compression
       options are applied to all output images.

       The  output  file(s)  may be organized and compressed using a different
       algorithm from the input files.	By default, tiffcrop will copy all the
       understood  tags in a TIFF directory of an input file to the associated
       directory in the output file.  Options can be used to force the	resul‐
       tant image to be written as strips or tiles of data, respectively.

       Tiffcrop	 can be used to reorganize the storage characteristics of data
       in a file, and to reorganize, extract, rotate,  and  otherwise  process
       the  image  data	 as specified at the same time whereas tiffcp does not
       alter the image data within the file.

       Using the options for selecting individual input images and the options
       for  exporting  images  and/or  segments defined as zones or regions of
       each input image, tiffcrop can perform  the  functions  of  tiffcp  and
       tiffsplit  in a single pass while applying multiple operations to indi‐
       vidual selections or images.

       -h     Display the syntax summary for tiffcrop.

       -v     Report the  current  version  and	 last  modification  date  for

       -N odd|even|#,#-#,#|last
	      Specify  one  or	more  series or range(s) of images within each
	      file to process.	The words odd or even may be used  to  specify
	      all  odd	or  even numbered images counting from one.  Note that
	      internally, TIFF images are numbered from zero rather  than  one
	      but since this convention is not obvious to most users, tiffcrop
	      used 1 to specifiy the first image in  a	multipage  file.   The
	      word  last  may  be used in place of a number in the sequence to
	      indicate the final image in the file without  knowing  how  many
	      images there are.	 Ranges of images may be specified with a dash
	      and multiple  sets  can  be  indicated  by  joining  them	 in  a
	      comma-separated  list. eg. use -N 1,5-7,last to process the 1st,
	      5th through 7th, and final image in the file.

       -E top|bottom|left|right
	      Specify the top, bottom, left, or right edge  as	the  reference
	      from  which  to calcuate the width and length of crop regions or
	      sequence of postions for zones. When used with the -e option for
	      exporting	 zones	or  regions, the reference edge determines how
	      composite images are arranged. Using -E  left  or	 right	causes
	      successive  zones	 or  regions to be merged horizontally whereas
	      using -E top or bottom causes successive zones or regions to  be
	      arranged	vertically. This option has no effect on export layout
	      when multiple zones or regions are not being exported to compos‐
	      ite images. Edges may be abbreviated to the first letter.

       -e combined|divided|image|multiple|separate
	      Specify  the  export  mode  for images and selections from input
	      images.  The final filename on the command line is considered to
	      be  the destination file or filename stem for automatically gen‐
	      erated sequences of files. Modes may be abbreviated to the first

	      combined	  All  images  and  selections are written to a single
	      file with multiple selections from one  image  combined  into  a
	      single image (default)

	      divided	  All  images  and  selections are written to a single
	      file with each selection from one image written to a new image

	      image	 Each input image is written to a  new	file  (numeric
	      filename	sequence) with multiple selections from the image com‐
	      bined into one image

	      multiple	 Each input image is written to a  new	file  (numeric
	      filename sequence) with each selection from the image written to
	      a new image

	      separate	 Individual selections from each image are written  to
	      separate files

       -U in|cm|px
	      Specify the type of units to apply to dimensions for margins and
	      crop regions for input and output images. Inches or  centimeters
	      are  converted  to pixels using the resolution unit specified in
	      the TIFF file (which defaults to inches if not specified in  the

       -m #,#,#,#
	      Specify  margins	to  be removed from the input image. The order
	      must be top, left, bottom, right with only commas separating the
	      elements	of  the list. Margins are scaled according to the cur‐
	      rent units and removed before any	 other	extractions  are  com‐

       -X #   Set  the	horizontal  (X-axis)  dimension of a region to extract
	      relative to the specified origin reference. If the origin is the
	      top or bottom edge, the X axis value will be assumed to start at
	      the left edge.

       -Y #   Set the vertical (Y-axis) dimension of a region to extract rela‐
	      tive  to	the  specified	origin reference. If the origin is the
	      left or right edge, the Y axis value will be assumed to start at
	      the top.

       -Z #:#,#:#
	      Specify  zones  of the image designated as position X of Y equal
	      sized portions measured from the reference edge,	eg  1:3	 would
	      be  first	 third	of  the image starting from the reference edge
	      minus any margins specified for the  confining  edges.  Multiple
	      zones  can  be specified as a comma separated list but they must
	      reference the same edge. To extract the top quarter and the bot‐
	      tom third of an image you would use -Z 1:4,3:3.

       -z x1,y1,x2,y2: ... :xN,yN,xN+1,yN+1
	      Specify a series of coordinates to define regions for processing
	      and exporting.  The coordinates represent the top left and lower
	      right  corners of each region in the current units, eg inch, cm,
	      or pixels. Pixels are counted from one to width  or  height  and
	      inches or cm are calculated from image resolution data.

	      Each  colon delimited series of four values represents the hori‐
	      zontal and vertical offsets from the top and left edges  of  the
	      image,  regardless of the edge specified with the -E option. The
	      first and third values represent the horizontal offsets  of  the
	      corner  points  from  the	 left edge while the second and fourth
	      values represent the vertical offsets from the top edge.

       -F horiz|vert
	      Flip, ie mirror, the image or extracted region  horizontally  or

       -R 90|180|270
	      Rotate  the  image  or  extracted region 90, 180, or 270 degrees

       -I [black|white|data|both]
	      Invert color space, eg dark to light for bilevel	and  grayscale
	      images.	This can be used to modify negative images to positive
	      or to correct images that have the PHOTOMETRIC_INTERPRETATIN tag
	      set  incorrectly.	 If the value is black or white, the PHOTOMET‐
	      RIC_INTERPRETATION tag is set to MinIsBlack or MinIsWhite, with‐
	      out  altering  the  image data. If the argument is data or both,
	      the data values of  the  image  are  modified.  Specifying  both
	      inverts the data and the PHOTOMETRIC_INTERPRETATION tag, whereas
	      using data inverts the data but not the  PHOTOMETRIC_INTERPRETA‐
	      TION  tag.   No  support	for modifying the color space of color
	      images in this release.

       -H #   Set the horizontal resolution of output images to # expressed in
	      the current units.

       -V #   Set  the vertical resolution of the output images to # expressed
	      in the current units.

       -J #   Set the horizontal margin of an output page size to #  expressed
	      in  the  current units when sectioning image into columns x rows
	      subimages using the -S cols:rows option.

       -K #   Set the vertical margin of an output page size to # expressed in
	      the current units when sectioning image into columns x rows sub‐
	      miages using the -S cols:rows option.

       -O portrait|landscape|auto
	      Set the output orientation of the pages or sections.  Auto  will
	      use the arrangement that requires the fewest pages.  This option
	      is only meaningful in conjunction with the -P option  to	format
	      an image to fit on a specific paper size.

       -P page
	      Format  the output images to fit on page size paper. Use -P list
	      to show the supported page sizes and dimensions.	You can define
	      a	 custom page size by entering the width and length of the page
	      in the current units with the following format #.#x#.#.

       -S cols:rows
	      Divide each image into cols across and rows down equal sections.

       -B     Force output to be written with  Big-Endian  byte	 order.	  This
	      option  only  has	 an  effect when the output file is created or
	      overwritten and not when it is appended to.

       -C     Suppress the use of ``strip chopping'' when reading images  that
	      have a single strip/tile of uncompressed data.

       -c     Specify  the  compression	 to use for data written to the output
	      file: none for no compression, packbits  for  PackBits  compres‐
	      sion,  lzw for Lempel-Ziv & Welch compression, jpeg for baseline
	      JPEG compression.	 zip for Deflate  compression,	g3  for	 CCITT
	      Group  3	(T.4) compression, and g4 for CCITT Group 4 (T.6) com‐
	      pression.	 By default tiffcrop will compress data	 according  to
	      the value of the Compression tag found in the source file.

	      The CCITT Group 3 and Group 4 compression algorithms can only be
	      used with bilevel data.

	      Group 3 compression  can	be  specified  together	 with  several
	      T.4-specific  options:  1d  for  1-dimensional  encoding, 2d for
	      2-dimensional encoding, and fill to force each encoded  scanline
	      to  be  zero-filled  so  that the terminating EOL code lies on a
	      byte  boundary.	Group  3-specific  options  are	 specified  by
	      appending	 a ``:''-separated list to the ``g3'' option; e.g.  -c
	      g3:2d:fill to get 2D-encoded data with byte-aligned EOL codes.

	      LZW compression can  be  specified  together  with  a  predictor
	      value.   A predictor value of 2 causes each scanline of the out‐
	      put image	 to  undergo  horizontal  differencing	before	it  is
	      encoded; a value of 1 forces each scanline to be encoded without
	      differencing.  LZW-specific options are specified by appending a
	      ``:''-separated  list  to the ``lzw'' option; e.g.  -c lzw:2 for
	      LZW compression with horizontal differencing.

       -f     Specify the bit fill order to use in writing  output  data.   By
	      default,	tiffcrop  will	create	a  new file with the same fill
	      order as the original.  Specifying -f lsb2msb will force data to
	      be  written  with	 the  FillOrder	 tag  set to LSB2MSB, while -f
	      msb2lsb will force data to be written with the FillOrder tag set
	      to MSB2LSB.

       -i     Ignore  non-fatal	 read  errors  and  continue processing of the
	      input file.

       -l     Specify the length of a tile (in pixels).	 Tiffcrop attempts  to
	      set the tile dimensions so that no more than 8 kilobytes of data
	      appear in a tile.

       -L     Force output to be written with Little-Endian byte order.	  This
	      option  only  has	 an  effect when the output file is created or
	      overwritten and not when it is appended to.

       -M     Suppress the use of memory-mapped files when reading images.

       -p     Specify the planar configuration to use in  writing  image  data
	      that  has	 more than one sample per pixel.  By default, tiffcrop
	      will create a new file with the same planar configuration as the
	      original.	  Specifying  -p  contig will force data to be written
	      with multi-sample data packed together, while -p	separate  will
	      force samples to be written in separate planes.

       -r     Specify  the  number  of	rows (scanlines) in each strip of data
	      written to the output file.  By default  (or  when  value	 0  is
	      specified), tiffcrop attempts to set the rows/strip that no more
	      than 8 kilobytes of data appear in a strip. If you  specify  the
	      special  value -1 it will results in infinite number of the rows
	      per strip. The entire image will be the one strip in that case.

       -s     Force the output file to	be  written  with  data	 organized  in
	      strips (rather than tiles).

       -t     Force the output file to be written with data organized in tiles
	      (rather than strips).

       -w     Specify the width of a tile (in pixels).	tiffcrop  attempts  to
	      set the tile dimensions so that no more than 8 kilobytes of data
	      appear in a tile.	 tiffcrop attempts to set the tile  dimensions
	      so that no more than 8 kilobytes of data appear in a tile.

       Debug and dump facility
	      -D  opt1:value1,opt2:value2,opt3:value3:opt4:value4 Display pro‐
	      gram progress and/or dump raw data to non-TIFF  files.   Options
	      include  the  following  and must be joined as a comma separated
	      list. The use of this option is  generally  limited  to  program
	      debugging	 and  development of future options. An equal sign may
	      be substituted for the colon in option:value pairs.

	      debug:N	       Display	limited	 program  progress  indicators
	      where larger N increase the level of detail.

	      format:txt|raw   Format  any  logged  data  as ASCII text or raw
	      binary values. ASCII text dumps  include	strings	 of  ones  and
	      zeroes  representing  the	 binary	 values in the image data plus
	      identifying headers.

	      level:N	      Specify the level of  detail  presented  in  the
	      dump  files.   This  can	vary from dumps of the entire input or
	      output image data to dumps of data processed by  specific	 func‐
	      tions. Current range of levels is 1 to 3.



	      When dump files are being written, each image will be written to
	      a separate file with the name built by adding a numeric sequence
	      value  to	 the dumpname and an extension of .txt for ASCII dumps
	      or .bin for binary dumps.

	      The four debug/dump options are  independent,  though  it	 makes
	      little  sense to specify a dump file without specifying a detail

	      Note: Tiffcrop may be compiled with -DDEVELMODE to enable	 addi‐
	      tional very
	       low level debug reporting.

       The  following  concatenates  two files and writes the result using LZW
	      tiffcrop -c lzw a.tif b.tif result.tif

       To convert a G3 1d-encoded TIFF to a single strip  of  G4-encoded  data
       the following might be used:
	      tiffcrop -c g4 -r 10000 g3.tif g4.tif
       (1000  is  just	a number that is larger than the number of rows in the
       source file.)

       To extract a selected set of images from a multi-image  TIFF  file  use
       the  -N option described above. Thus, to copy the 1st and 3rd images of
       image file "album.tif" to "result.tif":
	      tiffcrop -N 1,3 album.tif result.tif

       Invert a bilevel image scan of a microfilmed document and crop off mar‐
       gins  of	 0.25  inches  on the left and right, 0.5 inch on the top, and
       0.75 inch on the bottom. From  the  remaining  portion  of  the	image,
       select  the  second  and	 third quarters, ie, one half of the area left
       from the center to each margin.
	      tiffcrop -U in -m 0.5,0.25,0.75,0.25 -E left -Z 2:4,3:4 -I  both
	      MicrofilmNegative.tif MicrofilmPostiveCenter.tif

       Extract only the final image of a large Architectural E sized multipage
       TIFF file and rotate it 90 degrees  clockwise  while  reformatting  the
       output  to  fit	on tabloid sized sheets with one quarter of an inch on
       each side:
	      tiffcrop -N last -R 90 -O auto -P tabloid -U in -J 0.25 -K  0.25
	      -H 300 -V 300 Big-PlatMap.tif BigPlatMap-Tabloid.tif
       The  output  images will have a specified resolution of 300 dpi in both
       directions. The orientation of each page will be determined  by	which‐
       ever  choice  requires the fewest pages. To specify a specific orienta‐
       tion, use the portrait or landscape option. The paper size option  does
       not  resample the image. It breaks each original image into a series of
       smaller images that will fit on the target paper size at the  specified

       Extract two regions 2048 pixels wide by 2048 pixels high from each page
       of a multi-page input file and write each region to a  separate	output
	      tiffcrop	-U  px	-z  1,1,2048,2048:1,2049,2048,4097 -e separate
	      CheckScans.tiff Check
       The output file names will use the stem Check  with  a  numeric	suffix
       which  is incremented for each region of each image, eg Check-001.tiff,
       Check-002.tiff ...  Check-NNN.tiff. To produce a unique file  for  each
       page of the input image with one new image for each region of the input
       image on that page, change the export option to -e multiple.

       In general, bilevel, grayscale, palette and RGB(A) data with bit depths
       from  1	to  32 bits should work in both interleaved and separate plane
       formats. Unlike tiffcp, tiffcrop can read and write tiled  images  with
       bits  per  sample  that are not a multiple of 8 in both interleaved and
       separate planar format. Floating point data types are supported at  bit
       depts of 16, 24, 32 and 64 bits per sample.

       Not all images can be converted from one compression scheme to another.
       Data with some photometric interpretations and/or bit depths  are  tied
       to specific compression schemes and vice-versa, e.g. Group 3/4 compres‐
       sion is only usable for bilevel data. JPEG compression is only  useable
       on 8 bit per sample data (or 12 bit if LibTIFF was compiled with 12 bit
       JPEG support). Support for OJPEG compressed images  is  problematic  at
       best. Since OJPEG compression is no longer supported for writing images
       with LibTIFF, these images will be updated to the newer	JPEG  compres‐
       sion  when  they	 are  copied or processed. This may cause the image to
       appear color shifted or distorted after conversion.  In some cases,  it
       is  possible  to	 remove the original compression from image data using
       the option -cnone.

       Tiffcrop does not currently provide options to up or downsample data to
       different  bit  depths or convert data from one photometric interpreta‐
       tion to another, e.g. 16 bits per sample to 8 bits per sample or RGB to

       Tiffcrop	 is  very  loosely  derived from code in tiffcp with extensive
       modifications and additions to support the selection  of	 input	images
       and  regions  and  the exporting of them to one or more output files in
       various groupings. The image manipulation routines are entirely new and
       additional ones may be added in the future. It will handle tiled images
       with bit depths that are not a multiple of eight that tiffcp may refuse
       to read.

       Tiffcrop	 was  designed	to handle large files containing many moderate
       sized images with memory usage that is independent  of  the  number  of
       images in the file.  In order to support compression modes that are not
       based on individual scanlines, e.g. JPEG, it now reads images by	 strip
       or  tile	 rather than by indvidual scanlines. In addition to the memory
       required by the input and output buffers associated with LibTIFF one or
       more  buffers  at  least	 as  large as the largest image to be read are
       required. The design favors large volume document processing uses  over
       scientific  or  graphical  manipulation	of  large datasets as might be
       found in research or remote sensing scenarios.

       pal2rgb(1), tiffinfo(1), tiffcmp(1), tiffcp(1),	tiffmedian(1),	tiffs‐
       plit(1), libtiff(3TIFF)

       Libtiff library home page: http://www.remotesensing.org/libtiff/

libtiff				December, 2008			   TIFFCROP(1)

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