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CATOPEN(3P)		   POSIX Programmer's Manual		   CATOPEN(3P)

       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the	 corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       catopen - open a message catalog

       #include <nl_types.h>

       nl_catd catopen(const char *name, int oflag);

       The catopen() function shall open a message catalog and return  a  mes‐
       sage  catalog  descriptor.  The name argument specifies the name of the
       message catalog to be opened. If name contains a '/', then name	speci‐
       fies  a	complete name for the message catalog. Otherwise, the environ‐
       ment variable NLSPATH is used with name substituted for the %N  conver‐
       sion    specification	(see	the   Base   Definitions   volume   of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Chapter 8,	 Environment  Variables).  If  NLSPATH
       exists  in the environment when the process starts, then if the process
       has appropriate privileges, the behavior of catopen() is undefined.  If
       NLSPATH does not exist in the environment, or if a message catalog can‐
       not be found in any of the components specified	by  NLSPATH,  then  an
       implementation-defined  default path shall be used. This default may be
       affected by the setting	of  LC_MESSAGES	 if  the  value	 of  oflag  is
       NL_CAT_LOCALE, or the LANG environment variable if oflag is 0.

       A message catalog descriptor shall remain valid in a process until that
       process closes it, or a successful call to one of the exec functions. A
       change in the setting of the LC_MESSAGES category may invalidate exist‐
       ing open catalogs.

       If a file descriptor is used to implement message catalog  descriptors,
       the FD_CLOEXEC flag shall be set; see <fcntl.h>.

       If  the value of the oflag argument is 0, the LANG environment variable
       is used to locate the catalog without regard to the  LC_MESSAGES	 cate‐
       gory.  If the oflag argument is NL_CAT_LOCALE, the LC_MESSAGES category
       is used to locate the message catalog (see the Base Definitions	volume
       of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables).

       Upon  successful	 completion,  catopen() shall return a message catalog
       descriptor for use on subsequent calls  to  catgets()  and  catclose().
       Otherwise,  catopen() shall return ( nl_catd) -1 and set errno to indi‐
       cate the error.

       The catopen() function may fail if:

       EACCES Search permission is denied for the component of the path prefix
	      of the message catalog or read permission is denied for the mes‐
	      sage catalog.

       EMFILE {OPEN_MAX} file descriptors are currently open  in  the  calling

	      The  length  of  a  pathname  of	the  message  catalog  exceeds
	      {PATH_MAX} or a pathname component is longer than {NAME_MAX}.

	      Pathname resolution of a symbolic link produced an  intermediate
	      result whose length exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

       ENFILE Too many files are currently open in the system.

       ENOENT The  message  catalog does not exist or the name argument points
	      to an empty string.

       ENOMEM Insufficient storage space is available.

	      A component of the path prefix of the message catalog is	not  a

       The following sections are informative.


       Some  implementations  of  catopen() use malloc() to allocate space for
       internal buffer areas. The catopen() function  may  fail	 if  there  is
       insufficient storage space available to accommodate these buffers.

       Conforming  applications	 must  assume that message catalog descriptors
       are not valid after a call to one of the exec functions.

       Application writers should be aware that guidelines for the location of
       message	catalogs  have	not  yet been developed. Therefore they should
       take care to avoid conflicting with catalogs used by other applications
       and the standard utilities.



       catclose(),    catgets(),    the	   Base	   Definitions	  volume    of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <fcntl.h>, <nl_types.h>, the Shell and  Utilities
       volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001

       Portions	 of  this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       --  Portable  Operating	System	Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003	by  the	 Institute  of
       Electrical  and	Electronics  Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The  Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be  obtained	online
       at .

IEEE/The Open Group		     2003			   CATOPEN(3P)

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