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tr(1)									 tr(1)

       tr - translate characters

       string1 string2



       string1 string1

       copies  the  standard input to the standard output with substitution or
       deletion of selected characters.	 Input	characters  from  string1  are
       replaced	 with  the corresponding characters in string2.	 If necessary,
       string1 and string2 can be quoted to  avoid  pattern  matching  by  the

       recognizes the following command line options:

	      Translates on a byte-by-byte basis. When this flag is specified
			     does not support extended characters.

	      Complements the set of characters in
			     string1,  which  is  the set of all characters in
			     the current character set, as defined by the cur‐
			     rent  setting of except for those actually speci‐
			     fied in the string1  argument.  These  characters
			     are  placed  in  the array in ascending collation
			     sequence, as defined by the current setting of

	      Deletes all occurrences of input characters  or  collating  ele‐
	      ments found in
			     the array specified in string1.

			     If	 and are both specified, all characters except
			     those specified by string1 are deleted. The  con‐
			     tents  of	string2	 are  ignored,	unless is also
			     specified. Note, however, that  the  same	string
			     cannot  be	 used for both the and the flags; when
			     both flags are specified, both string1 (used  for
			     deletion)	and  string2  (used for squeezing) are

			     If is not specified, each input character or col‐
			     lating  element  found  in the array specified by
			     string1 is replaced by the character or collating
			     element  in  the same relative position specified
			     by string2.

	      Replaces any character specified in
			     string1 that occurs as a string of	 two  or  more
			     repeating	characters as a single instance of the
			     character in string2.

			     If the string2 contains a	character  class,  the
			     argument's	 array	contains all of the characters
			     in that character class. For example:

			     In a case conversion, however, the string2	 array
			     contains  only  those  characters	defined as the
			     second characters in each	of  the	 or  character
			     pairs, as appropriate. For example:

       The  following abbreviation conventions can be used to introduce ranges
       of characters, repeated characters or single-character  collating  ele‐
       ments into the strings:

	      c1-c2 or
	      Stands for the range of collating elements
			     c1	 through c2, inclusive, as defined by the cur‐
			     rent setting of the locale category.

	      Stands for all the  characters  belonging	 to  the
	      defined character class,
			     as	 defined  by the current setting
			     of locale category.  The  following
			     character	 class	 names	will  be
			     accepted when specified in string1:
			     or	 Character  classes are expanded
			     in collation order.

			     When the and  flags  are  specified
			     together,	 any  of  the  character
			     class   names   are   accepted   in
			     string2;  otherwise, only character
			     class  names  or  are  accepted  in
			     string2 and then only if the corre‐
			     sponding	character   class    and
			     respectively)  is	specified in the
			     same relative position in	string1.
			     Such a specification is interpreted
			     as a request for case conversion.

			     When appears in string1 and appears
			     in	 string2, the arrays contain the
			     characters from the mapping in  the
			     category  of  the	current	 locale.
			     When appears in string1 and appears
			     in	 string2, the arrays contain the
			     characters from the mapping in  the
			     category of the current locale.

	      Stands  for  all	the  characters or
	      collating elements belonging to  the
			     equivalence  class as
			     c, as defined by  the
			     current   setting	of
			     locale  category.	An
			     equivalence     class
			     expression is allowed
			     only  in  string1, or
			     in string2 when it is
			     being   used  by  the
			     combined and options.

	      Stands for     n repetitions  of	a.
			     If the first digit of
			     n is n is	considered
			     octal;  otherwise,	 n
			     is treated as a deci‐
			     mal value.	 A zero or
			     missing n	is  inter‐
			     preted    as    large
			     enough   to    extend
			     sequence	 to    the
			     length	of     the

       The  escape character can be used as in the
       shell to remove special	meaning	 from  any
       character  in  a string.	 In addition, fol‐
       lowed by 1, 2, or 3 octal digits represents
       the  character whose ASCII code is given by
       those digits.

       An  ASCII  NULL	character  in  string1	or
       string2	can  be	 represented  only  as	an
       escaped character; i.e. as but  is  treated
       like  other  characters and translated cor‐
       rectly if so specified.	NULL characters in
       the  input  are not stripped out unless the
       option is given.

   Environment Variables
       provides a default value for  the  interna‐
       tionalization  variables	 that are unset or
       null. If is  unset  or  null,  the  default
       value  of "C" (see lang(5)) is used. If any
       of the internationalization variables  con‐
       tains an invalid setting, will behave as if
       all internationalization variables are  set
       to "C".	See environ(5).

       If  set	to a non-empty string value, over‐
       rides the values of all the other  interna‐
       tionalization variables.

       determines  the	interpretation	of text as
       single and/or  multi-byte  characters,  the
       classification  of characters as printable,
       and the	characters  matched  by	 character
       class expressions in regular expressions.

       determines  the	locale that should be used
       to affect the format and contents of  diag‐
       nostic  messages	 written to standard error
       and informative messages written	 to  stan‐
       dard output.

       determines  the	location  of message cata‐
       logues for the processing of

       exits with one of the following values:

	      All  input  was  processed  success‐

	      An error occurred.

       For  the	 ASCII	character  set and default
       collation sequence, create a  list  of  all
       the  words in file1, one per line in file2,
       where a word  is	 taken	to  be	a  maximal
       string  of  alphabetics.	 Quote the strings
       to  protect  the	 special  characters  from
       interpretation  by  the	shell  (012 is the
       ASCII code for a new-line (line feed) char‐

       Same  as	 above, but for all character sets
       and collation sequences:

       Translate  all  lower  case  characters	in
       file1 to upper case and write the result to
       standard output.

       Use  an	equivalence  class   to	  identify
       accented	 variants of the base character in
       file1, strip them of diacritical marks  and
       write the result to file2:

       Translate  each digit in file1 to a (number
       sign), and write the result to file2.

       The (asterisk) tells to repeat the  (number
       sign)  enough  times  to	 make  the  second
       string as long as the first one.

       was developed by OSF and HP.

       ed(1),	sh(1),	  ascii(5),    environ(5),
       lang(5), regexp(5).


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