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ypserv(1M)							    ypserv(1M)

       ypserv,	ypbind,	 ypxfrd	 -  Network  Information Service (NIS) server,
       binder, and transfer processes



       The Network Information Service (NIS)  was  formerly  known  as	Yellow
       Pages  (YP).   The  functionality  remains  the same; only the name has

       The Network Information Service (NIS) provides a simple network	lookup
       service	consisting of databases and processes.	The databases are ndbm
       files in a directory tree rooted at (see ndbm(3X)).   These  files  are
       described  in  ypfiles(4).  The processes are which is the NIS database
       lookup server, and which is the NIS binder.  Both and are  daemon  pro‐
       cesses  activated at system startup time when the or variable is set to
       1, for and the variable is set to 1, for in the file.

       The NIS programmatic interface is described in ypclnt(3C).  Administra‐
       tive   tools  are  described  in	 ypwhich(1),  yppoll(1M),  yppush(1M),
       ypset(1M) and ypxfr(1M).	 Tools to see the contents of NIS maps	(data‐
       bases)  are  described in ypcat(1) and ypmatch(1).  Database generation
       and maintenance tools are described  in	makedbm(1M),  ypinit(1M),  and
       ypmake(1M).  The command to set or show the default NIS domain is which
       is described in domainname(1).

       The daemon transfers entire NIS maps in an efficient manner.  For  sys‐
       tems  that  use this daemon, map transfers will be faster, depending on
       the map.	 should be run on the master  server.	(see  ypxfr(1M))  will
       attempt	to  use	 first.	 If that fails, it will use the older transfer
       method.	The daemon is activated at system startup  time	 when  the  or
       variable is set to 1 in the file.

       The  daemon's  primary  function is to look up information in its local
       database of NIS maps.  It runs only on NIS  server  machines  providing
       data from NIS databases.

       The  operations	performed by are defined for the implementor by the YP
       Protocol Specification, and for the programmer by the header file  Com‐
       munication  to  and  from  is  by  means	 of RPC.  Lookup functions are
       described in ypclnt(3C) and are supplied as C-callable functions in the
       TI-RPC library

       These  four  functions: and perform a lookup on a specific map within a
       NIS domain.  The operation matches a key to a record  in	 the  database
       and returns its associated value.  The operation returns the first key-
       value pair (record) from the map, and can be used to enumerate (sequen‐
       tially  retrieve) the remainder of the records.	returns all records in
       the map to the requester as the response to a single RPC request.

       A number of special keys in the DBM files can alter the	way  in	 which
       operates.  The keys of interest are:

	      The presence of this key makes
		     forward  host lookups that cannot be satisfied by the DBM
		     files to a DNS server.

	      This key makes
		     answer only questions coming  from	 clients  on  reserved

	      This is a special key in the form
		     "YP_MULTI_hostname addr1, ..., addrN".
		     A	client	looking	 for  hostname	receives  the  closest

       Two functions supply information about the map itself and not  the  map
       entries.	  These functions are and The order number is the time of last
       modification of a map.  The master name is the host name of the machine
       on  which  the master map is stored.  Both order number and master name
       exist in the map as special key-value pairs, but the  server  does  not
       return  these  through the normal lookup functions.  If you examine the
       map with or they are visible (see makedbm(1M)  or  yppoll(1M)).	 Other
       functions  are  used  within  the  NIS subsystem and are not of general
       interest to NIS clients.	 These include:

       The daemon remembers information that  lets  client  processes  on  its
       machine	communicate  with  a  process.	 The  daemon must run on every
       machine using NIS services, both NIS servers and clients.   The	daemon
       may  or may not be running on a NIS client machine, but it must be run‐
       ning somewhere on the network or be available through a gateway.

       The information that remembers is called a binding:  the association of
       a  NIS  domain name with the NIS server.	 This information is cached in
       the directory in the file called For example, if	 domain_name  is  then
       the information is cached in

       Client requests drive the binding process.  As a request for an unbound
       domain comes in, the process broadcasts on the  network,	 if  the  file
       does  not  exist, trying to find a process serving maps within that NIS
       domain.	If the binding should be established by broadcasting, at least
       one  process must exist on every network.  If the file is present, then
       will try to bind to one of the NIS servers in the order of its  listing
       in  the file. If was unable to bind to any one of the servers available
       in the list, it will try establishing a binding by  broadcasting.   The
       file,  containing  the  list of NIS servers is created by invoking with
       the option (see ypinit(1M)).  If is invoked with a option, will try  to
       establish  a binding by broadcast immaterial of the availability of the
       file that is, the option overrides the existence of  the	 file  Once  a
       binding	is  established for a client, it is given to subsequent client
       requests.  Execute to query the process (local and remote) for its cur‐
       rent binding (see ypwhich(1)).

       Bindings are verified before they are given to a client process.	 If is
       unable to transact with the process it is bound to, it marks the domain
       as  unbound,  tells  the client process that the domain is unbound, and
       tries to bind again.  Requests received	for  an	 unbound  domain  fail
       immediately.   Generally,  a bound domain is marked as unbound when the
       node running crashes or is overloaded.  In such a case,	binds  to  any
       NIS  server  (typically one that is less heavily loaded) that is avail‐
       able on the network.

       The daemon also accepts requests to set its binding  for	 a  particular
       domain.	 accesses the facility; it is for unsnarling messes and is not
       for casual use.

       recognizes the following options:

	      Log diagnostic and error messages to the file,

			     If is started without the option, writes its mes‐
			     sages to if that file exists.

			     If is started without the option, writes its mes‐
			     sages directly to the system console,

			     Information logged to the file includes the  date
			     and  time	of  the	 message,  the	host name, the
			     process id and name of  the  function  generating
			     the  message,  and the message itself.  Note that
			     different services can share a  single  log  file
			     since  enough information is included to uniquely
			     identify each message.

	      The NIS service must approach the DNS for more host
			     information.  This requires the  existence	 of  a
			     correct  file  pointing at a machine running This
			     option  enables  DNS  forwarding  regardless   of
			     whether or not the flag is set in the hosts maps.
			     See makedbm(1M).  In the absence of an file, com‐
			     plains, but ignores the option.

	      Operate in the verbose mode, printing diagnostic
			     messages to stderr.

       recognizes the following options:

	      Log diagnostic and error messages to the file,
			     log_file.	See the description above.

	      Enable secure mode in
			     When  specified,  only  NIS  servers  bound  to a
			     reserved port are used.  This allows for a slight
			     increase  in  security  in	 completely controlled
			     environments, where there are no computers	 oper‐
			     ated by untrusted individuals.  It offers no sig‐
			     nificant  increase	 in  security.	 This	option
			     should  be used in conjunction with the broadcast
			     mode and is transport specific.

	      Allow	     to be used to change the binding (see ypset(1M)).
			     For  maximum security, this option should be used
			     only when debugging the  network  from  a	remote

	      Allow	     to	 be  issued from this machine (see ypset(1M)).
			     Security is based on IP address  checking,	 which
			     can be defeated on networks where untrusted indi‐
			     viduals may inject packets.  This option  is  not

	      When	     is	 invoked  with this option, will try to estab‐
			     lish a binding by broadcast even though the  file
			     exists.  That  is, the option overrides the exis‐
			     tence of this file.

			     If is used in conjunction	with  the  or  option,
			     then  the	binds using the method and the binding
			     can be changed  by	 using	the  command.	If  is
			     invoked  with the or option, the NIS servers list
			     in the file is used for initial binding  and  the
			     binding can be changed by using the command.

       NIS uses ndbm files to store maps. Therefore, it is subject to the 1024
       byte limitations described in the section of the ndbm(3X) man page.

       Starting with ONCplus version B.11.31.02, the NIS Version 1 protocol is
       no longer available.

       and were developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.

       This  file  caches  the	last  successful binding created for the given
       domain, domain_name, in order to to speed up the binding process.  When
       a  binding  is  requested,  this	 file is checked for validity and then

       This file is read by both
	      and at startup time.  It defines the hosts  and  networks	 which
	      are granted access to information in the served domain.

       This file is read by
	      It  contains  a list of IP addresses that will receive a binding

       This file is read by
	      It contains the list of NIS servers that will  attempt  to  bind
	      to, if is not invoked with a option.

       domainname(1),	 ypcat(1),    ypmatch(1),   yppasswd(1),   ypwhich(1),
       makedbm(1M),  rpcinfo(1M),   ypinit(1M),	  ypmake(1M),	yppasswdd(1M),
       yppoll(1M), yppush(1M), ypset(1M), ypxfr(1M), ypclnt(3C), yppasswd(3N),
       ndbm(3X), ypfiles(4).


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