BC(1) BC(1)[top]NAMEbc- arbitrary precision arithmetic languageSYNOPSIS/usr/bin/bc [] [-c] [file]... /usr/xpg6/bin/bc [-l] [-c] [file]...-lDESCRIPTIONThebcutility implements an arbitrary precision calculator. It takes input from any files given, then reads from the standard input. If the standard input and standard output tobcare attached to a terminal, the invocation ofbcis interactive, causing behavioral constraints described in the following sections.bcprocesses a language that resembles C and is a preprocessor for the desk calculator program dc, which it invokes automatically unless theoption is specified. In this case the dc input is sent to the standard output instead.-cUSAGEThe syntax forbcprograms is as follows: L Means a letter a−z, E Means an expression: a (mathematical or logical) value, an operand that takes a value, or a combination of operands and operators that evaluates to a value, S Means a statement. Comments Enclosed in /* and */. Names (Operands) Simple variables: L. Array elements: L [ E ] (up to BC_DIM_MAX dimensions). The words ibase, obase (limited to BC_BASE_MAX), and scale (limited to BC_SCALE_MAX). Other Operands Arbitrarily long numbers with optional sign and decimal point. Strings of fewer than BC_STRING_MAX characters, between double quotes ("). ( E ) sqrt ( E ) Square root length ( E ) Number of significant decimal digits. scale ( E ) Number of digits right of decimal point. L ( E , ... , E ) Operators + − * / % ^ (% is remainder; ^ is power) ++ −− (prefix and postfix; apply to names) == <= >= != < > = =+ =− =* =/ =% =^ Statements E { S ;... ; S } if ( E ) S while ( E ) S for ( E ; E ; E ) S null statement break quit .string Function Definitions define L ( L ,..., L ) { auto L ,..., L S ;... S return ( E ) } Functions inMath Library s(x) sine c(x) cosine e(x) exponential l(x) log a(x) arctangent j(n,x) Bessel function All function arguments are passed by value. The value of a statement that is an expression is printed unless the main operator is an assignment. Either semicolons or new-lines may sep‐ arate statements. Assignment to scale influences the number of digits to be retained on arithmetic operations in the manner of dc. Assign‐ ments to ibase or obase set the input and output number radix respec‐ tively. The same letter may be used as an array, a function, and a simple vari‐ able simultaneously. All variables are global to the program. auto variables are stacked during function calls. When using arrays as func‐ tion arguments or defining them as automatic variables, empty square brackets must follow the array name.-lOPTIONSThe following operands are supported:Compiles only. The output is dc commands that are sent to the standard output. /usr/bin/bc-cDefines the math functions and initializes scale to 20, instead of the default zero. /usr/xpg6/bin/bc-lDefines the math functions and initializes scale to 20, instead of the default zero. All math results have the scale of 20.-lOPERANDSThe following operands are supported: file A pathname of a text file containingbcprogram statements. After all cases of file have been read,bcreads the standard input.EXAMPLESExample 1 Setting the precision of a variable In the shell, the following assigns an approximation of the first ten digits of n to the variable x: x=$(printf "%s\n" 'scale = 10; 104348/33215' | bc) Example 2 Defining a computing function Defines a function to compute an approximate value of the exponential function: scale = 20 define e(x){ auto a, b, c, i, s a = 1 b = 1 s = 1 for(i=1; 1==1; i++){ a = a*x b = b*i c = a/b if(c == 0) return(s) s = s+c } } Example 3 Printing the approximate values of the function Prints approximate values of the exponential function of the first ten integers: for(i=1; i<=10; i++) e(i) or for (i = 1; i <= 10; ++i) { e(i) }ENVIRONMENT VARIABLESSee environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of bc: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.EXIT STATUSThe following exit values are returned: 0 All input files were processed successfully. unspecified An error occurred.FILES/usr/lib/lib.b mathematical library /usr/include/limits.h to define BC_ parametersATTRIBUTESSee attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: ┌────────────────────┬─────────────────┐ │ ATTRIBUTE TYPE │ ATTRIBUTE VALUE │ ├────────────────────┼─────────────────┤ │Interface Stability │ Standard │ └────────────────────┴─────────────────┘SEE ALSOdc(1), awk(1), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)NOTESThebccommand does not recognize the logical operators && and ||. The for statement must have all three expressions (E's). Aug 29, 2003 BC(1)

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