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       ber_alloc_t,    ber_flush,   ber_printf,	  ber_put_int,	 ber_put_enum,
       ber_put_ostring,	  ber_put_string,    ber_put_null,    ber_put_boolean,
       ber_put_bitstring,     ber_start_seq,	ber_start_set,	  ber_put_seq,
       ber_put_set - LBER simplified Basic Encoding Rules library routines for

       OpenLDAP LBER (liblber, -llber)

       #include <lber.h>

       BerElement *ber_alloc_t(int options);

       int ber_flush(Sockbuf *sb, BerElement *ber, int freeit);

       int ber_printf(BerElement *ber, const char *fmt, ...);

       int ber_put_int(BerElement *ber, ber_int_t num, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_enum(BerElement *ber, ber_int_t num, ber_tag_t tag);

       int  ber_put_ostring(BerElement	*ber,  const char *str, ber_len_t len,
       ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_string(BerElement *ber, const char *str, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_null(BerElement *ber, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_boolean(BerElement *ber, ber_int_t bool, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_bitstring(BerElement *ber, const char *str, ber_len_t blen,
       ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_start_seq(BerElement *ber, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_start_set(BerElement *ber, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_seq(BerElement *ber);

       int ber_put_set(BerElement *ber);

       These routines provide a subroutine interface to a simplified implemen‐
       tation of the Basic Encoding Rules of ASN.1.  The version of BER	 these
       routines	 support is the one defined for the LDAP protocol.  The encod‐
       ing rules are the same as BER, except that only definite	 form  lengths
       are used, and bitstrings and octet strings are always encoded in primi‐
       tive form.  This man page describes the encoding routines in  the  lber
       library.	  See lber-decode(3) for details on the corresponding decoding
       routines.  Consult lber-types(3) for information about  types,  alloca‐
       tors, and deallocators.

       Normally,  the  only  routines that need to be called by an application
       are ber_alloc_t() to allocate a BER element for encoding,  ber_printf()
       to  do  the actual encoding, and ber_flush() to actually write the ele‐
       ment.  The other routines are provided for those applications that need
       more  control  than  ber_printf() provides.  In general, these routines
       return the length of the element encoded, or -1 if an error occurred.

       The ber_alloc_t() routine is used to allocate a new  BER	 element.   It
       should be called with an argument of LBER_USE_DER.

       The  ber_flush()	 routine  is  used  to actually write the element to a
       socket (or file) descriptor, once it  has  been	fully  encoded	(using
       ber_printf() and friends).  See lber-sockbuf(3) for more details on the
       Sockbuf implementation of the sb parameter.  If the freeit parameter is
       non-zero,  the  supplied ber will be freed after its contents have been

       The ber_printf() routine is used to encode a BER element	 in  much  the
       same  way  that sprintf(3) works.  One important difference, though, is
       that some state information is kept with the ber parameter so that mul‐
       tiple  calls can be made to ber_printf() to append things to the end of
       the BER element.	 Ber_printf() writes to ber, a pointer to a BerElement
       such as returned by ber_alloc_t().  It interprets and formats its argu‐
       ments according to the format string fmt.  The format string  can  con‐
       tain the following characters:

	      b	 Boolean.  An ber_int_t parameter should be supplied.  A bool‐
		 ean element is output.

	      e	 Enumeration.  An ber_int_t parameter should be supplied.   An
		 enumeration element is output.

	      i	 Integer.   An	ber_int_t  parameter  should  be supplied.  An
		 integer element is output.

	      B	 Bitstring.  A char * pointer to the start of the bitstring is
		 supplied, followed by the number of bits in the bitstring.  A
		 bitstring element is output.

	      n	 Null.	No parameter is required.  A null element is output.

	      o	 Octet string.	A char * is supplied, followed by  the	length
		 of the string pointed to.  An octet string element is output.

	      O	 Octet	string.	  A  struct  berval  *	is supplied.  An octet
		 string element is output.

	      s	 Octet string.	A  null-terminated  string  is	supplied.   An
		 octet	string	element	 is output, not including the trailing
		 NULL octet.

	      t	 Tag.  A ber_tag_t specifying the tag to give the next element
		 is provided.  This works across calls.

	      v	 Several  octet	 strings.  A null-terminated array of char *'s
		 is supplied.  Note that a construct like '{v}' is required to
		 get an actual SEQUENCE OF octet strings.

	      V	 Several  octet	 strings.   A  null-terminated array of struct
		 berval *'s is supplied.  Note that a construct like '{V}'  is
		 required to get an actual SEQUENCE OF octet strings.

	      W	 Several  octet	 strings.  An array of struct berval's is sup‐
		 plied.	 The array is terminated by a  struct  berval  with  a
		 NULL bv_val.  Note that a construct like '{W}' is required to
		 get an actual SEQUENCE OF octet strings.

	      {	 Begin sequence.  No parameter is required.

	      }	 End sequence.	No parameter is required.

	      [	 Begin set.  No parameter is required.

	      ]	 End set.  No parameter is required.

       The ber_put_int() routine writes the integer element  num  to  the  BER
       element ber.

       The  ber_put_enum()  routine  writes the enumeration element num to the
       BER element ber.

       The ber_put_boolean() routine writes the boolean value given by bool to
       the BER element.

       The  ber_put_bitstring()	 routine writes blen bits starting at str as a
       bitstring value to the given BER element.  Note that blen is the length
       in bits of the bitstring.

       The  ber_put_ostring()  routine writes len bytes starting at str to the
       BER element as an octet string.

       The ber_put_string() routine writes the null-terminated	string	(minus
       the terminating ' ') to the BER element as an octet string.

       The ber_put_null() routine writes a NULL element to the BER element.

       The ber_start_seq() routine is used to start a sequence in the BER ele‐
       ment.  The ber_start_set() routine works similarly.   The  end  of  the
       sequence or set is marked by the nearest matching call to ber_put_seq()
       or ber_put_set(), respectively.

       Assuming the following variable declarations, and  that	the  variables
       have  been  assigned  appropriately,  an lber encoding of the following
       ASN.1 object:

	     AlmostASearchRequest := SEQUENCE {
		 baseObject	 DistinguishedName,
		 scope		 ENUMERATED {
		     baseObject	   (0),
		     singleLevel   (1),
		     wholeSubtree  (2)
		 derefAliases	 ENUMERATED {
		     neverDerefaliases	 (0),
		     derefInSearching	 (1),
		     derefFindingBaseObj (2),
		     alwaysDerefAliases	 (3)
		 sizelimit	 INTEGER (0 .. 65535),
		 timelimit	 INTEGER (0 .. 65535),
		 attrsOnly	 BOOLEAN,
		 attributes	 SEQUENCE OF AttributeType

       can be achieved like so:

	     int rc;
	     ber_int_t	  scope, ali, size, time, attrsonly;
	     char   *dn, **attrs;
	     BerElement *ber;

	     /* ... fill in values ... */

	     ber = ber_alloc_t( LBER_USE_DER );

	     if ( ber == NULL ) {
		     /* error */

	     rc = ber_printf( ber, "{siiiib{v}}", dn, scope, ali,
		 size, time, attrsonly, attrs );

	     if( rc == -1 ) {
		     /* error */
	     } else {
		     /* success */

       If an error occurs during encoding, generally these routines return -1.

       The return values for all  of  these  functions	are  declared  in  the
       <lber.h> header file.

       lber-decode(3), lber-memory(3), lber-sockbuf(3), lber-types(3)

       OpenLDAP	  is   developed   and	maintained  by	The  OpenLDAP  Project
       (  OpenLDAP is	 derived  from	University  of
       Michigan LDAP 3.3 Release.

OpenLDAP 2.3.27			  2006/08/19			LBER_ENCODE(3)
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