BISON(1)BISON(1)NAMEbison - GNU Project parser generator (yacc replacement)
SYNOPSISbison [ -b file-prefix ] [ --file-prefix=file-prefix ] [ -d ] [
--defines ] [ -k ] [ --token-table ] [ -l ] [ --no-lines ] [ -n ] [
--no-parser ] [ -o outfile ] [ --output-file=outfile ] [ -p prefix ] [
--name-prefix=prefix ] [ -r ] [ --raw ] [ -t ] [ --debug ] [ -v ] [
--verbose ] [ -V ] [ --version ] [ -y ] [ --yacc ] [ -h ] [ --help ] [
--fixed-output-files ] file
Bison is a parser generator in the style of yacc(1). It should be
upwardly compatible with input files designed for yacc.
Input files should follow the yacc convention of ending in .y. Unlike
yacc, the generated files do not have fixed names, but instead use the
prefix of the input file. For instance, a grammar description file
named parse.y would produce the generated parser in a file named
parse.tab.c, instead of yacc's y.tab.c.
This description of the options that can be given to bison is adapted
from the node Invocation in the bison.texinfo manual, which should be
taken as authoritative.
Bison supports both traditional single-letter options and mnemonic long
option names. Long option names are indicated with -- instead of -.
Abbreviations for option names are allowed as long as they are unique.
When a long option takes an argument, like --file-prefix, connect the
option name and the argument with =.
Specify a prefix to use for all bison output file names. The
names are chosen as if the input file were named file-prefix.c.
Write an extra output file containing macro definitions for the
token type names defined in the grammar and the semantic value
type YYSTYPE, as well as a few extern variable declarations.
If the parser output file is named name.c then this file is
This output file is essential if you wish to put the definition
of yylex in a separate source file, because yylex needs to be
able to refer to token type codes and the variable yylval.
--raw The token numbers in the name.h file are usually the Yacc com‐
patible translations. If this switch is specified, Bison token
numbers are output instead. (Yacc numbers start at 257 except
for single character tokens; Bison assigns token numbers
sequentially for all tokens starting at 3.)
This switch causes the name.tab.c output to include a list of
token names in order by their token numbers; this is defined in
the array yytname. Also generated are #defines for YYNTOKENS,
YYNNTS, YYNRULES, and YYNSTATES.
Don't put any #line preprocessor commands in the parser file.
Ordinarily bison puts them in the parser file so that the C com‐
piler and debuggers will associate errors with your source file,
the grammar file. This option causes them to associate errors
with the parser file, treating it an independent source file in
its own right.
Do not generate the parser code into the output; generate only
declarations. The generated name.tab.c file will have only con‐
stant declarations. In addition, a name.act file is generated
containing a switch statement body containing all the translated
Specify the name outfile for the parser file.
The other output files' names are constructed from outfile as
described under the -v and -d switches.
Rename the external symbols used in the parser so that they
start with prefix instead of yy. The precise list of symbols
renamed is yyparse, yylex, yyerror, yylval, yychar, and yydebug.
For example, if you use -p c, the names become cparse, clex, and
Output a definition of the macro YYDEBUG into the parser file,
so that the debugging facilities are compiled.
Write an extra output file containing verbose descriptions of
the parser states and what is done for each type of look-ahead
token in that state.
This file also describes all the conflicts, both those resolved
by operator precedence and the unresolved ones.
The file's name is made by removing .tab.c or .c from the parser
output file name, and adding .output instead.
Therefore, if the input file is foo.y, then the parser file is
called foo.tab.c by default. As a consequence, the verbose out‐
put file is called foo.output.
Print the version number of bison and exit.
--help Print a summary of the options to bison and exit.
Equivalent to -o y.tab.c; the parser output file is called
y.tab.c, and the other outputs are called y.output and y.tab.h.
The purpose of this switch is to imitate yacc's output file name
conventions. Thus, the following shell script can substitute
The long-named options can be introduced with `+' as well as `--', for
compatibility with previous releases. Eventually support for `+' will
be removed, because it is incompatible with the POSIX.2 standard.
/usr/local/lib/bison.simple simple parser
/usr/local/lib/bison.hairy complicated parser
The Bison Reference Manual, included as the file bison.texinfo in the
bison source distribution.