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Date::Manip::DM6(3)   User Contributed Perl Documentation  Date::Manip::DM6(3)

       Date::Manip::DM6 - Date manipulation routines

	  use Date::Manip;

	  $version = DateManipVersion($flag);


	  $date = ParseDate(\@args);
	  $date = ParseDate($string);
	  $date = ParseDate(\$string);

	  $date = ParseDateString($string);

	  @date = UnixDate($date,@format);
	  $date = UnixDate($date,@format);

	  $delta = ParseDateDelta(\@args   [,$mode]);
	  $delta = ParseDateDelta($string  [,$mode]);
	  $delta = ParseDateDelta(\$string [,$mode]);

	  @str = Delta_Format($delta, [$mode,] $dec,@format);
	  $str = Delta_Format($delta, [$mode,] $dec,@format);

	  $recur = ParseRecur($string,$base,$date0,$date1,$flags);
	  @dates = ParseRecur($string,$base,$date0,$date1,$flags);

	  $flag = Date_Cmp($date1,$date2);

	  $d = DateCalc($d1,$d2 [,$errref] [,$mode]);

	  $date = Date_SetTime($date,$hr,$min,$sec);
	  $date = Date_SetTime($date,$time);

	  $date = Date_SetDateField($date,$field,$val [,$nocheck]);

	  $date = Date_GetPrev($date,$dow,$today,$hr,$min,$sec);
	  $date = Date_GetPrev($date,$dow,$today,$time);

	  $date = Date_GetNext($date,$dow,$today,$hr,$min,$sec);
	  $date = Date_GetNext($date,$dow,$today,$time);

	  $name = Date_IsHoliday($date);
	  @name = Date_IsHoliday($date);

	  $listref = Events_List($date);
	  $listref = Events_List($date0,$date1);

	  $date = Date_ConvTZ($date,$from,$to);

	  $flag = Date_IsWorkDay($date [,$flag]);

	  $date = Date_NextWorkDay($date,$off [,$time]);

	  $date = Date_PrevWorkDay($date,$off [,$time]);

	  $date = Date_NearestWorkDay($date [,$tomorrowfirst]);

       In the following routines, $y may be entered as either a 2 or 4 digit
       year (it will be converted to a 4 digit year based on the variable
       YYtoYYYY described below).  Month and day should be numeric in all

	  $day = Date_DayOfWeek($m,$d,$y);
	  $secs = Date_SecsSince1970($m,$d,$y,$h,$mn,$s);
	  $secs = Date_SecsSince1970GMT($m,$d,$y,$h,$mn,$s);
	  $days = Date_DaysSince1BC($m,$d,$y);
	  $day = Date_DayOfYear($m,$d,$y);
	  ($y,$m,$d,$h,$mn,$s) = Date_NthDayOfYear($y,$n);
	  $days = Date_DaysInYear($y);
	  $days = Date_DaysInMonth($m,$y);
	  $wkno = Date_WeekOfYear($m,$d,$y,$first);
	  $flag = Date_LeapYear($y);
	  $day = Date_DaySuffix($d);
	  $tz = Date_TimeZone();

	      $version = DateManipVersion($flag);

	   Returns the version of Date::Manip.	If $flag is non-zero, timezone
	   information is also returned.


	   The Date_Init function is used to set any of the Date::Manip
	   configuration variables described in the Date::Manip::Config

	   The strings to pass in are of the form "VAR=VAL".  Any number may
	   be included and they can come in any order.	VAR may be any
	   configuration variable.  VAL is any allowed value for that
	   variable.  For example, to switch from English to French and use
	   non-US format (so that 12/10 is Oct 12), do the following:


	   Note that variables are parsed in the order they are given, so
	   "DateFormat=non-US", "ConfigFile=./manip.cnf" may not give the
	   expected result. To be safe, ConfigFile should always appear first
	   in the list.

	      $date = ParseDate(\@args);
	      $date = ParseDate($string);
	      $date = ParseDate(\$string);

	   This takes an array or a string containing a date and parses it.
	   When the date is included as an array (for example, the arguments
	   to a program) the array should contain a valid date in the first
	   one or more elements (elements after a valid date are ignored).
	   Elements containing a valid date are shifted from the array.	 The
	   largest possible number of elements which can be correctly
	   interpreted as a valid date are always used.	 If a string is
	   entered rather than an array, that string is tested for a valid
	   date.  The string is unmodified, even if passed in by reference.

	   The ParseDate routine is primarily used to handle command line
	   arguments.  If you have a command where you want to enter a date as
	   a command line argument, you can use Date::Manip to make something
	   like the following work:

	      mycommand -date Dec 10 1997 -arg -arg2

	   No more reading man pages to find out what date format is required
	   in a man page.

	   Historical note: this is originally why the Date::Manip routines
	   were written (though long before they were released as the
	   Date::Manip module).	 I was using a bunch of programs (primarily
	   batch queue managers) where dates and times were entered as command
	   line options and I was getting highly annoyed at the many different
	   (but not compatible) ways that they had to be entered.  Date::Manip
	   originally consisted of basically 1 routine which I could pass
	   "@ARGV" to and have it remove a date from the beginning.

	      $date = ParseDateString($string);

	   This parses a string containing a date and returns it. Refer to the
	   Date::Manip::Date documentation for valid date formats. The date
	   returned is in the local time zone.

	      $out = UnixDate($date,$in);
	      @out = UnixDate($date,@in);

	   This takes a date and a list of strings containing formats roughly
	   identical to the format strings used by the UNIX date(1) command.
	   Each format is parsed and an array of strings corresponding to each
	   format is returned.

	   The formats are described in the Date::Manip::Date document.

	      $delta = ParseDateDelta(\@args   [,$mode]);
	      $delta = ParseDateDelta($string  [,$mode]);
	      $delta = ParseDateDelta(\$string [,$mode]);

	   In the first form, it takes an array and shifts a valid delta from
	   it.	In the other two forms, it parses a string to see if it
	   contains a valid delta.

	   A valid delta is returned if found. Otherwise, an empty string is

	   The delta can be converted to 'exact', 'semi', or 'approx' using
	   the Date::Manip::Delta::convert method if $mode is passed in.

	      $out = Delta_Format($delta [,$mode], $dec,$in);
	      @out = Delta_Format($delta [,$mode], $dec,@in);

	   This is similar to the UnixDate routine except that it extracts
	   information from a delta.

	   When formatting fields in a delta, the Date::Manip 6.00 formats
	   have changed and are much more powerful. The old 5.xx formats are
	   still available for the Delta_Format command for backward
	   compatibility. These formats include:

	      %Xv  : print the value of the field X

	      %Xd  : print the value of the field X and all
		     smaller units in terms of X

	      %Xh  : print the value of field X and all
		     larger units in terms of X

	      %Xt  : print the value of all fields in
		     terms of X

	   These make use of the $mode and $dec arguments to determine how to
	   format the information.

	   $dec is an integer, and is required, It tells the number of decimal
	   places to use.

	   $mode is either "exact", "semi", or "approx" and defaults to
	   "exact" if it is not included.

	   In "exact" mode, only exact relationships are used.	This means
	   that there can be no mixing of the Y/M, W/D, and H/MN/S segments
	   (for non-business deltas, or Y/M, W, and D/H/MN/S segments for
	   business deltas) because there is no exact relation between the
	   fields of each set.

	   In "semi" mode, the semi-approximate relationships are used so
	   there is no mixing between Y/M and W/D/H/MN/S.

	   In "approx" mode, approximate relationships are used so all fields
	   can mix.

	   The semi-approximate and approximate relationships are described in
	   the Date::Manip::Delta manual.

	   So, in "exact" mode, with a non-business delta, and $dec = 2, the
	   following are equivalent:

	      old style	   new style
	      ---------	   ---------
	      %Xv	   %Xv
	      %hd	   %.2hhs
	      %hh	   %.2hdh
	      %ht	   %.2hds
	      %yd	   %.2yyM

	   In "approximate" mode, the following are equivalent:

	      old style	   new style
	      ---------	   ---------
	      %Xv	   %Xv
	      %hd	   %.2hhs
	      %hh	   %.2hdh
	      %ht	   %.2hys
	      %yd	   %.2yys

	   If you want to use the new style formats in Delta_Format, use one
	   of the calls:

	      Delta_Format($delta, @in);
	      Delta_Format($delta, undef, @in);

	   If the first element of @in is an integer, you have to use the 2nd

	   The old formats will remain available for the time being, though at
	   some point they may be deprecated.

	    $d = DateCalc($d1,$d2 [,\$err] [,$mode]);

	   This takes two dates, deltas, or one of each and performs the
	   appropriate calculation with them.  Dates must be a string that can
	   be parsed by ParseDateString.  Deltas must be a string that can be
	   parsed by ParseDateDelta.  Two deltas add together to form a third
	   delta.  A date and a delta returns a 2nd date.  Two dates return a
	   delta (the difference between the two dates).

	   Since the two items can be interpreted as either dates or deltas,
	   and since many strings can be interpreted as both a date or a
	   delta, it is a good idea to pass the input through ParseDateDelta,
	   if appropriate if there is any ambiguity. For example, the string
	   "09:00:00" can be interpreted either as a date (today at 9:00:00)
	   or a delta (9 hours). To avoid unexpected results, avoid calling
	   DateCalc as:

	     $d = DateCalc("09:00:00",$someothervalue);

	   Instead, call it as:

	     $d = DateCalc(ParseDate("09:00:00"),$someothervalue);

	   to force it to be a date, or:

	     $d = DateCalc(ParseDateDelta("09:00:00"),$someothervalue);

	   to force it to be a delta. This will avoid unexpected results.
	   Passing something through ParseDate is optional since they will be
	   treated as dates by default (and for performance reasons, you're
	   better off not calling ParseDate).

	   If there is no ambiguity, you are better off NOT doing this for
	   performance reasons. If the delta is a business delta, you
	   definitely should NOT do this.

	   One other thing to note is that when parsing dates, a delta can be
	   interpreted as a date relative to now. DateCalc will ALWAYS treat a
	   delta as a delta, NOT a date.

	   For details on how calculations are done, refer to the
	   Date::Manip::Calc documentation.

	   By default, math is done using an exact mode.

	   If two deltas, or a date and a delta are passed in, $mode may be
	   used to force the delta to be either business or non-business mode
	   deltas.  If $mode is 0 or 1, the delta(s) will be non-business.
	   Otherwise, they will be business deltas. If $mode is passed in, it
	   will be used only if the business or non-business state was not
	   explicitly set in the delta.

	   If two dates are passed in, $mode is used to determine the type of
	   calculation.	 By default, an exact delta is produced.  If $mode is
	   1, an approximate delta is produced.	 If $mode is 2, a business
	   approximate (bapprox) mode calculation is done.  If $mode is 3, a
	   exact business mode delta is produced.

	   If \$err is passed in, it is set to:
	      1 is returned if $d1 is not a delta or date
	      2 is returned if $d2 is not a delta or date
	      3 if any other error occurs.  This argument is optional, but if
	   included, it must come before $mode.

	   Nothing is returned if an error occurs.

	      $recur = ParseRecur($string [,$base,$date0,$date1,$flags]);
	      @dates = ParseRecur($string [,$base,$date0,$date1,$flags]);

	   This parses a string containing a recurrence and returns a fully
	   specified recurrence, or a list of dates referred to.

	   $string can be any of the forms:


	   where FREQ is a frequence (see the Date::Manip::Delta
	   documentation), FLAGS is a comma separated list of flags, and BASE,
	   DATE0, and DATE1 are date strings. The dates and flags can also be
	   passed in as $base, $date0, $date1, and $flags, and these will
	   override any values in $string.

	   In scalar context, the fully specified recurrence (or as much
	   information as is available) will be returned. In list context, a
	   list of dates will be returned.

	      $flag = Date_Cmp($date1,$date2);

	   This takes two dates and compares them. Any dates that can be
	   parsed will be compared.

	      $date = Date_GetPrev($date,$dow, $curr [,$hr,$min,$sec]);
	      $date = Date_GetPrev($date,$dow, $curr [,$time]);
	      $date = Date_GetPrev($date,undef,$curr,$hr,$min,$sec);
	      $date = Date_GetPrev($date,undef,$curr,$time);

	   This takes a date (any string that may be parsed by
	   ParseDateString) and finds the previous occurrence of either a day
	   of the week, or a certain time of day.

	   This is documented in the "prev" method in Date::Manip::Date,
	   except that here, $time is a string (HH, HH:MN:, or HH:MN:SS), and
	   $dow may be a string of the form "Fri" or "Friday".

	      $date = Date_GetNext($date,$dow, $curr [,$hr,$min,$sec]);
	      $date = Date_GetNext($date,$dow, $curr [,$time]);
	      $date = Date_GetNext($date,undef,$curr,$hr,$min,$sec);
	      $date = Date_GetNext($date,undef,$curr,$time);

	   Similar to Date_GetPrev.

	      $date = Date_SetTime($date,$hr,$min,$sec);
	      $date = Date_SetTime($date,$time);

	   This takes a date (any string that may be parsed by
	   ParseDateString) and sets the time in that date.  For example, one
	   way to get the time for 7:30 tomorrow would be to use the lines:

	      $date = ParseDate("tomorrow");
	      $date = Date_SetTime($date,"7:30");

	   $time is a string (HH, HH:MN, or HH:MN:SS).

	      $date = Date_SetDateField($date,$field,$val);

	   This takes a date and sets one of its fields to a new value.
	   $field is any of the strings "y", "m", "d", "h", "mn", "s" (case
	   insensitive) and $val is the new value.

	      $name = Date_IsHoliday($date);
	      @name = Date_IsHoliday($date);

	   This returns undef if $date is not a holiday, or a string
	   containing the name of the holiday otherwise (or a list of names in
	   list context).  An empty string is returned for an unnamed holiday.

	      $flag = Date_IsWorkDay($date [,$flag]);

	   This returns 1 if $date is a work day.  If $flag is non-zero, the
	   time is checked to see if it falls within work hours.  It returns
	   an empty string if $date is not valid.

	      $ref = Events_List($date);
	      $ref = Events_List($date,0      [,$flag]);
	      $ref = Events_List($date,$date1 [,$flag]);

	   This returns a list of events. If $flag is not given, or is equal
	   to 0, the list (returned as a reference) is similar to the the list
	   returned by the Date::Manip::Date::list_events method with $format
	   = "dates".  The only difference is that it is formatted slightly
	   different to be backward compatible with Date::Manip 5.xx.

	   The data from the list_events method is:

	      ( [DATE1, NAME1a, NAME1b, ...],
		[DATE2, NAME2a, NAME2b, ...],

	   The reference returned from Events_List (if $flag = 0) is:

	      [ DATE1, [NAME1a, NAME1b, ...],
		DATE2, [DATE2a, DATE2b, ...],

	   For example, if the following events are defined:

	     2000-01-01 ; 2000-03-21  = Winter
	     2000-03-22 ; 2000-06-21  = Spring
	     2000-02-01		      = Event1
	     2000-05-01		      = Event2
	     2000-04-01-12:00:00      = Event3

	   the following examples illustrate the function:

	      => [ 2000040100:00:00, [ Spring ] ]

	     Events_List("2000-04-01 12:30");
	      => [ 2000040112:30:00, [ Spring, Event3 ] ]

	      => [ 2000040100:00:00, [ Spring ],
		   2000040112:00:00, [ Spring, Event3 ],
		   2000040113:00:00, [ Spring ] ]

	      => [ 2000031500:00:00, [ Winter ],
		   2000032200:00:00, [ Spring ]
		   2000040112:00:00, [ Spring, Event3 ]
		   2000040113:00:00, [ Spring ] ]

	   If $flag is 1, then a tally of the amount of time given to each
	   event is returned.  Time for which two or more events apply is
	   counted for both.

	      => { Event3 => +0:0:+0:0:1:0:0,
		   Spring => +0:0:+2:4:23:0:0,
		   Winter => +0:0:+1:0:0:0:0

	   When $flag is 2, a more complex tally with no event counted twice
	   is returned.

	      => { Event3+Spring => +0:0:+0:0:1:0:0,
		   Spring	 => +0:0:+2:4:22:0:0,
		   Winter	 => +0:0:+1:0:0:0:0

	   The hash contains one element for each combination of events.

	   In both of these cases, there may be a hash element with an empty
	   string as the key which contains the amount of time with no events

	      $day = Date_DayOfWeek($m,$d,$y);

	   Returns the day of the week (1 for Monday, 7 for Sunday).

	      $secs = Date_SecsSince1970($m,$d,$y,$h,$mn,$s);

	   Returns the number of seconds since Jan 1, 1970 00:00 (negative if
	   date is earlier).

	      $secs = Date_SecsSince1970GMT($m,$d,$y,$h,$mn,$s);

	   Returns the number of seconds since Jan 1, 1970 00:00 GMT (negative
	   if date is earlier).

	      $days = Date_DaysSince1BC($m,$d,$y);

	   Returns the number of days since Dec 31, 1BC.  This includes the
	   year 0001.

	      $day = Date_DayOfYear($m,$d,$y);

	   Returns the day of the year (1 to 366)

	      ($y,$m,$d,$h,$mn,$s) = Date_NthDayOfYear($y,$n);

	   Returns the year, month, day, hour, minutes, and decimal seconds
	   given a floating point day of the year.

	   All arguments must be numeric.  $n must be greater than or equal to
	   1 and less than 366 on non-leap years and 367 on leap years.

	   NOTE: When $n is a decimal number, the results are non-intuitive
	   perhaps.  Day 1 is Jan 01 00:00.  Day 2 is Jan 02 00:00.
	   Intuitively, you might think of day 1.5 as being 1.5 days after Jan
	   01 00:00, but this would mean that Day 1.5 was Jan 02 12:00 (which
	   is later than Day 2).  The best way to think of this function is a
	   time line starting at 1 and ending at 366 (in a non-leap year).  In
	   terms of a delta, think of $n as the number of days after Dec 31
	   00:00 of the previous year.

	      $days = Date_DaysInYear($y);

	   Returns the number of days in the year (365 or 366)

	      $days = Date_DaysInMonth($m,$y);

	   Returns the number of days in the month.

	      $wkno = Date_WeekOfYear($m,$d,$y,$first);

	   Figure out week number.  $first is the first day of the week which
	   is usually 1 (Monday) or 7 (Sunday), but could be any number
	   between 1 and 7 in practice.

	   NOTE: This routine should only be called in rare cases.  Use
	   UnixDate with the %W, %U, %J, %L formats instead.  This routine
	   returns a week between 0 and 53 which must then be "fixed" to get
	   into the ISO-8601 weeks from 1 to 53.  A date which returns a week
	   of 0 actually belongs to the last week of the previous year.	 A
	   date which returns a week of 53 may belong to the first week of the
	   next year.

	      $flag = Date_LeapYear($y);

	   Returns 1 if the argument is a leap year Written by David Muir
	   Sharnoff <>

	      $day = Date_DaySuffix($d);

	   Add `st', `nd', `rd', `th' to a date (i.e. 1st, 22nd, 29th).	 Works
	   for international dates.

	      $tz = Date_TimeZone;

	   This determines and returns the local time zone.  If it is unable
	   to determine the local time zone, the following error occurs:

	      ERROR: Date::Manip unable to determine Time Zone.

	   See the Date::Manip::TZ documentation (DETERMINING THE LOCAL TIME
	   ZONE) for more information.

	      $date = Date_ConvTZ($date,$from,$to);

	   This converts a date (which MUST be in the format returned by
	   ParseDate) from one time zone to another.

	   $from and $to each default to the local time zone. If they are
	   given, they must be any time zone or alias understood by

	   If an error occurs, an empty string is returned.

	      $date = Date_NextWorkDay($date,$off [,$time]);

	   Finds the day $off work days from now.  If $time is passed in, we
	   must also take into account the time of day.

	   If $time is not passed in, day 0 is today (if today is a workday)
	   or the next work day if it isn't.  In any case, the time of day is

	   If $time is passed in, day 0 is now (if now is part of a workday)
	   or the start of the very next work day.

	      $date = Date_PrevWorkDay($date,$off [,$time]);

	   Similar to Date_NextWorkDay.

	      $date = Date_NearestWorkDay($date [,$tomorrowfirst]);

	   This looks for the work day nearest to $date.  If $date is a work
	   day, it is returned.	 Otherwise, it will look forward or backwards
	   in time 1 day at a time until a work day is found.  If
	   $tomorrowfirst is non-zero (or if it is omitted and the config
	   variable TomorrowFirst is non-zero), we look to the future first.
	   Otherwise, we look in the past first.  In other words, in a normal
	   week, if $date is Wednesday, $date is returned.  If $date is
	   Saturday, Friday is returned.  If $date is Sunday, Monday is
	   returned.  If Wednesday is a holiday, Thursday is returned if
	   $tomorrowfirst is non-nil or Tuesday otherwise.

       For all of the functions which return a date, the format of the
       returned date is governed by the Printable config variable. If a date
       is returned, it is in the local time zone, NOT the time zone the date
       was parsed in.

       Date::Manip	  - main module documentation

       This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       Sullivan Beck (

perl v5.16.3			  2014-04-30		   Date::Manip::DM6(3)

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