Crypt::SSLeay man page on Oracle

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SSLeay(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	     SSLeay(3)

       Crypt::SSLeay - OpenSSL support for LWP


	   use LWP::UserAgent;
	   my $ua  = LWP::UserAgent->new;
	   my $response = $ua->get('');
	   print $response->content, "\n";

       This Perl module provides support for the HTTPS protocol under LWP, to
       allow an "LWP::UserAgent" object to perform GET, HEAD and POST
       requests. Please see LWP for more information on POST requests.

       The "Crypt::SSLeay" package provides "Net::SSL", which is loaded by
       "LWP::Protocol::https" for https requests and provides the necessary
       SSL glue.

       This distribution also makes following deprecated modules available:


       Work on Crypt::SSLeay has been continued only to provide https support
       for the LWP (libwww-perl) libraries.

       The following environment variables change the way "Crypt::SSLeay" and
       "Net::SSL" behave.

   Proxy Support
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = 'http://proxy_hostname_or_ip:port';

   Proxy Basic Authentication
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_USERNAME} = 'username';
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_PASSWORD} = 'password';

   SSL diagnostics and Debugging
	   $ENV{HTTPS_DEBUG} = 1;

   Default SSL Version
	   $ENV{HTTPS_VERSION} = '3';

   Client Certificate Support
	   $ENV{HTTPS_CERT_FILE} = 'certs/notacacert.pem';
	   $ENV{HTTPS_KEY_FILE}	 = 'certs/notacakeynopass.pem';

   CA cert Peer Verification
	   $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE}	 = 'certs/ca-bundle.crt';
	   $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR}	 = 'certs/';

   Client PKCS12 cert support
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PKCS12_FILE}     = 'certs/pkcs12.pkcs12';

       You must have OpenSSL installed before compiling this module. You can
       get the latest OpenSSL package from <>. We no
       longer support pre-2000 versions of OpenSSL.

       If you are building OpenSSL from source, please follow the directions
       included in the package.

       If you are going to use an OpenSSL library which you built from source
       or whose header and library files are not in a place searched by your
       compiler by default, make sure you set appropriate environment
       variables before trying to build "Crypt::SSLeay".

       For example, if you are using ActiveState Perl and MinGW installed
       using ppm, and you installed OpenSSL in "C:\opt\openssl-1.0.1c", then
       you would issue the following commands to build "Crypt::SSLeay":

	   C:\...\> set LIBRARY_PATH=C:\opt\openssl-1.0.1c\lib;%LIBRARY_PATH%
	   C:\...\> set CPATH=C:\opt\openssl-1.0.1c\include;%CPATH%
	   C:\...\> perl Makefile.PL --live-tests
	   C:\...\> dmake test

       On Linux/BSD/Solaris/GNU etc systems, you would use make rather than
       dmake, but you would need to set the same variables if your OpenSSL
       library is in a custom location. If everything builds OK, but you get
       failures when during tests, ensure that "LD_LIBRARY_PATH" points to the
       location where the correct shared libraries are located.

       If you are using a Microsoft compiler (keep in mind that perl and
       OpenSSL need to have been built using the same compiler as well), you
       would use:

	   C:\...\> set LIB=C:\opt\openssl-1.0.1c\lib;%LIB%
	   C:\...\> set INCLUDE=C:\opt\openssl-1.0.1c\include;%INCLUDE%
	   C:\...\> perl Makefile.PL --live-tests
	   C:\...\> nmake test

       Depending on your OS, pre-built OpenSSL packages may be available. You
       may need to install a development version of your operating system's
       OpenSSL library package. The key is that "Crypt::SSLeay" makes calls to
       the OpenSSL library, and how to do so is specified in the C header
       files that come with the library. Some systems break out the header
       files into a separate package from that of the libraries. Once the
       program has been built, you don't need the headers any more.

       The latest Crypt::SSLeay can be found at your nearest CPAN, as well as

       Once you have downloaded it, "Crypt::SSLeay" installs easily using the
       standard build process:

	   perl Makefile.PL
	   make test
	   make install

       On Windows systems, both Strawberry Perl and ActiveState (as a separate
       download via ppm) projects include a MingW based compiler distribution
       and dmake which can be used to build both OpenSSL and "Crypt::SSLeay".
       If you have such a set up, use dmake above.

       Makefile.PL takes two optional arguments:

	   Boolean. Specifies whether we should try to connect to an HTTPS URL
	   during testing. Default is false.

	   To skip live tests, you can use

	       perl Makefile.PL --no-live-tests

	   and to force live tests, you can use

	       perl Makefile.PL --live-tests

	   Boolean. Default is false. (TODO: Does it work?)

       For unattended (batch) installations, to be absolutely certain that
       Makefile.PL does not prompt for questions on STDIN, set the environment
       variable "PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT=1" as with any CPAN module built using


       "Crypt::SSLeay" builds correctly with Strawberry Perl and ActiveState
       Perl using the bundled MinGW.

       For ActiveState Perl users, the ActiveState company does not have a
       permit from the Canadian Federal Government to distribute cryptographic
       software.  This prevents "Crypt::SSLeay" from being distributed as a
       PPM package from their repository.

       for more information on this issue. You may be able to download a PPM
       for "Crypt::SSLeay" from an alternative repository (see


       I do not have any experience with VMS. If OpenSSL headers and libraries
       are not in standard locations searched by your build system by default,
       please set things up so that they are. If you have generic instructions
       on how to do it, please open a ticket on RT with the information so I
       can add it to this document.

       LWP::UserAgent and Crypt::SSLeay have their own versions of proxy
       support. Please read these sections to see which one is appropriate.

   LWP::UserAgent proxy support
       "LWP::UserAgent" has its own methods of proxying which may work for you
       and is likely to be incompatible with "Crypt::SSLeay" proxy support.
       To use "LWP::UserAgent" proxy support, try something like:

	   my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;
	   $ua->proxy([qw( https http )], "$proxy_ip:$proxy_port");

       At the time of this writing, libwww v5.6 seems to proxy https requests
       fine with an Apache mod_proxy server.  It sends a line like:

	   GET HTTP/1.1

       to the proxy server, which is not the "CONNECT" request that some
       proxies would expect, so this may not work with other proxy servers
       than mod_proxy. The "CONNECT" method is used by "Crypt::SSLeay"'s
       internal proxy support.

   Crypt::SSLeay proxy support
       For native "Crypt::SSLeay" proxy support of https requests, you need to
       set the environment variable "HTTPS_PROXY" to your proxy server and
       port, as in:

	   # proxy support
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = 'http://proxy_hostname_or_ip:port';
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = '';

       Use of the "HTTPS_PROXY" environment variable in this way is similar to
       "LWP::UserAgent-"env_proxy()> usage, but calling that method will
       likely override or break the "Crypt::SSLeay" support, so do not mix the

       Basic auth credentials to the proxy server can be provided this way:

	   # proxy_basic_auth
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_USERNAME} = 'username';
	   $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_PASSWORD} = 'password';

       For an example of LWP scripting with "Crypt::SSLeay" native proxy
       support, please look at the eg/lwp-ssl-test script in the
       "Crypt::SSLeay" distribution.

       Client certificates are supported. PEM encoded certificate and private
       key files may be used like this:

	   $ENV{HTTPS_CERT_FILE} = 'certs/notacacert.pem';
	   $ENV{HTTPS_KEY_FILE}	 = 'certs/notacakeynopass.pem';

       You may test your files with the eg/net-ssl-test program, bundled with
       the distribution, by issuing a command like:

	   perl eg/net-ssl-test -cert=certs/notacacert.pem \
	       -key=certs/notacakeynopass.pem -d GET $HOST_NAME

       Additionally, if you would like to tell the client where the CA file
       is, you may set these.

	   $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE} = "some_file";
	   $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR}  = "some_dir";

       Note that, if specified, $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE} must point to the actual
       certificate file. That is, $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR} is *not* the path were
       $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE} is located.

       For certificates in $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR} to be picked up, follow the
       instructions on

       There is no sample CA cert file at this time for testing, but you may
       configure eg/net-ssl-test to use your CA cert with the -CAfile option.

       (TODO: then what is the ./certs directory in the distribution?)

   Creating a test certificate
       To create simple test certificates with OpenSSL, you may run the
       following command:

	   openssl req -config /usr/local/openssl/openssl.cnf \
	       -new -days 365 -newkey rsa:1024 -x509 \
	       -keyout notacakey.pem -out notacacert.pem

       To remove the pass phrase from the key file, run:

	   openssl rsa -in notacakey.pem -out notacakeynopass.pem

   PKCS12 support
       The directives for enabling use of PKCS12 certificates is:

	   $ENV{HTTPS_PKCS12_FILE}     = 'certs/pkcs12.pkcs12';

       Use of this type of certificate takes precedence over previous
       certificate settings described.

       (TODO: unclear? Meaning "the presence of this type of certificate"?)

SSL versions
       "Crypt::SSLeay" tries very hard to connect to any SSL web server
       accomodating servers that are buggy, old or simply not standards-
       compliant. To this effect, this module will try SSL connections in this

       SSL v23
	   should allow v2 and v3 servers to pick their best type

       SSL v3
	   best connection type

       SSL v2
	   old connection type

       Unfortunately, some servers seem not to handle a reconnect to SSL v3
       after a failed connect of SSL v23 is tried, so you may set before using
       LWP or Net::SSL:


       to force a version 3 SSL connection first. At this time only a version
       2 SSL connection will be tried after this, as the connection attempt
       order remains unchanged by this setting.

       Many thanks to the following individuals who helped improve

       Gisle Aas for writing this module and many others including libwww, for
       perl. The web will never be the same :)

       Ben Laurie deserves kudos for his excellent patches for better error
       handling, SSL information inspection, and random seeding.

       Dongqiang Bai for host name resolution fix when using a proxy.

       Stuart Horner of Core Communications, Inc. who found the need for
       building "--shared" OpenSSL libraries.

       Pavel Hlavnicka for a patch for freeing memory when using a pkcs12
       file, and for inspiring more robust "read()" behavior.

       James Woodyatt is a champ for finding a ridiculous memory leak that has
       been the bane of many a Crypt::SSLeay user.

       Bryan Hart for his patch adding proxy support, and thanks to Tobias
       Manthey for submitting another approach.

       Alex Rhomberg for Alpha linux ccc patch.

       Tobias Manthey for his patches for client certificate support.

       Daisuke Kuroda for adding PKCS12 certificate support.

       Gamid Isayev for CA cert support and insights into error messaging.

       Jeff Long for working through a tricky CA cert SSLClientVerify issue.

       Chip Turner for a patch to build under perl 5.8.0.

       Joshua Chamas for the time he spent maintaining the module.

       Jeff Lavallee for help with alarms on read failures (CPAN bug #12444).

       Guenter Knauf for significant improvements in configuring things in
       Win32 and Netware lands and Jan Dubois for various suggestions for

       and many others who provided bug reports, suggestions, fixes and

	   If you have downloaded this distribution as of a dependency of
	   another distribution, it's probably due to this module (which is
	   included in this distribution).

	   Net::SSLeay provides access to the OpenSSL API directly from Perl.
	   See <>.

       OpenSSL binary packages for Windows
	   See <>.

       For use of "Crypt::SSLeay" & "Net::SSL" with Perl's LWP, please send
       email to "".

       For OpenSSL or general SSL support, including issues associated with
       building and installing OpenSSL on your system, please email the
       OpenSSL users mailing list at "". See
       <> for other mailing lists
       and archives.

       Please report all bugs using

       This module was originally written by Gisle Aas, and was subsequently
       maintained by Joshua Chamas, David Landgren, brian d foy and Sinan

       Copyright (c) 2010-2012 A. Sinan Unur

       Copyright (c) 2006-2007 David Landgren

       Copyright (c) 1999-2003 Joshua Chamas

       Copyright (c) 1998 Gisle Aas

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of Artistic License 2.0 (see

perl v5.16.3			  2012-08-05			     SSLeay(3)

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