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X(7)									  X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela‐
       tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu‐
       tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.	 Commercial  implemen‐
       tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X.Org  Foundation  requests	 that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

				   X Window System
				    X Version 11
			     X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       X Window System servers run on computers	 with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari‐
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess	commu‐
       nication	 channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif‐
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text	 and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana‐
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the	X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core X.Org Foundation distribution include:	a  terminal  emulator,
       xterm;  a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redi‐
       rect program, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap;
       resource	 listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres; access control
       programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, xfd; utilities for listing information	 about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,	 xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf; a font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;	 a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont‐
       dir; a clipboard manager, xclipboard; keyboard description compiler and
       related	utilities,  xkbcomp, setxkbmap xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xkb‐
       vleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to terminate clients, xkill; a  firewall
       security	 proxy,	 xfwp;	a  proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a
       utility to find proxies, xfindproxy; web	 browser  plug-ins,  libxrx.so
       and  libxrxnest.so;  an RX MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a utility
       to cause part or all of the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many other  utilities,  window  managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc.  are
       included as user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribu‐
       tion, or are available on the Internet.	See  your  site	 administrator
       for details.

       There  are  two main ways of getting the X server and an initial set of
       client applications started.  The particular  method  used  depends  on
       what  operating system you are running and whether or not you use other
       window systems in addition to X.

       Display Manager
	       If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
	       administrator  can set your machine up to use a Display Manager
	       such as xdm, gdm, or kdm.  This program is typically started by
	       the  system  at	boot time and takes care of keeping the server
	       running and getting users logged in.  If you are running one of
	       these  display  managers, you will normally see a window on the
	       screen welcoming you to the system and asking  for  your	 login
	       information.  Simply type them in as you would at a normal ter‐
	       minal.  If you make a mistake, the display manager will display
	       an error message and ask you to try again.  After you have suc‐
	       cessfully logged in, the display manager will start up  your  X
	       environment.  The documentation for the display manager you use
	       can provide more details.

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
	       Sites that support more than one window system might choose  to
	       use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
	       for your machine, your site administrator  will	probably  have
	       provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
	       do site-specific initialization	(such  as  loading  convenient
	       default	resources,  running  a	window	manager,  displaying a
	       clock, and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice  way.
	       If  not,	 you  can build such a script using the xinit program.
	       This utility simply runs one user-specified  program  to	 start
	       the  server,  runs another to start up any desired clients, and
	       then waits for either to finish.	 Since either or both  of  the
	       user-specified  programs may be a shell script, this gives sub‐
	       stantial flexibility at the expense of a nice  interface.   For
	       this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

       From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the


       This information is used by the application to determine how it	should
       connect	to  the	 server	 and which screen it should use by default (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

	       The hostname specifies the name of the  machine	to  which  the
	       display is physically connected.	 If the hostname is not given,
	       the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
	       machine will be used.

	       The  phrase  "display" is usually used to refer to a collection
	       of monitors that share a common set of input devices (keyboard,
	       mouse,  tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only have one
	       display.	 Larger, multi-user systems, however, frequently  have
	       several	displays  so  that  more  than one person can be doing
	       graphics work at once.  To avoid confusion, each display	 on  a
	       machine	is assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the
	       X server for that display is started.  The display number  must
	       always be given in a display name.

	       Some displays share their input devices among two or more moni‐
	       tors.  These may be configured  as  a  single  logical  screen,
	       which  allows  windows to move across screens, or as individual
	       screens, each with their own set	 of  windows.	If  configured
	       such  that each monitor has its own set of windows, each screen
	       is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when the X	server
	       for  that  display  is  started.	  If  the screen number is not
	       given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored  in	 your  DISPLAY
       environment  variable.  This variable is set automatically by the xterm
       terminal emulator.  However, when you log into  another	machine	 on  a
       network,	 you may need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

	   % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
	   $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The ssh program can be used to start an X program on a remote  machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally,	 most X programs accept a command line option of -display dis‐
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

	   % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
	   % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X  servers  listen for connections on a variety of different communica‐
       tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,	etc.).	 Since
       there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host‐
       name part of the display name is used to determine the type of  channel
       (also  called  a transport layer) to be used.  X servers generally sup‐
       port the following types of connections:

	       The hostname part of the	 display  name	should	be  the	 empty
	       string.	 For  example:	 :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
	       local transport will be chosen.

	       The hostname part of the display	 name  should  be  the	server
	       machine's  hostname or IP address.  Full Internet names, abbre‐
	       viated names,  IPv4  addresses,	and  IPv6  addresses  are  all
	       allowed.	    For	   example:    x.org:0,	   expo:0,    [::1]:0,, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

       An X server can use several types of access control.   Mechanisms  pro‐
       vided in Release 7 are:
	   Host Access			 Simple host-based access control.
	   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1		 Shared plain-text "cookies".
	   XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1		 Secure DES based private-keys.
	   SUN-DES-1			 Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
	   Server Interpreted		 Server-dependent methods of access control

       Xdm  initializes	 access	 control for the server and also places autho‐
       rization information in a file accessible to the user.	Normally,  the
       list  of	 hosts	from  which  connections are always accepted should be
       empty, so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can  connect
       to  the	display.   When you add entries to the host list (with xhost),
       the server no longer performs any  authorization	 on  connections  from
       those machines.	Be careful with this.

       The  file  from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified
       with the environment variable XAUTHORITY,  and  defaults	 to  the  file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If  you	use  several machines and share a common home directory across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have  to	 worry	about authorization files, the system should work cor‐
       rectly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are  machine-
       independent,  you  can  simply copy the files to share them.  To manage
       authorization files, use xauth.	This program  allows  you  to  extract
       records	and  insert  them  into other files.  Using this, you can send
       authorization to remote machines when you login, if the remote  machine
       does  not  share a common home directory with your local machine.  Note
       that authorization information transmitted ``in the clear''  through  a
       network	file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a network
       eavesdropper, and as such may  enable  unauthorized  access.   In  many
       environments,  this  level  of security is not a concern, but if it is,
       you need to know the exact semantics of	the  particular	 authorization
       data to know if this is actually a problem.

       For  more  information  on  access control, see the Xsecurity(7) manual

       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter‐
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size or location on the screen.	Although the layout of	windows	 on  a
       display	is  controlled	by the window manager that the user is running
       (described below), most X programs accept a command  line  argument  of
       the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
       and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location  for
       this application's main window.

       The  WIDTH  and	HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
       measured in either pixels or characters, depending on the  application.
       The  XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left or right and  top  and	bottom
       edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of  the
       window.	The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
	       the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win‐
	       dow's  origin  will  be	XOFF).	XOFF may be negative, in which
	       case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in
	       from  the  right	 edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
	       which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below  the  top
	       edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori‐
	       gin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative,  in  which  case  the
	       window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The  bottom  edge  of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the
	       bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
	       the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets	must  be  given	 as pairs; in other words, in order to specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

	   xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
	   xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
	   xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
	   xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The  layout  of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
       called window managers.	Although many window managers will honor geom‐
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir‐
       ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The	X.Org  Founda‐
       tion  distribution comes with a window manager named twm which supports
       overlapping windows,  popup  menus,  point-and-click  or	 click-to-type
       input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who
       don't like separate icon windows).

       See the user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation  distribution
       for other popular window managers.

       Collections  of	characters  for	 displaying  text and symbols in X are
       known as fonts.	A font typically contains images that share  a	common
       appearance  and	look  nice together (for example, a single size, bold‐
       ness, slant, and character set).	 Similarly, collections of fonts  that
       are  based  on  a  common  type face (the variations are usually called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts  come  in	various	 sizes.	 The X server supports scalable fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source  for  the	 font.	The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi‐
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An  X  server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in directo‐
       ries in the file system, or from one or more font servers,  or  from  a
       mixtures	 of  directories  and  font  servers.	The list of places the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although	 most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
       with all of the commonly used font directories in the  font  path,  the
       font  path  can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to  remember  that  the	directory  names  are  on  the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap  font  files  are	 usually  created  by compiling a textual font
       description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are  cre‐
       ated  by	 running the mkfontdir program in the directory containing the
       source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added  to
       a  directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the font
       path  with  the	xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

	   % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
	   % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
	   % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to uniquely  identify  individual
       fonts.	However,  the  X server supports wildcarding of font names, so
       the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because the shell also has special meanings for	*  and	?,  wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

	   % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.	  This
       will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific	 size,
       replace	one  of	 the  first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe‐
       cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a  specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
       to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width	field,
       measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One of the following forms can be used  to  name	 a  font  server  that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The  hostname  specifies	 the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The port is  the  decimal
       TCP  port  on  which the font server is listening for connections.  The
       cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a	 sepa‐

       Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

       One  of	the  following	forms  can  be used to name a font server that
       accepts DECnet connections:


       The nodename specifies the name (or decimal  numeric  address)  of  the
       machine	on which the font server is running.  The objname is a normal,
       case-insensitive DECnet object name.   The  cataloguelist  specifies  a
       list of catalogue names, with '+' as a separator.

       Examples:  DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT, decnet/44.70::font$special/sym‐

       Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through  resources
       or  command  line arguments) the colors of various elements in the text
       and graphics they display.  A color  can	 be  specified	either	by  an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer‐
       ical specification can identify	a  color  in  either  device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A value for this abstract name is obtained by  searching	 one  or  more
       color  name  databases.	 Xlib  first searches zero or more client-side
       databases; the number, location, and  content  of  these	 databases  is
       implementation  dependent.   If	the  name  is  not found, the color is
       looked up in the X server's database.  The text form of	this  database
       is commonly stored in the file usr/share/X11/rgb.txt.

       A  numerical  color  specification consists of a color space name and a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and  has
       the following syntax:


	       <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
	       h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note  that  h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the value scaled
       in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the	 value	scaled
       in  16  bits,  respectively.  These values are passed directly to the X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

	   black		rgb:0/0/0
	   red			rgb:ffff/0/0
	   green		rgb:0/ffff/0
	   blue			rgb:0/0/ffff
	   yellow		rgb:ffff/ffff/0
	   magenta		rgb:ffff/0/ffff
	   cyan			rgb:0/ffff/ffff
	   white		rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For backward compatibility, an older syntax  for	 RGB  Device  is  sup‐
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.	 The syntax is an ini‐
       tial sharp sign character followed by a numeric specification,  in  one
       of the following formats:

	   #RGB			     (4 bits each)
	   #RRGGBB		     (8 bits each)
	   #RRRGGGBBB		     (12 bits each)
	   #RRRRGGGGBBBB	     (16 bits each)

       The  R,	G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When fewer than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the  value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).  For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:"  and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full  intensity,	 0.5  half intensity, and so on.  These values will be
       gamma corrected by Xlib before being sent to the X server.   The	 input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi‐
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain‐
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The  standard device-independent string specifications have the follow‐
       ing syntax:

	   CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>		  (none, 1, none)
	   CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>		  (~.6, ~.6, 1)
	   CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>		  (~.75, ~.85, 1)
	   CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>		  (100, none, none)
	   CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>		  (100, none, none)
	   TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>		  (360, 100, 100)

       All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v,	 y,  x)	 are  floating
       point  values.	Some  of the values are constrained to be between zero
       and some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses	above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits possibly containing a decimal point, and	an  optional  exponent
       field  consisting  of  an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+' or '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For more information on device independent color, see the  Xlib	refer‐
       ence manual.

       The  X keyboard model is broken into two layers:	 server-specific codes
       (called keycodes) which represent the physical keys,  and  server-inde‐
       pendent	symbols	 (called keysyms) which represent the letters or words
       that appear on the keys.	 Two tables are kept in the  server  for  con‐
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
	       Some  keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known as
	       modifier and are used to	 select	 different  symbols  that  are
	       attached	 to  a single key (such as Shift-a generates a capital
	       A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
	       keeps  a list of keycodes corresponding to the various modifier
	       keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener‐
	       ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
	       well as a mask that specifies which of the  modifier  keys  are
	       currently  pressed.  Most servers set up this list to initially
	       contain the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on  the

       keymap table
	       Applications  translate	event keycodes and modifier masks into
	       keysyms using a keysym table which contains one	row  for  each
	       keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
	       is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
	       conventions.   The  exact  semantics of how the table is inter‐
	       preted to produce keysyms depends on  the  particular  program,
	       libraries,  and	language  input method used, but the following
	       conventions for the first four keysyms in each row  are	gener‐
	       ally adhered to:

       The  first  four	 elements  of  the  list  are split into two groups of
       keysyms.	 Group 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group  2  con‐
       tains  the  third  and fourth keysyms.  Within each group, if the first
       element is alphabetic and the the second element is the special	keysym
       NoSymbol,  then	the group is treated as equivalent to a group in which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any  one
       of  the	modifiers  Mod1	 through  Mod5.	  This	modifier is called the
       ``group modifier.''  Group 1 is used when the group  modifier  is  off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock modifiers  are  off.   The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod‐
       ifier is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when  the
       Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.  Otherwise, when
       the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock,	the  state  of
       the  Shift  modifier  is	 applied first to select a keysym; but if that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

       Most  X programs attempt to use the same names for command line options
       and arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit  Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
	       This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
	       This option specifies the initial size and location of the win‐

       -bg color, -background color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for the	 window	 back‐

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
	       Either  option specifies the width in pixels of the window bor‐

       -fg color, -foreground color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
	       Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

	       This option indicates that  the	user  would  prefer  that  the
	       application's  windows  initially not be visible as if the win‐
	       dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
	       may choose not to honor the application's request.

	       This  option  specifies	the name under which resources for the
	       application should be found.  This option is  useful  in	 shell
	       aliases	to  distinguish between invocations of an application,
	       without resorting to creating links  to	alter  the  executable
	       file name.

       -rv, -reverse
	       Either  option  indicates  that	the  program  should  simulate
	       reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
	       background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
	       correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

	       This option indicates that  the	program	 should	 not  simulate
	       reverse	video.	 This  is  used to override any defaults since
	       reverse video doesn't always work properly.

	       This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within	 which
	       two  communicating applications must respond to one another for
	       a selection request.

	       This option indicates that requests to the X server  should  be
	       sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor‐
	       mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
	       get  reported  immediately after they occur.  This option turns
	       off the buffering so that the application can be debugged.   It
	       should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
	       This  option  specifies	the  title to be used for this window.
	       This information is sometimes used by a window manager to  pro‐
	       vide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
	       This  option specifies the language, territory, and codeset for
	       use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
	       defaults.   It  is  also very useful for setting resources that
	       don't have explicit command line arguments.

       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides	 a  mechanism for storing default values for program resources
       (e.g. background color, window title, etc.) that is  used  by  programs
       that  use  toolkits  based  on  the X Toolkit Intrinsics library libXt.
       (Programs using the common Gtk+ and Qt toolkits use other configuration
       mechanisms.)   Resources are specified as strings that are read in from
       various places when an application  is  run.   Program  components  are
       named  in a hierarchical fashion, with each node in the hierarchy iden‐
       tified by a class and an instance name.	At the top level is the	 class
       and  instance name of the application itself.  By convention, the class
       name of the application is the same as the program name, but with   the
       first  letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or Emacs) although some programs
       that begin with the letter ``x'' also capitalize the second letter  for
       historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine	 = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment		 = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile	 = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName		 = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec	 = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName	 = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding		 = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace	 = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component	 = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName	 = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar		 = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value		 = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements	 separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly braces
       ({...}) indicate zero or more repetitions  of  the  enclosed  elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with  the  con‐
       tents  of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in lowercase.
       The filename is interpreted relative to the directory of	 the  file  in
       which  the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no direc‐
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters,  the sequence will be replaced with single "." character if
       the sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence  will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A  resource  database  never  contains  more than one entry for a given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any  whitespace	character  before  or  after  the  name	 or colon in a
       ResourceSpec are ignored.  To allow a Value to begin  with  whitespace,
       the  two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space) is
       recognized and replaced by a space  character,  and  the	 two-character
       sequence	 ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized
       and replaced by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value  to  con‐
       tain  embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n'' is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.	To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
       ``\newline'' (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and  removed
       from the value.	To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in  the	range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with a single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the  two-character  sequence  ``\\''  is recognized and replaced with a
       single backslash.

       When an application looks for the value of a resource, it  specifies  a
       complete	 path  in  the	hierarchy, with both class and instance names.
       However, resource values are usually given with only  partially	speci‐
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven‐
       ing components, including none.	A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark  (?)
       is  used to match any single component name or class.  A database entry
       cannot end in a loose binding; the final	 component  (which  cannot  be
       "?")  must  be  specified.   The lookup algorithm searches the resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the  full  name	and  class being queried.  When more than one database
       entry matches the full name and class, precedence  rules	 are  used  to
       select just one.

       The  full  name	and class are scanned from left to right (from highest
       level in the hierarchy to lowest), one component at a  time.   At  each
       level,  the  corresponding  component  and/or  binding of each matching
       entry is determined, and these matching	components  and	 bindings  are
       compared	 according  to precedence rules.  Each of the rules is applied
       at each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects  a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An	entry that contains a matching component (whether name, class,
	    or "?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level	 (that
	    is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An	entry  with a matching name takes precedence over both entries
	    with a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An	 entry
	    with  a  matching  class  takes precedence over entries that match
	    using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
	    preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs	 based	on  the X Toolkit Intrinsics obtain resources from the
       following sources (other programs usually support some subset of	 these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
	       Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
	       machines should be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER  property  on
	       the  root  window  of  the first screen using the xrdb program.
	       This is frequently taken care of when  the  user	 starts	 up  X
	       through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
	       Any  resources  specific	 to  a given screen (e.g. colors) that
	       should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
	       in  the	SCREEN_RESOURCES  property  on the root window of that
	       screen.	The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
	       place  them  in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES, as appro‐

       application-specific files
	       Directories named by the environment variable  XUSERFILESEARCH‐
	       PATH  or	 the  environment  variable XAPPLRESDIR (which names a
	       single directory and should end with a '/' on  POSIX  systems),
	       plus   directories   in	 a   standard	place  (usually	 under
	       /usr/share/X11/, but this can be	 overridden  with  the	XFILE‐
	       SEARCHPATH  environment variable) are searched for for applica‐
	       tion-specific  resources.   For	example,  application  default
	       resources  are  usually	kept  in /usr/share/X11/app-defaults/.
	       See the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual  for

	       Any  user-  and	machine-specific resources may be specified by
	       setting the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of  a
	       resource	 file to be loaded by all applications.	 If this vari‐
	       able is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname  is
	       looked  for  instead,  where  hostname  is the name of the host
	       where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       Resources can also be specified from  the  command  line.   The
	       resourcestring  is  a  single  resource name and value as shown
	       above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
	       by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
	       of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program resources are organized into groups  called  classes,  so  that
       collections   of	  individual  resources	 (each	of  which  are	called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a  resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an upper
       case letter.  Multiple word resources are concatenated with  the	 first
       letter  of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
	       This resource specifies the color to use for the	 window	 back‐

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       This  resource specifies the width in pixels of the window bor‐

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want to set Background and Foreground classes to	 particular  defaults.
       Specific	 color	instances  such as text cursors can then be overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

	   bitmap*Dashed:  off
	   XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
	   XTerm*multiScroll:  on
	   XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
	   XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
	   XTerm*curses:  on
	   XTerm*Font:	6x10
	   XTerm*scrollBar: on
	   XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
	   XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
	   XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
	   XTerm*cutNewline: off
	   XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
	   XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
	   XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
	   XLoad*Background: gold
	   XLoad*Foreground: red
	   XLoad*highlight: black
	   XLoad*borderWidth: 0
	   emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
	   emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
	   emacs*Foreground:  white
	   emacs*Cursor:  white
	   emacs*BorderColor:  white
	   emacs*Font:	6x10
	   xmag*geometry: -0-0
	   xmag*borderColor:  white

       If these resources were stored in a file	 called	 .Xresources  in  your
       home  directory,	 they  could be added to any existing resources in the
       server with the following command:

	   % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This is frequently how user-friendly startup  scripts  merge  user-spe‐
       cific  defaults	into any site-wide defaults.  All sites are encouraged
       to set up convenient ways of automatically loading resources.  See  the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

	      This  is	the only mandatory environment variable. It must point
	      to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

	      This must point to a file that contains authorization data.  The
	      default	is   $HOME/.Xauthority.	 See  Xsecurity(7),  xauth(1),
	      xdm(1), Xau(3).

	      This must point to a file that contains authorization data.  The
	      default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

	      The  first non-empty value among these three determines the cur‐
	      rent locale's facet for character handling,  and	in  particular
	      the   default   text   encoding.	See  locale(7),	 setlocale(3),

	      This variable can	 be  set  to  contain  additional  information
	      important	 for  the  current  locale  setting.  Typically set to
	      @im=<input-method> to enable  a  particular  input  method.  See

	      This  must point to a directory containing the locale.alias file
	      and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
	      default value is /usr/share/X11/locale.

	      This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
	      $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>.  Unlike  $HOME/.Xresources,	it  is
	      consulted each time an X application starts.

	      This  must  contain  a  colon  separated list of path templates,
	      where libXt will search for resource files.  The	default	 value
	      consists of


	      A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

		  %D => the implementation-specific default path
		  %N => name (basename) being searched for
		  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S => suffix being searched for
		  %C => value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L => the locale name
		  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This  must  contain  a  colon  separated list of path templates,
	      where libXt will search for user dependent resource  files.  The
	      default value is:


	      $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

	      A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

		  %D => the implementation-specific default path
		  %N => name (basename) being searched for
		  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S => suffix being searched for
		  %C => value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L => the locale name
		  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This  must  point	 to a base directory where the user stores his
	      application dependent  resource  files.  The  default  value  is
	      $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

	      This  must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym defini‐
	      tions.  The default value is /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value

	      This  serves  as	main identifier for resources belonging to the
	      program being executed. It defaults to the basename of  pathname
	      of the program.

	      Denotes the session manager to which the application should con‐
	      nect. See xsm(1), rstart(1).

	      Setting  this  variable  to  a  non-empty	 value	disables   the
	      XFree86-Bigfont  extension.  This	 extension  is	a mechanism to
	      reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem‐


       These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.

       The  following  is a collection of sample command lines for some of the
       more frequently used commands.  For more information  on	 a  particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

	   %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
	   %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
	   %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
	   %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
	   %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
	   %  xset q
	   %  twm
	   %  xmag
	   %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
	   %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
	   %  xbiff -update 20
	   %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
	   %  xwininfo -root
	   %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
	   %  xhost -joesworkstation
	   %  xrefresh
	   %  xwd | xwud
	   %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
	   %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
	   %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*

       A  wide	variety of error messages are generated from various programs.
       The default error handler in Xlib (also used  by	 many  toolkits)  uses
       standard	 resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors occur.
       The   defaults	for   these   messages	 are   usually	  stored    in
       usr/share/X11/XErrorDB.	 If  this  file is not present, error messages
       will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When the X Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter  errors  converting  resource
       strings	to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are usu‐
       ally printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one  set
       of  resources  across a variety of displays (e.g. color vs. monochrome,
       lots of fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can  pose	 problems  for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.	 This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionWarnings resource.

       To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to  always  print  string  conversion
       error  messages,	 the  following	 resource should be placed in the file
       that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro‐
       gram  (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home direc‐

	   *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

	   xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       XOrgFoundation(7), XStandards(7), Xsecurity(7), appres(1), bdftopcf(1),
       bitmap(1), editres(1), fsinfo(1), fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1), iceauth(1),
       imake(1), makedepend(1), mkfontdir(1), oclock(1), proxymngr(1), rgb(1),
       resize(1), rstart(1), smproxy(1), twm(1),  x11perf(1),  x11perfcomp(1),
       xauth(1),  xclipboard(1),  xclock(1),  xcmsdb(1),  xconsole(1), xdm(1),
       xdpyinfo(1),  xfd(1),   xfindproxy(1),	xfs(1),	  xfwp(1),   xhost(1),
       xinit(1),  xkbbell(1), xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1),
       xkbwatch(1),  xkill(1),	xlogo(1),  xlsatoms(1),	 xlsclients(1),	  xls‐
       fonts(1),  xmag(1), xmh(1), xmodmap(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1), xrefresh(1),
       xrx(1), xset(1), xsetroot(1), xsm(1),  xstdcmap(1),  xterm(1),  xwd(1),
       xwininfo(1),   xwud(1).	  Xserver(1),	Xorg(1),  Xdmx(1),  Xephyr(1),
       Xnest(1), Xquartz(1), Xvfb(1), Xvnc(1), XWin(1).	 Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       A  cast of thousands, literally.	 Releases 6.7 and later are brought to
       you by the X.Org Foundation. The names of all  people  who  made	 it  a
       reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.

       Releases	 6.6  and  6.5	were done by The X.Org Group.  Release 6.4 was
       done by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from  The
       X  Consortium,  Inc.  The staff members at the X Consortium responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer‐
       itus),  Kaleb  Keithley,	 Matt Landau (emeritus), Ralph Mor (emeritus),
       Janet O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins  (emeritus),
       and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,  and
       all  rights  thereto  were  assigned  to the X Consortium on January 1,
       1994.  X Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31,  1996.   All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

X Version 11			 xorg-docs 1.6				  X(7)

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