CHROOT(2) Linux Programmer's Manual CHROOT(2)NAMEchroot - change root directory
int chroot(const char *path);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
Since glibc 2.2.2:
(_XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 ||
_XOPEN_SOURCE && _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED) &&
!(_POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600)
Before glibc 2.2.2: none
DESCRIPTIONchroot() changes the root directory of the calling process to that
specified in path. This directory will be used for pathnames beginning
with /. The root directory is inherited by all children of the calling
Only a privileged process (Linux: one with the CAP_SYS_CHROOT capabil‐
ity) may call chroot().
This call changes an ingredient in the pathname resolution process and
does nothing else.
This call does not change the current working directory, so that after
the call '.' can be outside the tree rooted at '/'. In particular, the
superuser can escape from a "chroot jail" by doing:
mkdir foo; chroot foo; cd ..
This call does not close open file descriptors, and such file descrip‐
tors may allow access to files outside the chroot tree.
On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is
Depending on the file system, other errors can be returned. The more
general errors are listed below:
EACCES Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix.
(See also path_resolution(7).)
EFAULT path points outside your accessible address space.
EIO An I/O error occurred.
ELOOP Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path.
path is too long.
ENOENT The file does not exist.
ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.
A component of path is not a directory.
EPERM The caller has insufficient privilege.
SVr4, 4.4BSD, SUSv2 (marked LEGACY). This function is not part of
A child process created via fork(2) inherits its parent's root direc‐
tory. The root directory is left unchanged by execve(2).
FreeBSD has a stronger jail() system call.
SEE ALSOchdir(2), path_resolution(7)COLOPHON
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Linux 2010-09-20 CHROOT(2)