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VirtualBindings(library call)			 VirtualBindings(library call)

       VirtualBindings — Bindings for virtual mouse and key events

       The Motif reference pages describe key translations in terms of virtual
       bindings, based on those described in the Motif Style Guide.

   Bindings for osf Keysyms
       Keysym strings that begin with <osf> are not part  of  the  X  server's
       keyboard	 mapping.   Instead,  these keysyms are produced on the client
       side at run time.  They are interpreted by the routine  XmTranslateKey,
       and  are	 used  by  the translation manager when the server delivers an
       actual key event.   For	each  application,  a  mapping	is  maintained
       between <osf> keysyms and keysyms that correspond to actual keys.  This
       mapping is based on information obtained at  application	 startup  from
       one of the following sources, listed in order of precedence:

	  ·  The XmNdefaultVirtualBindings resource from Display.

	  ·  A	property  on  the  root	 window,  which	 can  be set by mwm on
	     startup, or by the xmbind client, or on prior startup of a	 Motif

	  ·  The file .motifbind in the user's home directory.

	  ·  A	set  of bindings based on the vendor string and optionally the
	     vendor release of the X server.  Motif searches for  these	 bind‐
	     ings in the following steps:

		0. If  the  file xmbind.alias exists in the user's home direc‐
		   tory, Motif searches this file for  a  pathname  associated
		   with the vendor string or with the vendor string and vendor
		   release.  If it finds such a	 pathname  and	if  that  file
		   exists, Motif loads the bindings contained in that file.

		1. If  it has found no bindings, Motif next looks for the file
		   xmbind.alias in the directory specified by the  environment
		   variable  XMBINDDIR,	 if XMBINDDIR is set, or in the direc‐
		   tory /usr/lib/Xm/bindings if XMBINDDIR is not set.  If this
		   file	 exists	 Motif	searches  it for a pathname associated
		   with the vendor string or with the vendor string and vendor
		   release.   If  it  finds  such  a pathname and if that file
		   exists, Motif loads the bindings contained in that file.

		2. If it still has found no bindings, Motif  loads  a  set  of
		   hard-coded fallback bindings.

       The  xmbind.alias  file	contains  zero	or more lines of the following

       "vendor_string[ vendor_release]"	   bindings_file

       where vendor_string is the X server vendor name as returned  by	the  X
       client  xdpyinfo or the Xlib function XServerVendor, and must appear in
       double quotes.  If vendor_release is included, it is the X server  ven‐
       dor  release  number  as	 returned by the X client xdpyinfo or the Xlib
       function XVendorRelease, and must also be contained within  the	double
       quotes  separated  by one space from vendor_string.  The vendor_release
       argument is provided to allow support of changes in  keyboard  hardware
       from  a	vendor, assuming that the vendor increments the release number
       to flag such changes.  Alternatively,  the  vendor  may	simply	use  a
       unique vendor string for each different keyboard.

       The  bindings_file  argument is the pathname of the file containing the
       bindings themselves.  It can be a relative or absolute pathname.	 If it
       it  is  a  relative  pathname,  it  is  relative to the location of the
       xmbind.alias file.

       Comment lines in	 the  xmbind.alias  file  begin	 with  !  (exclamation

       The  bindings found in either the .motifbind file or the vendor mapping
       are placed in a property on the root window.  This property is used  to
       determine the bindings for subsequent Motif applications.

       On  startup mwm attempts to load the file .motifbind in the user's home
       directory.  If this is unsuccessful, it loads the  vendor  bindings  as
       described previously.  It places the bindings it loads in a property on
       the root window for use by subsequent Motif applications.

       The xmbind function loads bindings from a file if that file  is	speci‐
       fied on the command line.  If no file is specified on the command line,
       it attempts to load the file .motifbind in the user's  home  directory.
       If  this	 fails,	 it loads the vendor bindings as described previously.
       It places the bindings it loads in a property on the  root  window  for
       use by subsequent Motif applications.

       The  format  of	the  specification for mapping <osf> keysyms to actual
       keysyms is similar to that of a specification for an event translation.
       (See  below)  The syntax is specified (and below) here in EBNF notation
       using the following conventions:

       [a]    Means either nothing or a
       {a}    Means zero or more occurrences of a
       (a|b)	Means either a or b.

       Terminals are enclosed in double quotation marks.

       The syntax of an <osf> keysym binding specification is as follows:

       binding_spec    =       {line "\n"} [line]
       line	       =       virtual_keysym ":" list_of_key_event
       list_of_key_event=      key_event { "," key_event}
       key_event       =       {modifier_name} "<Key>" actual_keysym
       virtual_keysym  =       keysym
       actual_keysym   =       keysym
       keysym	       =       A valid X11 keysym name that is
			       mapped by XStringToKeysym

       As with event translations, more specific event descriptions must  pre‐
       cede less specific descriptions.	 For example, an event description for
       a key with a modifier must precede a description for the same key with‐
       out the same modifier.

       Following  is an example of a specification for the defaultVirtualBind‐
       ings resource in a resource file:

       *defaultVirtualBindings: \
	       osfBackSpace:	   <Key>BackSpace	\n\
	       osfInsert:	<Key>InsertChar	     \n\
	       osfDelete:	<Key>DeleteChar	     \n\
	       osfLeft:	      <Key>left, Ctrl<Key>H

       The format of a .motifbind file or of a file containing vendor bindings
       is  the	same, except that the binding specification for each keysym is
       placed on a separate line.  The previous example specification  appears
       as follows in a .motifbind or vendor bindings file:

       osfBackSpace:	   <Key>BackSpace
       osfInsert:	<Key>InsertChar
       osfDelete:	<Key>DeleteChar
       osfLeft:	      <Key>left, Ctrl<Key>H

       The following table lists the fixed fallback default bindings for <osf>

       │   Fallback Default Bindings for osf Keysyms	 │
       │<osf Keysym>	      │ Fallback Default Binding │
       │<osfActivate>:	      │ <Key>KP_Enter		 │
       │<Key>Execute	      │				 │
       │<osfAddMode>:	      │ Shift<Key>F8		 │
       │<osfBackSpace>:	      │ <Key>BackSpace		 │
       │<osfBeginLine>:	      │ <Key>Home		 │
       │<Key>Begin	      │				 │
       │<osfCancel>:	      │ <Key>Escape		 │
       │<Key>Cancel	      │				 │
       │<osfClear>:	      │ <Key>Clear		 │
       │<osfCopy>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfCut>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfDelete>:	      │ <Key>Delete		 │
       │<osfDeselectAll>:     │ unbound			 │
       │<osfDown>:	      │ <Key>Down		 │
       │<osfEndLine>:	      │ <Key>End		 │
       │<osfHelp>:	      │ <Key>F1			 │
       │<Key>Help	      │				 │
       │<osfInsert>:	      │ <Key>Insert		 │
       │<osfLeft>:	      │ <Key>Left		 │
       │<osfLeftLine>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfMenu>:	      │ Shift<Key>F10		 │
       │<Key>Menu	      │				 │
       │<osfMenuBar>:	      │ <Key>F10		 │
       │Shift<Key>Menu	      │				 │
       │<osfNextMinor>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfPageDown>:	      │ <Key>Next		 │
       │<osfPageLeft>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfPageRight>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfPageUp>:	      │ <Key>Prior		 │
       │<osfPaste>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfPrimaryPaste>:    │ unbound			 │
       │<osfPriorMinor>:      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfReselect>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfRestore>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfRight>:	      │ <Key>Right		 │
       │<osfRightLine>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfSelect>:	      │ <Key>Select		 │
       │<osfSelectAll>:	      │ unbound			 │
       │<osfSwitchDirection>: │ Alt<Key>Return		 │
       │Alt<Key>KP_Enter      │				 │
       │<osfUndo>:	      │ <Key>Undo		 │
       │<osfUp>:	      │ <Key>Up			 │
   Changes in the Handling of Shifted Keys
       In conjunction with MIT X11R5 Patch 24, this version  of	 Motif	intro‐
       duces  a change in the way that keys involving the <Shift> modifier are
       processed. This change allows the numeric keypad to be used to generate
       numbers	using the standard X mechanisms. Since the default behavior is
       now to honor the xmodmap keymap bindings, translations and virtual  key
       bindings	 that  use <Shift> may behave differently. A common symptom is
       that unshifted keypad and function keys (with or	 without  other	 modi‐
       fiers) produce the expected results, but shifted ones do not.

       To  obtain  the	old behavior you can remove the shifted interpretation
       from problematic keys using  the	 xmodmap  utility.  Each  entry	 in  a
       xmodmap	keymap	table  contains up to four keysym bindings. The second
       and fourth keysyms are for shifted keys. If an expression contains only
       two  keysyms,  simply  remove  the  second keysym. If an entry contains
       three or more keysyms, replace the  second  keysym  with	 NoSymbol  and
       remove the fourth keysym.

   Action Translations
       The  translation	 table syntax used by Motif is completely specified in
       the X11R5 Toolkit Intrinsics Documentation.  For	 the  complete	syntax
       description,  and for general instructions about writing or modifying a
       translation table, please refer to this document. A  brief  summary  of
       the translation table format, however, is included below.

       The  syntax  is	defined	 as in the binding syntax specification above.
       Informal descriptions are contained in angle brackets (<>).

       TranslationTable=       [ directive ] { production }
       directive       =       ( "#replace" | "#override" | "#augment") "\n"
       production      =       lhs ":" rhs "\n"
       lhs	       =       ( event | keyseq) {"," ( event | keyseq) }
       keyseq	       =       """ keychar { keychar } """
       keychar	       =       ( "^" | "$" | "\\") <ISO Latin 1 character>
       event	       =       [ modifier_list ] "<" event_type ">" [ count ] {detail}
       modifier_list   =       ( ["!"][":"] { modifier } | "None")
       modifier	       =       [ "~" ] ( "@" <keysym> | <name from table below>)
       count	       =       "(" <positive integer> [ "+" ] ")"
       rhs	       =       { action_name "(" [params] ")" }
       params	       =       string { "," string }

       The string field need not be quoted unless it includes a space  or  tab
       character,  or  any  comma, newline, or parenthesis. The entire list of
       string values making up the params field will ba passed	to  the	 named
       action routine.

       The  details field may be used to specify a keysym that will identify a
       particular key event. For example, <Key> is  the	 name  of  a  type  of
       event,  but it must be modified by the details field to name a specific
       event, such as <Key>A.

       Modifier Names The modifier list, which may be  empty,  consists	 of  a
       list  of	 modifier keys that must be pressed with the key sequence. The
       modifier keys may abbreviated with single letters, as in the  following
       list of the familiar modifiers:

       s	 Shift

       c or ^	 Ctrl (Control)

       m or $	 Meta

       a	 Alt

       Other modifiers are available, such as "Mod5" and "Button2." These have
       no abbreviation (although the "Button" modifiers may be abbreviated  in
       combination  with events, as outlined below). If a modifier list has no
       entries, and is not "None", it means the position of the modifier  keys
       is  irrelevant. If modifiers are listed, the designated keys must be in
       the specified position, but the unlisted modifier keys are  irrelevant.
       If the list begins with an exclamation point (!), however, the unlisted
       modifiers may not be asserted. In addition, if a modifier name is  pre‐
       ceded by a tilde (~), the corresponding key must not be pressed.

       If a modifier list begins with a colon (:), X tries to use the standard
       modifiers (Shift and Lock), if present, to map the key event code  into
       a recognized keysym.

       Event Types These are a few of the recognized event types.

       Key or KeyDown
		 A keyboard key was pressed.

       KeyUp	 A keyboard key was released.

       BtnDown	 A mouse button was pressed.

       BtnUp	 A mouse button was released.

       Motion	 The mouse pointer moved.

       Enter	 The pointer entered the widget's window.

       Leave	 The pointer left the widget's window.

       FocusIn	 The widget has received focus.

       FocusOut	 The widget has lost focus.

       There are some event abbreviations available. For example, <Btn1Motion>
       is actually a "Motion" event,  modified	with  the  "Button1"  modifier
       (Button1<Motion>). Similarly, <Btn3Up> is actually a "BtnUp" event with
       the "Button3" modifier. These abbreviations are used extensively in the
       Motif translation tables.


						 VirtualBindings(library call)

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