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BMAKE(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		      BMAKE(1)

     bmake — maintain program dependencies

     bmake [-BeikNnqrstWX] [-C directory] [-D variable] [-d flags]
	   [-f makefile] [-I directory] [-J private] [-j max_jobs]
	   [-m directory] [-T file] [-V variable] [variable=value]
	   [target ...]

     bmake is a program designed to simplify the maintenance of other pro‐
     grams.  Its input is a list of specifications as to the files upon which
     programs and other files depend.  If no -f makefile makefile option is
     given, bmake will try to open ‘makefile’ then ‘Makefile’ in order to find
     the specifications.  If the file ‘.depend’ exists, it is read (see

     This manual page is intended as a reference document only.	 For a more
     thorough description of bmake and makefiles, please refer to Make - A

     bmake will prepend the contents of the MAKEFLAGS environment variable to
     the command line arguments before parsing them.

     The options are as follows:

     -B	     Try to be backwards compatible by executing a single shell per
	     command and by executing the commands to make the sources of a
	     dependency line in sequence.

     -C directory
	     Change to directory before reading the makefiles or doing any‐
	     thing else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each is inter‐
	     preted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to
	     -C /etc.

     -D variable
	     Define variable to be 1, in the global context.

     -d [-]flags
	     Turn on debugging, and specify which portions of bmake are to
	     print debugging information.  Unless the flags are preceded by
	     ‘-’ they are added to the MAKEFLAGS environment variable and will
	     be processed by any child make processes.	By default, debugging
	     information is printed to standard error, but this can be changed
	     using the F debugging flag.  The debugging output is always
	     unbuffered; in addition, if debugging is enabled but debugging
	     output is not directed to standard output, then the standard out‐
	     put is line buffered.  Flags is one or more of the following:

	     A	     Print all possible debugging information; equivalent to
		     specifying all of the debugging flags.

	     a	     Print debugging information about archive searching and

	     C	     Print debugging information about current working direc‐

	     c	     Print debugging information about conditional evaluation.

	     d	     Print debugging information about directory searching and

	     e	     Print debugging information about failed commands and

		     Specify where debugging output is written.	 This must be
		     the last flag, because it consumes the remainder of the
		     argument.	If the character immediately after the ‘F’
		     flag is ‘+’, then the file will be opened in append mode;
		     otherwise the file will be overwritten.  If the file name
		     is ‘stdout’ or ‘stderr’ then debugging output will be
		     written to the standard output or standard error output
		     file descriptors respectively (and the ‘+’ option has no
		     effect).  Otherwise, the output will be written to the
		     named file.  If the file name ends ‘.%d’ then the ‘%d’ is
		     replaced by the pid.

	     f	     Print debugging information about loop evaluation.

	     g1	     Print the input graph before making anything.

	     g2	     Print the input graph after making everything, or before
		     exiting on error.

	     g3	     Print the input graph before exiting on error.

	     j	     Print debugging information about running multiple

	     l	     Print commands in Makefiles regardless of whether or not
		     they are prefixed by ‘@’ or other "quiet" flags.  Also
		     known as "loud" behavior.

	     m	     Print debugging information about making targets, includ‐
		     ing modification dates.

	     n	     Don't delete the temporary command scripts created when
		     running commands.	These temporary scripts are created in
		     the directory referred to by the TMPDIR environment vari‐
		     able, or in /tmp if TMPDIR is unset or set to the empty
		     string.  The temporary scripts are created by mkstemp(3),
		     and have names of the form makeXXXXXX.  NOTE: This can
		     create many files in TMPDIR or /tmp, so use with care.

	     p	     Print debugging information about makefile parsing.

	     s	     Print debugging information about suffix-transformation

	     t	     Print debugging information about target list mainte‐

	     v	     Print debugging information about variable assignment.

	     x	     Run shell commands with -x so the actual commands are
		     printed as they are executed.

     -e	     Specify that environment variables override macro assignments
	     within makefiles.

     -f makefile
	     Specify a makefile to read instead of the default ‘makefile’.  If
	     makefile is ‘-’, standard input is read.  Multiple makefiles may
	     be specified, and are read in the order specified.

     -I directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for makefiles and included
	     makefiles.	 The system makefile directory (or directories, see
	     the -m option) is automatically included as part of this list.

     -i	     Ignore non-zero exit of shell commands in the makefile.  Equiva‐
	     lent to specifying ‘-’ before each command line in the makefile.

     -J private
	     This option should not be specified by the user.

	     When the j option is in use in a recursive build, this option is
	     passed by a make to child makes to allow all the make processes
	     in the build to cooperate to avoid overloading the system.

     -j max_jobs
	     Specify the maximum number of jobs that bmake may have running at
	     any one time.  Turns compatibility mode off, unless the B flag is
	     also specified.  When compatibility mode is off, all commands
	     associated with a target are executed in a single shell invoca‐
	     tion as opposed to the traditional one shell invocation per line.
	     This can break traditional scripts which change directories on
	     each command invocation and then expect to start with a fresh
	     environment on the next line.  It is more efficient to correct
	     the scripts rather than turn backwards compatibility on.

     -k	     Continue processing after errors are encountered, but only on
	     those targets that do not depend on the target whose creation
	     caused the error.

     -m directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for and makefiles
	     included via the ⟨file⟩-style include statement.  The -m option
	     can be used multiple times to form a search path.	This path will
	     override the default system include path: /usr/share/mk.  Fur‐
	     thermore the system include path will be appended to the search
	     path used for "file"-style include statements (see the -I

	     If a file or directory name in the -m argument (or the
	     MAKESYSPATH environment variable) starts with the string ".../"
	     then bmake will search for the specified file or directory named
	     in the remaining part of the argument string.  The search starts
	     with the current directory of the Makefile and then works upward
	     towards the root of the filesystem.  If the search is successful,
	     then the resulting directory replaces the ".../" specification in
	     the -m argument.  If used, this feature allows bmake to easily
	     search in the current source tree for customized files
	     (e.g., by using ".../mk/" as an argument).

     -n	     Display the commands that would have been executed, but do not
	     actually execute them unless the target depends on the .MAKE spe‐
	     cial source (see below).

     -N	     Display the commands which would have been executed, but do not
	     actually execute any of them; useful for debugging top-level
	     makefiles without descending into subdirectories.

     -q	     Do not execute any commands, but exit 0 if the specified targets
	     are up-to-date and 1, otherwise.

     -r	     Do not use the built-in rules specified in the system makefile.

     -s	     Do not echo any commands as they are executed.  Equivalent to
	     specifying ‘@’ before each command line in the makefile.

     -T tracefile
	     When used with the -j flag, append a trace record to tracefile
	     for each job started and completed.

     -t	     Rather than re-building a target as specified in the makefile,
	     create it or update its modification time to make it appear up-

     -V variable
	     Print bmake's idea of the value of variable, in the global con‐
	     text.  Do not build any targets.  Multiple instances of this
	     option may be specified; the variables will be printed one per
	     line, with a blank line for each null or undefined variable.  If
	     variable contains a ‘$’ then the value will be expanded before

     -W	     Treat any warnings during makefile parsing as errors.

     -X	     Don't export variables passed on the command line to the environ‐
	     ment individually.	 Variables passed on the command line are
	     still exported via the MAKEFLAGS environment variable.  This
	     option may be useful on systems which have a small limit on the
	     size of command arguments.

	     Set the value of the variable variable to value.  Normally, all
	     values passed on the command line are also exported to sub-makes
	     in the environment.  The -X flag disables this behavior.  Vari‐
	     able assignments should follow options for POSIX compatibility
	     but no ordering is enforced.

     There are seven different types of lines in a makefile: file dependency
     specifications, shell commands, variable assignments, include statements,
     conditional directives, for loops, and comments.

     In general, lines may be continued from one line to the next by ending
     them with a backslash (‘\’).  The trailing newline character and initial
     whitespace on the following line are compressed into a single space.

     Dependency lines consist of one or more targets, an operator, and zero or
     more sources.  This creates a relationship where the targets “depend” on
     the sources and are usually created from them.  The exact relationship
     between the target and the source is determined by the operator that sep‐
     arates them.  The three operators are as follows:

     :	   A target is considered out-of-date if its modification time is less
	   than those of any of its sources.  Sources for a target accumulate
	   over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target is
	   removed if bmake is interrupted.

     !	   Targets are always re-created, but not until all sources have been
	   examined and re-created as necessary.  Sources for a target accumu‐
	   late over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target
	   is removed if bmake is interrupted.

     ::	   If no sources are specified, the target is always re-created.  Oth‐
	   erwise, a target is considered out-of-date if any of its sources
	   has been modified more recently than the target.  Sources for a
	   target do not accumulate over dependency lines when this operator
	   is used.  The target will not be removed if bmake is interrupted.

     Targets and sources may contain the shell wildcard values ‘?’, ‘*’, ‘[]’,
     and ‘{}’.	The values ‘?’, ‘*’, and ‘[]’ may only be used as part of the
     final component of the target or source, and must be used to describe
     existing files.  The value ‘{}’ need not necessarily be used to describe
     existing files.  Expansion is in directory order, not alphabetically as
     done in the shell.

     Each target may have associated with it a series of shell commands, nor‐
     mally used to create the target.  Each of the commands in this script
     must be preceded by a tab.	 While any target may appear on a dependency
     line, only one of these dependencies may be followed by a creation
     script, unless the ‘::’ operator is used.

     If the first characters of the command line are any combination of ‘@’,
     ‘+’, or ‘-’, the command is treated specially.  A ‘@’ causes the command
     not to be echoed before it is executed.  A ‘+’ causes the command to be
     executed even when -n is given.  This is similar to the effect of the
     .MAKE special source, except that the effect can be limited to a single
     line of a script.	A ‘-’ causes any non-zero exit status of the command
     line to be ignored.

     Variables in make are much like variables in the shell, and, by tradi‐
     tion, consist of all upper-case letters.

   Variable assignment modifiers
     The five operators that can be used to assign values to variables are as

     =	     Assign the value to the variable.	Any previous value is overrid‐

     +=	     Append the value to the current value of the variable.

     ?=	     Assign the value to the variable if it is not already defined.

     :=	     Assign with expansion, i.e. expand the value before assigning it
	     to the variable.  Normally, expansion is not done until the vari‐
	     able is referenced.  NOTE: References to undefined variables are
	     not expanded.  This can cause problems when variable modifiers
	     are used.

     !=	     Expand the value and pass it to the shell for execution and
	     assign the result to the variable.	 Any newlines in the result
	     are replaced with spaces.

     Any white-space before the assigned value is removed; if the value is
     being appended, a single space is inserted between the previous contents
     of the variable and the appended value.

     Variables are expanded by surrounding the variable name with either curly
     braces (‘{}’) or parentheses (‘()’) and preceding it with a dollar sign
     (‘$’).  If the variable name contains only a single letter, the surround‐
     ing braces or parentheses are not required.  This shorter form is not

     If the variable name contains a dollar, then the name itself is expanded
     first.  This allows almost arbitrary variable names, however names con‐
     taining dollar, braces, parenthesis, or whitespace are really best

     If the result of expanding a variable contains a dollar sign (‘$’) the
     string is expanded again.

     Variable substitution occurs at three distinct times, depending on where
     the variable is being used.

     1.	  Variables in dependency lines are expanded as the line is read.

     2.	  Variables in shell commands are expanded when the shell command is

     3.	  “.for” loop index variables are expanded on each loop iteration.
	  Note that other variables are not expanded inside loops so the fol‐
	  lowing example code:

		.for i in 1 2 3
		a+=	${i}
		j=	${i}
		b+=	${j}

			@echo ${a}
			@echo ${b}

	  will print:

		1 2 3
		3 3 3

	  Because while ${a} contains “1 2 3” after the loop is executed, ${b}
	  contains “${j} ${j} ${j}” which expands to “3 3 3” since after the
	  loop completes ${j} contains “3”.

   Variable classes
     The four different classes of variables (in order of increasing prece‐
     dence) are:

     Environment variables
	     Variables defined as part of bmake's environment.

     Global variables
	     Variables defined in the makefile or in included makefiles.

     Command line variables
	     Variables defined as part of the command line.

     Local variables
	     Variables that are defined specific to a certain target.  The
	     seven local variables are as follows:

	     .ALLSRC   The list of all sources for this target; also known as

	     .ARCHIVE  The name of the archive file.

	     .IMPSRC   In suffix-transformation rules, the name/path of the
		       source from which the target is to be transformed (the
		       “implied” source); also known as ‘<’.  It is not
		       defined in explicit rules.

	     .MEMBER   The name of the archive member.

	     .OODATE   The list of sources for this target that were deemed
		       out-of-date; also known as ‘?’.

	     .PREFIX   The file prefix of the target, containing only the file
		       portion, no suffix or preceding directory components;
		       also known as ‘*’.

	     .TARGET   The name of the target; also known as ‘@’.

	     The shorter forms ‘@’, ‘?’, ‘<’, ‘>’, and ‘*’ are permitted for
	     backward compatibility with historical makefiles and are not rec‐
	     ommended.	The six variables ‘@F’, ‘@D’, ‘<F’, ‘<D’, ‘*F’, and
	     ‘*D’ are permitted for compatibility with AT&T System V UNIX
	     makefiles and are not recommended.

	     Four of the local variables may be used in sources on dependency
	     lines because they expand to the proper value for each target on
	     the line.	These variables are ‘.TARGET’, ‘.PREFIX’, ‘.ARCHIVE’,
	     and ‘.MEMBER’.

   Additional built-in variables
     In addition, bmake sets or knows about the following variables:

     $		     A single dollar sign ‘$’, i.e.  ‘$$’ expands to a single
		     dollar sign.

     .ALLTARGETS     The list of all targets encountered in the Makefile.  If
		     evaluated during Makefile parsing, lists only those tar‐
		     gets encountered thus far.

     .CURDIR	     A path to the directory where bmake was executed.	Refer
		     to the description of ‘PWD’ for more details.

     MAKE	     The name that bmake was executed with (argv[0]).  For
		     compatibility bmake also sets .MAKE with the same value.
		     The preferred variable to use is the environment variable
		     MAKE because it is more compatible with other versions of
		     bmake and cannot be confused with the special target with
		     the same name.

		     Names the makefile (default ‘.depend’) from which gener‐
		     ated dependencies are read.

     .MAKE.EXPORTED  The list of variables exported by bmake.

     .MAKE.JOBS	     The argument to the -j option.

		     If bmake is run with j then output for each target is
		     prefixed with a token ‘--- target ---’ the first part of
		     which can be controlled via .MAKE.JOB.PREFIX.
		     For example:
		     would produce tokens like ‘---make[1234] target ---’ mak‐
		     ing it easier to track the degree of parallelism being

     MAKEFLAGS	     The environment variable ‘MAKEFLAGS’ may contain anything
		     that may be specified on bmake's command line.  Anything
		     specified on bmake's command line is appended to the
		     ‘MAKEFLAGS’ variable which is then entered into the envi‐
		     ronment for all programs which bmake executes.

     .MAKE.LEVEL     The recursion depth of bmake.  The initial instance of
		     bmake will be 0, and an incremented value is put into the
		     environment to be seen by the next generation.  This
		     allows tests like: .if ${.MAKE.LEVEL} == 0 to protect
		     things which should only be evaluated in the initial
		     instance of bmake.

		     The ordered list of makefile names (default ‘makefile’,
		     ‘Makefile’) that bmake will look for.

		     The list of makefiles read by bmake, which is useful for
		     tracking dependencies.  Each makefile is recorded only
		     once, regardless of the number of times read.

     .MAKE.MODE	     Processed after reading all makefiles.  Can affect the
		     mode that bmake runs in.  Currently just ‘compat’ mode.

     .MAKEOVERRIDES  This variable is used to record the names of variables
		     assigned to on the command line, so that they may be
		     exported as part of ‘MAKEFLAGS’.  This behaviour can be
		     disabled by assigning an empty value to ‘.MAKEOVERRIDES’
		     within a makefile.	 Extra variables can be exported from
		     a makefile by appending their names to ‘.MAKEOVERRIDES’.
		     ‘MAKEFLAGS’ is re-exported whenever ‘.MAKEOVERRIDES’ is

     .MAKE.PID	     The process-id of bmake.

     .MAKE.PPID	     The parent process-id of bmake.

		     When bmake stops due to an error, it prints its name and
		     the value of ‘.CURDIR’ as well as the value of any vari‐
		     ables named in ‘MAKE_PRINT_VAR_ON_ERROR’.

     .newline	     This variable is simply assigned a newline character as
		     its value.	 This allows expansions using the :@ modifier
		     to put a newline between iterations of the loop rather
		     than a space.  For example, the printing of
		     ‘MAKE_PRINT_VAR_ON_ERROR’ could be done as

     .OBJDIR	     A path to the directory where the targets are built.  Its
		     value is determined by trying to chdir(2) to the follow‐
		     ing directories in order and using the first match:


			  (Only if ‘MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX’ is set in the environ‐
			  ment or on the command line.)

		     2.	  ${MAKEOBJDIR}

			  (Only if ‘MAKEOBJDIR’ is set in the environment or
			  on the command line.)

		     3.	  ${.CURDIR}/obj.${MACHINE}

		     4.	  ${.CURDIR}/obj

		     5.	  /usr/obj/${.CURDIR}

		     6.	  ${.CURDIR}

		     Variable expansion is performed on the value before it's
		     used, so expressions such as
		     may be used.  This is especially useful with

		     ‘.OBJDIR’ may be modified in the makefile as a global
		     variable.	In all cases, bmake will chdir(2) to ‘.OBJDIR’
		     and set ‘PWD’ to that directory before executing any tar‐

     .PARSEDIR	     A path to the directory of the current ‘Makefile’ being

     .PARSEFILE	     The basename of the current ‘Makefile’ being parsed.
		     This variable and ‘.PARSEDIR’ are both set only while the
		     ‘Makefiles’ are being parsed.

     .PATH	     A variable that represents the list of directories that
		     bmake will search for files.  The search list should be
		     updated using the target ‘.PATH’ rather than the vari‐

     PWD	     Alternate path to the current directory.  bmake normally
		     sets ‘.CURDIR’ to the canonical path given by getcwd(3).
		     However, if the environment variable ‘PWD’ is set and
		     gives a path to the current directory, then bmake sets
		     ‘.CURDIR’ to the value of ‘PWD’ instead.  This behaviour
		     is disabled if ‘MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX’ is set or ‘MAKEOBJDIR’
		     contains a variable transform.  ‘PWD’ is set to the value
		     of ‘.OBJDIR’ for all programs which bmake executes.

     .TARGETS	     The list of targets explicitly specified on the command
		     line, if any.

     VPATH	     Colon-separated (“:”) lists of directories that bmake
		     will search for files.  The variable is supported for
		     compatibility with old make programs only, use ‘.PATH’

   Variable modifiers
     Variable expansion may be modified to select or modify each word of the
     variable (where a “word” is white-space delimited sequence of charac‐
     ters).  The general format of a variable expansion is as follows:


     Each modifier begins with a colon, which may be escaped with a backslash

     A set of modifiers can be specified via a variable, as follows:


     In this case the first modifier in the modifier_variable does not start
     with a colon, since that must appear in the referencing variable.	If any
     of the modifiers in the modifier_variable contain a dollar sign (‘$’),
     these must be doubled to avoid early expansion.

     The supported modifiers are:

     :E	  Replaces each word in the variable with its suffix.

     :H	  Replaces each word in the variable with everything but the last com‐

	  Select only those words that match pattern.  The standard shell
	  wildcard characters (‘*’, ‘?’, and ‘[]’) may be used.	 The wildcard
	  characters may be escaped with a backslash (‘\’).

	  This is identical to ‘:M’, but selects all words which do not match

     :O	  Order every word in variable alphabetically.	To sort words in
	  reverse order use the ‘:O:[-1..1]’ combination of modifiers.

     :Ox  Randomize words in variable.	The results will be different each
	  time you are referring to the modified variable; use the assignment
	  with expansion (‘:=’) to prevent such behaviour.  For example,

		LIST=			uno due tre quattro

			@echo "${RANDOM_LIST}"
			@echo "${RANDOM_LIST}"
			@echo "${STATIC_RANDOM_LIST}"
			@echo "${STATIC_RANDOM_LIST}"
	  may produce output similar to:

		quattro due tre uno
		tre due quattro uno
		due uno quattro tre
		due uno quattro tre

     :Q	  Quotes every shell meta-character in the variable, so that it can be
	  passed safely through recursive invocations of bmake.

     :R	  Replaces each word in the variable with everything but its suffix.

     :tA  Attempt to convert variable to an absolute path using realpath(3),
	  if that fails, the value is unchanged.

     :tl  Converts variable to lower-case letters.

	  Words in the variable are normally separated by a space on expan‐
	  sion.	 This modifier sets the separator to the character c.  If c is
	  omitted, then no separator is used.  The common escapes (including
	  octal numeric codes), work as expected.

     :tu  Converts variable to upper-case letters.

     :tW  Causes the value to be treated as a single word (possibly containing
	  embedded white space).  See also ‘:[*]’.

     :tw  Causes the value to be treated as a sequence of words delimited by
	  white space.	See also ‘:[@]’.

	  Modify the first occurrence of old_string in the variable's value,
	  replacing it with new_string.	 If a ‘g’ is appended to the last
	  slash of the pattern, all occurrences in each word are replaced.  If
	  a ‘1’ is appended to the last slash of the pattern, only the first
	  word is affected.  If a ‘W’ is appended to the last slash of the
	  pattern, then the value is treated as a single word (possibly con‐
	  taining embedded white space).  If old_string begins with a caret
	  (‘^’), old_string is anchored at the beginning of each word.	If
	  old_string ends with a dollar sign (‘$’), it is anchored at the end
	  of each word.	 Inside new_string, an ampersand (‘&’) is replaced by
	  old_string (without any ‘^’ or ‘$’).	Any character may be used as a
	  delimiter for the parts of the modifier string.  The anchoring,
	  ampersand and delimiter characters may be escaped with a backslash

	  Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside both
	  old_string and new_string with the single exception that a backslash
	  is used to prevent the expansion of a dollar sign (‘$’), not a pre‐
	  ceding dollar sign as is usual.

	  The :C modifier is just like the :S modifier except that the old and
	  new strings, instead of being simple strings, are a regular expres‐
	  sion (see regex(3)) string pattern and an ed(1)-style string
	  replacement.	Normally, the first occurrence of the pattern pattern
	  in each word of the value is substituted with replacement.  The ‘1’
	  modifier causes the substitution to apply to at most one word; the
	  ‘g’ modifier causes the substitution to apply to as many instances
	  of the search pattern pattern as occur in the word or words it is
	  found in; the ‘W’ modifier causes the value to be treated as a sin‐
	  gle word (possibly containing embedded white space).	Note that ‘1’
	  and ‘g’ are orthogonal; the former specifies whether multiple words
	  are potentially affected, the latter whether multiple substitutions
	  can potentially occur within each affected word.

     :T	  Replaces each word in the variable with its last component.

     :u	  Remove adjacent duplicate words (like uniq(1)).

	  If the variable name (not its value), when parsed as a .if condi‐
	  tional expression, evaluates to true, return as its value the
	  true_string, otherwise return the false_string.  Since the variable
	  name is used as the expression, :? must be the first modifier after
	  the variable name itself - which will, of course, usually contain
	  variable expansions.	A common error is trying to use expressions
	  which actually tests defined(NUMBERS), to determine is any words
	  match "42" you need to use something like:
		${${NUMBERS:M42} !=  :?match:no}.

	  This is the AT&T System V UNIX style variable substitution.  It must
	  be the last modifier specified.  If old_string or new_string do not
	  contain the pattern matching character % then it is assumed that
	  they are anchored at the end of each word, so only suffixes or
	  entire words may be replaced.	 Otherwise % is the substring of
	  old_string to be replaced in new_string.

	  Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside both
	  old_string and new_string with the single exception that a backslash
	  is used to prevent the expansion of a dollar sign (‘$’), not a pre‐
	  ceding dollar sign as is usual.

	  This is the loop expansion mechanism from the OSF Development Envi‐
	  ronment (ODE) make.  Unlike .for loops expansion occurs at the time
	  of reference.	 Assign temp to each word in the variable and evaluate
	  string.  The ODE convention is that temp should start and end with a
	  period.  For example.
		${LINKS:@.LINK.@${LN} ${TARGET} ${.LINK.}@}

	  If the variable is undefined newval is the value.  If the variable
	  is defined, the existing value is returned.  This is another ODE
	  make feature.	 It is handy for setting per-target CFLAGS for
	  If a value is only required if the variable is undefined, use:

	  If the variable is defined newval is the value.

     :L	  The name of the variable is the value.

     :P	  The path of the node which has the same name as the variable is the
	  value.  If no such node exists or its path is null, then the name of
	  the variable is used.

	  The output of running cmd is the value.

     :sh  If the variable is non-empty it is run as a command and the output
	  becomes the new value.

	  The variable is assigned the value str after substitution.  This
	  modifier and its variations are useful in obscure situations such as
	  wanting to set a variable when shell commands are being parsed.
	  These assignment modifiers always expand to nothing, so if appearing
	  in a rule line by themselves should be preceded with something to
	  keep bmake happy.

	  The ‘::’ helps avoid false matches with the AT&T System V UNIX style
	  := modifier and since substitution always occurs the ::= form is
	  vaguely appropriate.

	  As for ::= but only if the variable does not already have a value.

	  Append str to the variable.

	  Assign the output of cmd to the variable.

	  Selects one or more words from the value, or performs other opera‐
	  tions related to the way in which the value is divided into words.

	  Ordinarily, a value is treated as a sequence of words delimited by
	  white space.	Some modifiers suppress this behaviour, causing a
	  value to be treated as a single word (possibly containing embedded
	  white space).	 An empty value, or a value that consists entirely of
	  white-space, is treated as a single word.  For the purposes of the
	  ‘:[]’ modifier, the words are indexed both forwards using positive
	  integers (where index 1 represents the first word), and backwards
	  using negative integers (where index -1 represents the last word).

	  The range is subjected to variable expansion, and the expanded
	  result is then interpreted as follows:

	  index	 Selects a single word from the value.

		 Selects all words from start to end, inclusive.  For example,
		 ‘:[2..-1]’ selects all words from the second word to the last
		 word.	If start is greater than end, then the words are out‐
		 put in reverse order.	For example, ‘:[-1..1]’ selects all
		 the words from last to first.

	  *	 Causes subsequent modifiers to treat the value as a single
		 word (possibly containing embedded white space).  Analogous
		 to the effect of "$*" in Bourne shell.

	  0	 Means the same as ‘:[*]’.

	  @	 Causes subsequent modifiers to treat the value as a sequence
		 of words delimited by white space.  Analogous to the effect
		 of "$@" in Bourne shell.

	  #	 Returns the number of words in the value.

     Makefile inclusion, conditional structures and for loops  reminiscent of
     the C programming language are provided in bmake.	All such structures
     are identified by a line beginning with a single dot (‘.’) character.
     Files are included with either .include ⟨file⟩ or .include "file".	 Vari‐
     ables between the angle brackets or double quotes are expanded to form
     the file name.  If angle brackets are used, the included makefile is
     expected to be in the system makefile directory.  If double quotes are
     used, the including makefile's directory and any directories specified
     using the -I option are searched before the system makefile directory.
     For compatibility with other versions of bmake ‘include file ...’ is also
     accepted.	If the include statement is written as .-include or as
     .sinclude then errors locating and/or opening include files are ignored.

     Conditional expressions are also preceded by a single dot as the first
     character of a line.  The possible conditionals are as follows:

     .error message
	     The message is printed along with the name of the makefile and
	     line number, then bmake will exit.

     .export variable ...
	     Export the specified global variable.  If no variable list is
	     provided, all globals are exported except for internal variables
	     (those that start with ‘.’).  This is not affected by the -X
	     flag, so should be used with caution.

	     Appending a variable name to .MAKE.EXPORTED is equivalent to
	     exporting a variable.

     .export-env variable ...
	     The same as ‘.export’, except that the variable is not appended
	     to .MAKE.EXPORTED.	 This allows exporting a value to the environ‐
	     ment which is different from that used by bmake internally.

     .info message
	     The message is printed along with the name of the makefile and
	     line number.

     .undef variable
	     Un-define the specified global variable.  Only global variables
	     may be un-defined.

     .unexport variable ...
	     The opposite of ‘.export’.	 The specified global variable will be
	     removed from .MAKE.EXPORTED.  If no variable list is provided,
	     all globals are unexported, and .MAKE.EXPORTED deleted.

	     Unexport all globals previously exported and clear the environ‐
	     ment inherited from the parent.  This operation will cause a mem‐
	     ory leak of the original environment, so should be used spar‐
	     ingly.  Testing for .MAKE.LEVEL being 0, would make sense.	 Also
	     note that any variables which originated in the parent environ‐
	     ment should be explicitly preserved if desired.  For example:

		   .if ${.MAKE.LEVEL} == 0
		   PATH := ${PATH}
		   .export PATH

	     Would result in an environment containing only ‘PATH’, which is
	     the minimal useful environment.  Actually ‘.MAKE.LEVEL’ will also
	     be pushed into the new environment.

     .warning message
	     The message prefixed by ‘warning:’ is printed along with the name
	     of the makefile and line number.

     .if [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     Test the value of an expression.

     .ifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .ifnmake [!] target [operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .else   Reverse the sense of the last conditional.

     .elif [!] expression [operator expression ...]
	     A combination of ‘.else’ followed by ‘.if’.

     .elifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of ‘.else’ followed by ‘.ifdef’.

     .elifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of ‘.else’ followed by ‘.ifndef’.

     .elifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of ‘.else’ followed by ‘.ifmake’.

     .elifnmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of ‘.else’ followed by ‘.ifnmake’.

     .endif  End the body of the conditional.

     The operator may be any one of the following:

     ||	    Logical OR.

     &&	    Logical AND; of higher precedence than “||”.

     As in C, bmake will only evaluate a conditional as far as is necessary to
     determine its value.  Parentheses may be used to change the order of
     evaluation.  The boolean operator ‘!’ may be used to logically negate an
     entire conditional.  It is of higher precedence than ‘&&’.

     The value of expression may be any of the following:

     defined  Takes a variable name as an argument and evaluates to true if
	      the variable has been defined.

     make     Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if the
	      target was specified as part of bmake's command line or was
	      declared the default target (either implicitly or explicitly,
	      see .MAIN) before the line containing the conditional.

     empty    Takes a variable, with possible modifiers, and evaluates to true
	      if the expansion of the variable would result in an empty

     exists   Takes a file name as an argument and evaluates to true if the
	      file exists.  The file is searched for on the system search path
	      (see .PATH).

     target   Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if the
	      target has been defined.

	      Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if the
	      target has been defined and has commands associated with it.

     Expression may also be an arithmetic or string comparison.	 Variable
     expansion is performed on both sides of the comparison, after which the
     integral values are compared.  A value is interpreted as hexadecimal if
     it is preceded by 0x, otherwise it is decimal; octal numbers are not sup‐
     ported.  The standard C relational operators are all supported.  If after
     variable expansion, either the left or right hand side of a ‘==’ or ‘!=’
     operator is not an integral value, then string comparison is performed
     between the expanded variables.  If no relational operator is given, it
     is assumed that the expanded variable is being compared against 0 or an
     empty string in the case of a string comparison.

     When bmake is evaluating one of these conditional expressions, and it
     encounters a (white-space separated) word it doesn't recognize, either
     the “make” or “defined” expression is applied to it, depending on the
     form of the conditional.  If the form is ‘.ifdef’, ‘.ifndef’, or ‘.if’
     the “defined” expression is applied.  Similarly, if the form is ‘.ifmake’
     or ‘.ifnmake, the’ “make” expression is applied.

     If the conditional evaluates to true the parsing of the makefile contin‐
     ues as before.  If it evaluates to false, the following lines are
     skipped.  In both cases this continues until a ‘.else’ or ‘.endif’ is

     For loops are typically used to apply a set of rules to a list of files.
     The syntax of a for loop is:

     .for variable [variable ...] in expression

     After the for expression is evaluated, it is split into words.  On each
     iteration of the loop, one word is taken and assigned to each variable,
     in order, and these variables are substituted into the make-rules inside
     the body of the for loop.	The number of words must come out even; that
     is, if there are three iteration variables, the number of words provided
     must be a multiple of three.

     Comments begin with a hash (‘#’) character, anywhere but in a shell com‐
     mand line, and continue to the end of an unescaped new line.

     .EXEC     Target is never out of date, but always execute commands any‐

     .IGNORE   Ignore any errors from the commands associated with this tar‐
	       get, exactly as if they all were preceded by a dash (‘-’).

     .MADE     Mark all sources of this target as being up-to-date.

     .MAKE     Execute the commands associated with this target even if the -n
	       or -t options were specified.  Normally used to mark recursive

     .NOPATH   Do not search for the target in the directories specified by

     .NOTMAIN  Normally bmake selects the first target it encounters as the
	       default target to be built if no target was specified.  This
	       source prevents this target from being selected.

	       If a target is marked with this attribute and bmake can't fig‐
	       ure out how to create it, it will ignore this fact and assume
	       the file isn't needed or already exists.

     .PHONY    The target does not correspond to an actual file; it is always
	       considered to be out of date, and will not be created with the
	       -t option.  Suffix-transformation rules are not applied to
	       .PHONY targets.

	       When bmake is interrupted, it normally removes any partially
	       made targets.  This source prevents the target from being

	       Synonym for .MAKE.

     .SILENT   Do not echo any of the commands associated with this target,
	       exactly as if they all were preceded by an at sign (‘@’).

     .USE      Turn the target into bmake's version of a macro.	 When the tar‐
	       get is used as a source for another target, the other target
	       acquires the commands, sources, and attributes (except for
	       .USE) of the source.  If the target already has commands, the
	       .USE target's commands are appended to them.

	       Exactly like .USE, but prepend the .USEBEFORE target commands
	       to the target.

     .WAIT     If .WAIT appears in a dependency line, the sources that precede
	       it are made before the sources that succeed it in the line.
	       Since the dependents of files are not made until the file
	       itself could be made, this also stops the dependents being
	       built unless they are needed for another branch of the depen‐
	       dency tree.  So given:

	       x: a .WAIT b
		       echo x
		       echo a
	       b: b1
		       echo b
		       echo b1

	       the output is always ‘a’, ‘b1’, ‘b’, ‘x’.
	       The ordering imposed by .WAIT is only relevant for parallel

     Special targets may not be included with other targets, i.e. they must be
     the only target specified.

     .BEGIN   Any command lines attached to this target are executed before
	      anything else is done.

	      This is sort of a .USE rule for any target (that was used only
	      as a source) that bmake can't figure out any other way to cre‐
	      ate.  Only the shell script is used.  The .IMPSRC variable of a
	      target that inherits .DEFAULT's commands is set to the target's
	      own name.

     .END     Any command lines attached to this target are executed after
	      everything else is done.

     .ERROR   Any command lines attached to this target are executed when
	      another target fails.  The .ERROR_TARGET variable is set to the
	      target that failed.  See also MAKE_PRINT_VAR_ON_ERROR.

     .IGNORE  Mark each of the sources with the .IGNORE attribute.  If no
	      sources are specified, this is the equivalent of specifying the
	      -i option.

	      If bmake is interrupted, the commands for this target will be

     .MAIN    If no target is specified when bmake is invoked, this target
	      will be built.

	      This target provides a way to specify flags for bmake when the
	      makefile is used.	 The flags are as if typed to the shell,
	      though the -f option will have no effect.

     .NOPATH  Apply the .NOPATH attribute to any specified sources.

	      Disable parallel mode.

	      Synonym for .NOTPARALLEL, for compatibility with other pmake

     .ORDER   The named targets are made in sequence.  This ordering does not
	      add targets to the list of targets to be made.  Since the depen‐
	      dents of a target do not get built until the target itself could
	      be built, unless ‘a’ is built by another part of the dependency
	      graph, the following is a dependency loop:

	      .ORDER: a b
	      b: a

	      The ordering imposed by .ORDER is only relevant for parallel

     .PATH    The sources are directories which are to be searched for files
	      not found in the current directory.  If no sources are speci‐
	      fied, any previously specified directories are deleted.  If the
	      source is the special .DOTLAST target, then the current working
	      directory is searched last.

     .PHONY   Apply the .PHONY attribute to any specified sources.

	      Apply the .PRECIOUS attribute to any specified sources.  If no
	      sources are specified, the .PRECIOUS attribute is applied to
	      every target in the file.

     .SHELL   Sets the shell that bmake will use to execute commands.  The
	      sources are a set of field=value pairs.

	      name	  This is the minimal specification, used to select
			  one of the builtin shell specs; sh, ksh, and csh.

	      path	  Specifies the path to the shell.

	      hasErrCtl	  Indicates whether the shell supports exit on error.

	      check	  The command to turn on error checking.

	      ignore	  The command to disable error checking.

	      echo	  The command to turn on echoing of commands executed.

	      quiet	  The command to turn off echoing of commands exe‐

	      filter	  The output to filter after issuing the quiet com‐
			  mand.	 It is typically identical to quiet.

	      errFlag	  The flag to pass the shell to enable error checking.

	      echoFlag	  The flag to pass the shell to enable command echo‐

	      newline	  The string literal to pass the shell that results in
			  a single newline character when used outside of any
			  quoting characters.

	      .SHELL: name=ksh path=/bin/ksh hasErrCtl=true \
		      check="set -e" ignore="set +e" \
		      echo="set -v" quiet="set +v" filter="set +v" \
		      echoFlag=v errFlag=e newline="'\n'"

     .SILENT  Apply the .SILENT attribute to any specified sources.  If no
	      sources are specified, the .SILENT attribute is applied to every
	      command in the file.

	      Each source specifies a suffix to bmake.	If no sources are
	      specified, any previously specified suffixes are deleted.	 It
	      allows the creation of suffix-transformation rules.


	      .SUFFIXES: .o
		      cc -o ${.TARGET} -c ${.IMPSRC}

     bmake uses the following environment variables, if they exist: MACHINE,
     PWD, and TMPDIR.

     MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX and MAKEOBJDIR may only be set in the environment or on
     the command line to bmake and not as makefile variables; see the descrip‐
     tion of ‘.OBJDIR’ for more details.

     .depend	    list of dependencies
     Makefile	    list of dependencies
     makefile	    list of dependencies	    system makefile
     /usr/share/mk  system makefile directory

     The basic make syntax is compatible between different versions of make,
     however the special variables, variable modifiers and conditionals are

     The way that parallel makes are scheduled changed in NetBSD 4.0 so that
     .ORDER and .WAIT apply recursively to the dependant nodes.	 The algo‐
     rithms used may change again in the future.

     The way that .for loop variables are substituted changed after NetBSD 5.0
     so that they still appear to be variable expansions.  In particular this
     stops them being treated as syntax, and removes some obscure problems
     using them in .if statements.


     A bmake command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.  bmake is derived from
     NetBSD's make(1).	It uses autoconf to facilitate portability to other

     The bmake syntax is difficult to parse without actually acting of the
     data.  For instance finding the end of a variable use should involve
     scanning each the modifiers using the correct terminator for each field.
     In many places bmake just counts {} and () in order to find the end of a
     variable expansion.

     There is no way of escaping a space character in a filename.

BSD				 June 30, 2010				   BSD
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