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CERTUTIL(1)		      NSS Security Tools		   CERTUTIL(1)

       certutil - Manage keys and certificate in both NSS databases and other
       NSS tokens

       certutil [options] [[arguments]]

       This documentation is still work in progress. Please contribute to the
       initial review in Mozilla NSS bug 836477[1]

       The Certificate Database Tool, certutil, is a command-line utility that
       can create and modify certificate and key databases. It can
       specifically list, generate, modify, or delete certificates, create or
       change the password, generate new public and private key pairs, display
       the contents of the key database, or delete key pairs within the key

       Certificate issuance, part of the key and certificate management
       process, requires that keys and certificates be created in the key
       database. This document discusses certificate and key database
       management. For information on the security module database management,
       see the modutil manpage.

       Running certutil always requires one and only one command option to
       specify the type of certificate operation. Each command option may take
       zero or more arguments. The command option -H will list all the command
       options and their relevant arguments.

       Command Options

	   Add an existing certificate to a certificate database. The
	   certificate database should already exist; if one is not present,
	   this command option will initialize one by default.

	   Run a series of commands from the specified batch file. This
	   requires the -i argument.

	   Create a new binary certificate file from a binary certificate
	   request file. Use the -i argument to specify the certificate
	   request file. If this argument is not used, certutil prompts for a

	   Delete a certificate from the certificate database.

	   Add an email certificate to the certificate database.

	   Delete a private key from a key database. Specify the key to delete
	   with the -n argument. Specify the database from which to delete the
	   key with the -d argument. Use the -k argument to specify explicitly
	   whether to delete a DSA, RSA, or ECC key. If you don't use the -k
	   argument, the option looks for an RSA key matching the specified

	   When you delete keys, be sure to also remove any certificates
	   associated with those keys from the certificate database, by using
	   -D. Some smart cards do not let you remove a public key you have
	   generated. In such a case, only the private key is deleted from the
	   key pair. You can display the public key with the command certutil
	   -K -h tokenname.

	   Generate a new public and private key pair within a key database.
	   The key database should already exist; if one is not present, this
	   command option will initialize one by default. Some smart cards can
	   store only one key pair. If you create a new key pair for such a
	   card, the previous pair is overwritten.

	   Display a list of the command options and arguments.

	   List the key ID of keys in the key database. A key ID is the
	   modulus of the RSA key or the publicValue of the DSA key. IDs are
	   displayed in hexadecimal ("0x" is not shown).

	   List all the certificates, or display information about a named
	   certificate, in a certificate database. Use the -h tokenname
	   argument to specify the certificate database on a particular
	   hardware or software token.

	   Modify a certificate's trust attributes using the values of the -t

	   Create new certificate and key databases.

	   Print the certificate chain.

	   Create a certificate request file that can be submitted to a
	   Certificate Authority (CA) for processing into a finished
	   certificate. Output defaults to standard out unless you use -o
	   output-file argument. Use the -a argument to specify ASCII output.

	   Create an individual certificate and add it to a certificate

	   Reset the key database or token.

	   List all available modules or print a single named module.

	   Check the validity of a certificate and its attributes.

	   Change the password to a key database.

	   Merge two databases into one.

	   Upgrade an old database and merge it into a new database. This is
	   used to migrate legacy NSS databases (cert8.db and key3.db) into
	   the newer SQLite databases (cert9.db and key4.db).


       Arguments modify a command option and are usually lower case, numbers,
       or symbols.

	   Use ASCII format or allow the use of ASCII format for input or
	   output. This formatting follows RFC 1113. For certificate requests,
	   ASCII output defaults to standard output unless redirected.

       -b validity-time
	   Specify a time at which a certificate is required to be valid. Use
	   when checking certificate validity with the -V option. The format
	   of the validity-time argument is YYMMDDHHMMSS[+HHMM|-HHMM|Z], which
	   allows offsets to be set relative to the validity end time.
	   Specifying seconds (SS) is optional. When specifying an explicit
	   time, use a Z at the end of the term, YYMMDDHHMMSSZ, to close it.
	   When specifying an offset time, use YYMMDDHHMMSS+HHMM or
	   YYMMDDHHMMSS-HHMM for adding or subtracting time, respectively.

	   If this option is not used, the validity check defaults to the
	   current system time.

       -c issuer
	   Identify the certificate of the CA from which a new certificate
	   will derive its authenticity. Use the exact nickname or alias of
	   the CA certificate, or use the CA's email address. Bracket the
	   issuer string with quotation marks if it contains spaces.

       -d [prefix]directory
	   Specify the database directory containing the certificate and key
	   database files.

	   certutil supports two types of databases: the legacy security
	   databases (cert8.db, key3.db, and secmod.db) and new SQLite
	   databases (cert9.db, key4.db, and pkcs11.txt).

	   NSS recognizes the following prefixes:

	   ·   sql: requests the newer database

	   ·   dbm: requests the legacy database

	   If no prefix is specified the default type is retrieved from
	   NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE. If NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE is not set then dbm: is
	   the default.

	   Check a certificate's signature during the process of validating a

       --email email-address
	   Specify the email address of a certificate to list. Used with the
	   -L command option.

       -f password-file
	   Specify a file that will automatically supply the password to
	   include in a certificate or to access a certificate database. This
	   is a plain-text file containing one password. Be sure to prevent
	   unauthorized access to this file.

       -g keysize
	   Set a key size to use when generating new public and private key
	   pairs. The minimum is 512 bits and the maximum is 8192 bits. The
	   default is 1024 bits. Any size between the minimum and maximum is

       -h tokenname
	   Specify the name of a token to use or act on. If not specified the
	   default token is the internal database slot.

       -i input_file
	   Pass an input file to the command. Depending on the command option,
	   an input file can be a specific certificate, a certificate request
	   file, or a batch file of commands.

       -k key-type-or-id
	   Specify the type or specific ID of a key.

	   The valid key type options are rsa, dsa, ec, or all. The default
	   value is rsa. Specifying the type of key can avoid mistakes caused
	   by duplicate nicknames. Giving a key type generates a new key pair;
	   giving the ID of an existing key reuses that key pair (which is
	   required to renew certificates).

	   Display detailed information when validating a certificate with the
	   -V option.

       -m serial-number
	   Assign a unique serial number to a certificate being created. This
	   operation should be performed by a CA. If no serial number is
	   provided a default serial number is made from the current time.
	   Serial numbers are limited to integers

       -n nickname
	   Specify the nickname of a certificate or key to list, create, add
	   to a database, modify, or validate. Bracket the nickname string
	   with quotation marks if it contains spaces.

       -o output-file
	   Specify the output file name for new certificates or binary
	   certificate requests. Bracket the output-file string with quotation
	   marks if it contains spaces. If this argument is not used the
	   output destination defaults to standard output.

       -P dbPrefix
	   Specify the prefix used on the certificate and key database file.
	   This argument is provided to support legacy servers. Most
	   applications do not use a database prefix.

       -p phone
	   Specify a contact telephone number to include in new certificates
	   or certificate requests. Bracket this string with quotation marks
	   if it contains spaces.

       -q pqgfile or curve-name
	   Read an alternate PQG value from the specified file when generating
	   DSA key pairs. If this argument is not used, certutil generates its
	   own PQG value. PQG files are created with a separate DSA utility.

	   Elliptic curve name is one of the ones from SUITE B: nistp256,
	   nistp384, nistp521

	   If NSS has been compiled with support curves outside of SUITE B:
	   sect163k1, nistk163, sect163r1, sect163r2, nistb163, sect193r1,
	   sect193r2, sect233k1, nistk233, sect233r1, nistb233, sect239k1,
	   sect283k1, nistk283, sect283r1, nistb283, sect409k1, nistk409,
	   sect409r1, nistb409, sect571k1, nistk571, sect571r1, nistb571,
	   secp160k1, secp160r1, secp160r2, secp192k1, secp192r1, nistp192,
	   secp224k1, secp224r1, nistp224, secp256k1, secp256r1, secp384r1,
	   secp521r1, prime192v1, prime192v2, prime192v3, prime239v1,
	   prime239v2, prime239v3, c2pnb163v1, c2pnb163v2, c2pnb163v3,
	   c2pnb176v1, c2tnb191v1, c2tnb191v2, c2tnb191v3, c2pnb208w1,
	   c2tnb239v1, c2tnb239v2, c2tnb239v3, c2pnb272w1, c2pnb304w1,
	   c2tnb359w1, c2pnb368w1, c2tnb431r1, secp112r1, secp112r2,
	   secp128r1, secp128r2, sect113r1, sect113r2 sect131r1, sect131r2

	   Display a certificate's binary DER encoding when listing
	   information about that certificate with the -L option.

       -s subject
	   Identify a particular certificate owner for new certificates or
	   certificate requests. Bracket this string with quotation marks if
	   it contains spaces. The subject identification format follows RFC

       -t trustargs
	   Specify the trust attributes to modify in an existing certificate
	   or to apply to a certificate when creating it or adding it to a
	   database. There are three available trust categories for each
	   certificate, expressed in the order SSL, email, object signing for
	   each trust setting. In each category position, use none, any, or
	   all of the attribute codes:

	   ·   p - Valid peer

	   ·   P - Trusted peer (implies p)

	   ·   c - Valid CA

	   ·   T - Trusted CA (implies c)

	   ·   C - trusted CA for client authentication (ssl server only)

	   ·   u - user

	   The attribute codes for the categories are separated by commas, and
	   the entire set of attributes enclosed by quotation marks. For

	   -t "TCu,Cu,Tuw"

	   Use the -L option to see a list of the current certificates and
	   trust attributes in a certificate database.

       -u certusage
	   Specify a usage context to apply when validating a certificate with
	   the -V option.

	   The contexts are the following:

	   ·   C (as an SSL client)

	   ·   V (as an SSL server)

	   ·   S (as an email signer)

	   ·   R (as an email recipient)

	   ·   O (as an OCSP status responder)

	   ·   J (as an object signer)

       -v valid-months
	   Set the number of months a new certificate will be valid. The
	   validity period begins at the current system time unless an offset
	   is added or subtracted with the -w option. If this argument is not
	   used, the default validity period is three months.

       -w offset-months
	   Set an offset from the current system time, in months, for the
	   beginning of a certificate's validity period. Use when creating the
	   certificate or adding it to a database. Express the offset in
	   integers, using a minus sign (-) to indicate a negative offset. If
	   this argument is not used, the validity period begins at the
	   current system time. The length of the validity period is set with
	   the -v argument.

	   Force the key and certificate database to open in read-write mode.
	   This is used with the -U and -L command options.

	   Use certutil to generate the signature for a certificate being
	   created or added to a database, rather than obtaining a signature
	   from a separate CA.

       -y exp
	   Set an alternate exponent value to use in generating a new RSA
	   public key for the database, instead of the default value of 65537.
	   The available alternate values are 3 and 17.

       -z noise-file
	   Read a seed value from the specified file to generate a new private
	   and public key pair. This argument makes it possible to use
	   hardware-generated seed values or manually create a value from the
	   keyboard. The minimum file size is 20 bytes.

       -0 SSO_password
	   Set a site security officer password on a token.

       -1 | --keyUsage keyword,keyword
	   Set a Netscape Certificate Type Extension in the certificate. There
	   are several available keywords:

	   ·   digital signature

	   ·   nonRepudiation

	   ·   keyEncipherment

	   ·   dataEncipherment

	   ·   keyAgreement

	   ·   certSigning

	   ·   crlSigning

	   ·   critical

	   Add a basic constraint extension to a certificate that is being
	   created or added to a database. This extension supports the
	   certificate chain verification process.  certutil prompts for the
	   certificate constraint extension to select.

	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add an authority key ID extension to a certificate that is being
	   created or added to a database. This extension supports the
	   identification of a particular certificate, from among multiple
	   certificates associated with one subject name, as the correct
	   issuer of a certificate. The Certificate Database Tool will prompt
	   you to select the authority key ID extension.

	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add a CRL distribution point extension to a certificate that is
	   being created or added to a database. This extension identifies the
	   URL of a certificate's associated certificate revocation list
	   (CRL).  certutil prompts for the URL.

	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

       -5 | --nsCertType keyword,keyword
	   Add a Netscape certificate type extension to a certificate that is
	   being created or added to the database. There are several available

	   ·   sslClient

	   ·   sslServer

	   ·   smime

	   ·   objectSigning

	   ·   sslCA

	   ·   smimeCA

	   ·   objectSigningCA

	   ·   critical

	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

       -6 | --extKeyUsage keyword,keyword
	   Add an extended key usage extension to a certificate that is being
	   created or added to the database. Several keywords are available:

	   ·   serverAuth

	   ·   clientAuth

	   ·   codeSigning

	   ·   emailProtection

	   ·   timeStamp

	   ·   ocspResponder

	   ·   stepUp

	   ·   msTrustListSign

	   ·   critical

	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

       -7 emailAddrs
	   Add a comma-separated list of email addresses to the subject
	   alternative name extension of a certificate or certificate request
	   that is being created or added to the database. Subject alternative
	   name extensions are described in Section of RFC 3280.

       -8 dns-names
	   Add a comma-separated list of DNS names to the subject alternative
	   name extension of a certificate or certificate request that is
	   being created or added to the database. Subject alternative name
	   extensions are described in Section of RFC 3280.

	   Add the Authority Information Access extension to the certificate.
	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add the Subject Information Access extension to the certificate.
	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add the Certificate Policies extension to the certificate. X.509
	   certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add the Policy Mappings extension to the certificate. X.509
	   certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add the Policy Constraints extension to the certificate. X.509
	   certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add the Inhibit Any Policy Access extension to the certificate.
	   X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add the Subject Key ID extension to the certificate. X.509
	   certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Add a Name Constraint extension to the certificate. X.509
	   certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

	   Use empty password when creating new certificate database with -N.

       --keyAttrFlags attrflags
	   PKCS #11 key Attributes. Comma separated list of key attribute
	   flags, selected from the following list of choices: {token |
	   session} {public | private} {sensitive | insensitive} {modifiable |
	   unmodifiable} {extractable | unextractable}

       --keyOpFlagsOn opflags, --keyOpFlagsOff opflags
	   PKCS #11 key Operation Flags. Comma separated list of one or more
	   of the following: {token | session} {public | private} {sensitive |
	   insensitive} {modifiable | unmodifiable} {extractable |

       --source-dir certdir
	   Identify the certificate database directory to upgrade.

       --source-prefix certdir
	   Give the prefix of the certificate and key databases to upgrade.

       --upgrade-id uniqueID
	   Give the unique ID of the database to upgrade.

       --upgrade-token-name name
	   Set the name of the token to use while it is being upgraded.

       -@ pwfile
	   Give the name of a password file to use for the database being

       Most of the command options in the examples listed here have more
       arguments available. The arguments included in these examples are the
       most common ones or are used to illustrate a specific scenario. Use the
       -H option to show the complete list of arguments for each command

       Creating New Security Databases

       Certificates, keys, and security modules related to managing
       certificates are stored in three related databases:

       ·   cert8.db or cert9.db

       ·   key3.db or key4.db

       ·   secmod.db or pkcs11.txt

       These databases must be created before certificates or keys can be

	   certutil -N -d [sql:]directory

       Creating a Certificate Request

       A certificate request contains most or all of the information that is
       used to generate the final certificate. This request is submitted
       separately to a certificate authority and is then approved by some
       mechanism (automatically or by human review). Once the request is
       approved, then the certificate is generated.

	   $ certutil -R -k key-type-or-id [-q pqgfile|curve-name] -g key-size -s subject [-h tokenname] -d [sql:]directory [-p phone] [-o output-file] [-a]

       The -R command options requires four arguments:

       ·   -k to specify either the key type to generate or, when renewing a
	   certificate, the existing key pair to use

       ·   -g to set the keysize of the key to generate

       ·   -s to set the subject name of the certificate

       ·   -d to give the security database directory

       The new certificate request can be output in ASCII format (-a) or can
       be written to a specified file (-o).

       For example:

	   $ certutil -R -k rsa -g 1024 -s "CN=John Smith,O=Example Corp,L=Mountain View,ST=California,C=US" -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -p 650-555-0123 -a -o cert.cer

	   Generating key.  This may take a few moments...

       Creating a Certificate

       A valid certificate must be issued by a trusted CA. This can be done by
       specifying a CA certificate (-c) that is stored in the certificate
       database. If a CA key pair is not available, you can create a
       self-signed certificate using the -x argument with the -S command

	   $ certutil -S -k rsa|dsa|ec -n certname -s subject [-c issuer |-x] -t trustargs -d [sql:]directory [-m serial-number] [-v valid-months] [-w offset-months] [-p phone] [-1] [-2] [-3] [-4] [-5 keyword] [-6 keyword] [-7 emailAddress] [-8 dns-names] [--extAIA] [--extSIA] [--extCP] [--extPM] [--extPC] [--extIA] [--extSKID]

       The series of numbers and --ext* options set certificate extensions
       that can be added to the certificate when it is generated by the CA.
       Interactive prompts will result.

       For example, this creates a self-signed certificate:

	   $ certutil -S -s "CN=Example CA" -n my-ca-cert -x -t "C,C,C" -1 -2 -5 -m 3650

       The interative prompts for key usage and whether any extensions are
       critical and responses have been ommitted for brevity.

       From there, new certificates can reference the self-signed certificate:

	   $ certutil -S -s "CN=My Server Cert" -n my-server-cert -c "my-ca-cert" -t "u,u,u" -1 -5 -6 -8 -m 730

       Generating a Certificate from a Certificate Request

       When a certificate request is created, a certificate can be generated
       by using the request and then referencing a certificate authority
       signing certificate (the issuer specified in the -c argument). The
       issuing certificate must be in the certificate database in the
       specified directory.

	   certutil -C -c issuer -i cert-request-file -o output-file [-m serial-number] [-v valid-months] [-w offset-months] -d [sql:]directory [-1] [-2] [-3] [-4] [-5 keyword] [-6 keyword] [-7 emailAddress] [-8 dns-names]

       For example:

	   $ certutil -C -c "my-ca-cert" -i /home/certs/cert.req -o cert.cer -m 010 -v 12 -w 1 -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -1 nonRepudiation,dataEncipherment -5 sslClient -6 clientAuth -7 jsmith@example.com

       Listing Certificates

       The -L command option lists all of the certificates listed in the
       certificate database. The path to the directory (-d) is required.

	   $ certutil -L -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

	   Certificate Nickname						Trust Attributes

	   CA Administrator of Instance pki-ca1's Example Domain ID	u,u,u
	   TPS Administrator's Example Domain ID			u,u,u
	   Google Internet Authority					,,
	   Certificate Authority - Example Domain			CT,C,C

       Using additional arguments with -L can return and print the information
       for a single, specific certificate. For example, the -n argument passes
       the certificate name, while the -a argument prints the certificate in
       ASCII format:

	   $ certutil -L -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -a -n my-ca-cert
	   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

       For a human-readable display

	   $ certutil -L -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -n my-ca-cert
		   Version: 3 (0x2)
		   Serial Number: 3650 (0xe42)
		   Signature Algorithm: PKCS #1 SHA-1 With RSA Encryption
		   Issuer: "CN=Example CA"
		       Not Before: Wed Mar 13 19:10:29 2013
		       Not After : Thu Jun 13 19:10:29 2013
		   Subject: "CN=Example CA"
		   Subject Public Key Info:
		       Public Key Algorithm: PKCS #1 RSA Encryption
		       RSA Public Key:
			   Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
		   Signed Extensions:
		       Name: Certificate Type
		       Data: none

		       Name: Certificate Basic Constraints
		       Data: Is a CA with no maximum path length.

		       Name: Certificate Key Usage
		       Critical: True
		       Usages: Certificate Signing

	       Signature Algorithm: PKCS #1 SHA-1 With RSA Encryption
	       Fingerprint (MD5):
	       Fingerprint (SHA1):

	       Certificate Trust Flags:
		   SSL Flags:
		       Valid CA
		       Trusted CA
		   Email Flags:
		       Valid CA
		       Trusted CA
		   Object Signing Flags:
		       Valid CA
		       Trusted CA

       Listing Keys

       Keys are the original material used to encrypt certificate data. The
       keys generated for certificates are stored separately, in the key

       To list all keys in the database, use the -K command option and the
       (required) -d argument to give the path to the directory.

	   $ certutil -K -d sql:$HOME/nssdb
	   certutil: Checking token "NSS Certificate DB" in slot "NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services			 "
	   < 0> rsa	 455a6673bde9375c2887ec8bf8016b3f9f35861d   Thawte Freemail Member's Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd. ID
	   < 1> rsa	 40defeeb522ade11090eacebaaf1196a172127df   Example Domain Administrator Cert
	   < 2> rsa	 1d0b06f44f6c03842f7d4f4a1dc78b3bcd1b85a5   John Smith user cert

       There are ways to narrow the keys listed in the search results:

       ·   To return a specific key, use the -nname argument with the name of
	   the key.

       ·   If there are multiple security devices loaded, then the -htokenname
	   argument can search a specific token or all tokens.

       ·   If there are multiple key types available, then the -kkey-type
	   argument can search a specific type of key, like RSA, DSA, or ECC.

       Listing Security Modules

       The devices that can be used to store certificates -- both internal
       databases and external devices like smart cards -- are recognized and
       used by loading security modules. The -U command option lists all of
       the security modules listed in the secmod.db database. The path to the
       directory (-d) is required.

	   $ certutil -U -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

	       slot: NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services
	      token: NSS Certificate DB

	       slot: NSS Internal Cryptographic Services
	      token: NSS Generic Crypto Services

       Adding Certificates to the Database

       Existing certificates or certificate requests can be added manually to
       the certificate database, even if they were generated elsewhere. This
       uses the -A command option.

	   certutil -A -n certname -t trustargs -d [sql:]directory [-a] [-i input-file]

       For example:

	   $ certutil -A -n "CN=My SSL Certificate" -t "u,u,u" -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -i /home/example-certs/cert.cer

       A related command option, -E, is used specifically to add email
       certificates to the certificate database. The -E command has the same
       arguments as the -A command. The trust arguments for certificates have
       the format SSL,S/MIME,Code-signing, so the middle trust settings relate
       most to email certificates (though the others can be set). For example:

	   $ certutil -E -n "CN=John Smith Email Cert" -t ",Pu," -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -i /home/example-certs/email.cer

       Deleting Certificates to the Database

       Certificates can be deleted from a database using the -D option. The
       only required options are to give the security database directory and
       to identify the certificate nickname.

	   certutil -D -d [sql:]directory -n "nickname"

       For example:

	   $ certutil -D -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -n "my-ssl-cert"

       Validating Certificates

       A certificate contains an expiration date in itself, and expired
       certificates are easily rejected. However, certificates can also be
       revoked before they hit their expiration date. Checking whether a
       certificate has been revoked requires validating the certificate.
       Validation can also be used to ensure that the certificate is only used
       for the purposes it was initially issued for. Validation is carried out
       by the -V command option.

	   certutil -V -n certificate-name [-b time] [-e] [-u cert-usage] -d [sql:]directory

       For example, to validate an email certificate:

	   $ certutil -V -n "John Smith's Email Cert" -e -u S,R -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

       Modifying Certificate Trust Settings

       The trust settings (which relate to the operations that a certificate
       is allowed to be used for) can be changed after a certificate is
       created or added to the database. This is especially useful for CA
       certificates, but it can be performed for any type of certificate.

	   certutil -M -n certificate-name -t trust-args -d [sql:]directory

       For example:

	   $ certutil -M -n "My CA Certificate" -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -t "CTu,CTu,CTu"

       Printing the Certificate Chain

       Certificates can be issued in chains because every certificate
       authority itself has a certificate; when a CA issues a certificate, it
       essentially stamps that certificate with its own fingerprint. The -O
       prints the full chain of a certificate, going from the initial CA (the
       root CA) through ever intermediary CA to the actual certificate. For
       example, for an email certificate with two CAs in the chain:

	   $ certutil -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -O -n "jsmith@example.com"
	   "Builtin Object Token:Thawte Personal Freemail CA" [E=personal-freemail@thawte.com,CN=Thawte Personal Freemail CA,OU=Certification Services Division,O=Thawte Consulting,L=Cape Town,ST=Western Cape,C=ZA]

	     "Thawte Personal Freemail Issuing CA - Thawte Consulting" [CN=Thawte Personal Freemail Issuing CA,O=Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd.,C=ZA]

	       "(null)" [E=jsmith@example.com,CN=Thawte Freemail Member]

       Resetting a Token

       The device which stores certificates -- both external hardware devices
       and internal software databases -- can be blanked and reused. This
       operation is performed on the device which stores the data, not
       directly on the security databases, so the location must be referenced
       through the token name (-h) as well as any directory path. If there is
       no external token used, the default value is internal.

	   certutil -T -d [sql:]directory -h token-name -0 security-officer-password

       Many networks have dedicated personnel who handle changes to security
       tokens (the security officer). This person must supply the password to
       access the specified token. For example:

	   $ certutil -T -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -h nethsm -0 secret

       Upgrading or Merging the Security Databases

       Many networks or applications may be using older BerkeleyDB versions of
       the certificate database (cert8.db). Databases can be upgraded to the
       new SQLite version of the database (cert9.db) using the --upgrade-merge
       command option or existing databases can be merged with the new
       cert9.db databases using the ---merge command.

       The --upgrade-merge command must give information about the original
       database and then use the standard arguments (like -d) to give the
       information about the new databases. The command also requires
       information that the tool uses for the process to upgrade and write
       over the original database.

	   certutil --upgrade-merge -d [sql:]directory [-P dbprefix] --source-dir directory --source-prefix dbprefix --upgrade-id id --upgrade-token-name name [-@ password-file]

       For example:

	   $ certutil --upgrade-merge -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb --source-dir /opt/my-app/alias/ --source-prefix serverapp- --upgrade-id 1 --upgrade-token-name internal

       The --merge command only requires information about the location of the
       original database; since it doesn't change the format of the database,
       it can write over information without performing interim step.

	   certutil --merge -d [sql:]directory [-P dbprefix] --source-dir directory --source-prefix dbprefix [-@ password-file]

       For example:

	   $ certutil --merge -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb --source-dir /opt/my-app/alias/ --source-prefix serverapp-

       Running certutil Commands from a Batch File

       A series of commands can be run sequentially from a text file with the
       -B command option. The only argument for this specifies the input file.

	   $ certutil -B -i /path/to/batch-file

       NSS originally used BerkeleyDB databases to store security information.
       The last versions of these legacy databases are:

       ·   cert8.db for certificates

       ·   key3.db for keys

       ·   secmod.db for PKCS #11 module information

       BerkeleyDB has performance limitations, though, which prevent it from
       being easily used by multiple applications simultaneously. NSS has some
       flexibility that allows applications to use their own, independent
       database engine while keeping a shared database and working around the
       access issues. Still, NSS requires more flexibility to provide a truly
       shared security database.

       In 2009, NSS introduced a new set of databases that are SQLite
       databases rather than BerkeleyDB. These new databases provide more
       accessibility and performance:

       ·   cert9.db for certificates

       ·   key4.db for keys

       ·   pkcs11.txt, a listing of all of the PKCS #11 modules, contained in
	   a new subdirectory in the security databases directory

       Because the SQLite databases are designed to be shared, these are the
       shared database type. The shared database type is preferred; the legacy
       format is included for backward compatibility.

       By default, the tools (certutil, pk12util, modutil) assume that the
       given security databases follow the more common legacy type. Using the
       SQLite databases must be manually specified by using the sql: prefix
       with the given security directory. For example:

	   $ certutil -L -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

       To set the shared database type as the default type for the tools, set
       the NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE environment variable to sql:

	   export NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE="sql"

       This line can be set added to the ~/.bashrc file to make the change

       Most applications do not use the shared database by default, but they
       can be configured to use them. For example, this how-to article covers
       how to configure Firefox and Thunderbird to use the new shared NSS

       ·   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto

       For an engineering draft on the changes in the shared NSS databases,
       see the NSS project wiki:

       ·   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB

       pk12util (1)

       modutil (1)

       certutil has arguments or operations that use features defined in
       several IETF RFCs.

       ·   http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5280

       ·   http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1113

       ·   http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1485

       The NSS wiki has information on the new database design and how to
       configure applications to use it.

       ·   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto

       ·   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB

       For information about NSS and other tools related to NSS (like JSS),
       check out the NSS project wiki at
       http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/. The NSS site relates
       directly to NSS code changes and releases.

       Mailing lists: https://lists.mozilla.org/listinfo/dev-tech-crypto

       IRC: Freenode at #dogtag-pki

       The NSS tools were written and maintained by developers with Netscape,
       Red Hat, Sun, Oracle, Mozilla, and Google.

       Authors: Elio Maldonado <emaldona@redhat.com>, Deon Lackey

       Licensed under the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL
       was not distributed with this file, You can obtain one at

	1. Mozilla NSS bug 836477

nss-tools		       12 November 2013			   CERTUTIL(1)

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