co man page on 4.4BSD

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   1065 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
4.4BSD logo
[printable version]

CO(1)									 CO(1)

       co - check out RCS revisions

       co [options] file ...

       co  retrieves a revision from each RCS file and stores it into the cor‐
       responding working file.

       Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files;  all	others	denote
       working files.  Names are paired as explained in ci(1).

       Revisions  of an RCS file may be checked out locked or unlocked.	 Lock‐
       ing a revision prevents overlapping updates.  A	revision  checked  out
       for  reading  or	 processing  (e.g.,  compiling) need not be locked.  A
       revision checked out for editing and later  checkin  must  normally  be
       locked.	 Checkout with locking fails if the revision to be checked out
       is currently locked by another  user.   (A  lock	 may  be  broken  with
       rcs(1).)	  Checkout  with locking also requires the caller to be on the
       access list of the RCS file, unless he is the owner of the file or  the
       superuser,  or  the  access list is empty.  Checkout without locking is
       not subject to accesslist restrictions, and  is	not  affected  by  the
       presence of locks.

       A  revision  is	selected  by  options  for  revision or branch number,
       checkin date/time, author, or state.  When the  selection  options  are
       applied in combination, co retrieves the latest revision that satisfies
       all of them.  If	 none  of  the	selection  options  is	specified,  co
       retrieves  the  latest  revision	 on  the  default branch (normally the
       trunk, see the -b option of rcs(1)).  A revision or branch  number  may
       be  attached  to	 any of the options -f, -I, -l, -M, -p, -q, -r, or -u.
       The options -d (date), -s (state), and -w (author) retrieve from a sin‐
       gle  branch,  the  selected branch, which is either specified by one of
       -f, ..., -u, or the default branch.

       A co command applied to an RCS file with no revisions creates  a	 zero-
       length  working	file.	co  always  performs keyword substitution (see

	      retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than or equal
	      to  rev.	 If rev indicates a branch rather than a revision, the
	      latest revision on that branch is retrieved.  If rev is omitted,
	      the  latest revision on the default branch (see the -b option of
	      rcs(1)) is retrieved.  If rev is $, co determines	 the  revision
	      number  from  keyword  values in the working file.  Otherwise, a
	      revision is composed of one or more numeric or  symbolic	fields
	      separated	 by  periods.	The  numeric  equivalent of a symbolic
	      field is specified with the -n option of the commands ci(1)  and

	      same as -r, except that it also locks the retrieved revision for
	      the caller.

	      same as -r, except that it unlocks the retrieved revision if  it
	      was  locked  by the caller.  If rev is omitted, -u retrieves the
	      revision locked by the caller, if there is  one;	otherwise,  it
	      retrieves the latest revision on the default branch.

	      forces the overwriting of the working file; useful in connection
	      with -q.	See also FILE MODES below.

       -kkv   Generate keyword strings using the default form, e.g. $Revision:
	      5.7  $ for the Revision keyword.	A locker's name is inserted in
	      the value of the Header, Id, and Locker keyword strings only  as
	      a	 file  is  being locked, i.e. by ci -l and co -l.  This is the

       -kkvl  Like -kkv, except that a locker's name is always inserted if the
	      given revision is currently locked.

       -kk    Generate	only keyword names in keyword strings; omit their val‐
	      ues.  See KEYWORD SUBSTITUTION  below.   For  example,  for  the
	      Revision	keyword,  generate  the	 string	 $Revision$ instead of
	      $Revision: 5.7 $.	 This option is useful to  ignore  differences
	      due  to  keyword substitution when comparing different revisions
	      of a file.

       -ko    Generate the old keyword string, present	in  the	 working  file
	      just  before  it	was checked in.	 For example, for the Revision
	      keyword, generate the string $Revision: 1.1 $ instead of	$Revi‐
	      sion: 5.7 $ if that is how the string appeared when the file was
	      checked in.  This can be useful for  binary  file	 formats  that
	      cannot  tolerate	any  changes to substrings that happen to take
	      the form of keyword strings.

       -kv    Generate only keyword values for keyword strings.	 For  example,
	      for  the	Revision  keyword,  generate the string 5.7 instead of
	      $Revision: 5.7 $.	 This can help generate files  in  programming
	      languages	 where	it  is	hard  to strip keyword delimiters like
	      $Revision: $ from a string.  However, further keyword  substitu‐
	      tion  cannot be performed once the keyword names are removed, so
	      this option should be used with care.  Because of this danger of
	      losing keywords, this option cannot be combined with -l, and the
	      owner write permission of the working file  is  turned  off;  to
	      edit the file later, check it out again without -kv.

	      prints the retrieved revision on the standard output rather than
	      storing it in the working file.  This option is useful  when  co
	      is part of a pipe.

	      quiet mode; diagnostics are not printed.

	      interactive  mode;  the  user is prompted and questioned even if
	      the standard input is not a terminal.

       -ddate retrieves the latest  revision  on  the  selected	 branch	 whose
	      checkin  date/time  is less than or equal to date.  The date and
	      time may be given in free format.	 The time zone LT  stands  for
	      local  time;  other  common time zone names are understood.  For
	      example, the following dates are equivalent  if  local  time  is
	      January 11, 1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of
	      Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):

		     8:00 pm lt
		     4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990	      note: default is UTC
		     1990/01/12 04:00:00	      RCS date format
		     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT      output of ctime(3) + LT
		     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990     output of date(1)
		     Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
		     Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800
		     Fri-JST, 1990, 1pm Jan 12
		     12-January-1990, 04:00-WET

	      Most fields in the date and time may be defaulted.  The  default
	      time  zone  is  UTC.   The  other defaults are determined in the
	      order year, month, day, hour, minute, and second (most to	 least
	      significant).   At  least	 one of these fields must be provided.
	      For omitted fields that are  of  higher  significance  than  the
	      highest  provided	 field,	 the  time  zone's  current values are
	      assumed.	For all other omitted fields, the lowest possible val‐
	      ues  are	assumed.   For example, the date 20, 10:30 defaults to
	      10:30:00 UTC of the 20th of the UTC time	zone's	current	 month
	      and year.	 The date/time must be quoted if it contains spaces.

	      Set the modification time on the new working file to be the date
	      of the retrieved revision.  Use this option with	care;  it  can
	      confuse make(1).

	      retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose state
	      is set to state.

	      retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch  which  was
	      checked  in  by the user with login name login.  If the argument
	      login is omitted, the caller's login is assumed.

	      generates a new revision which is the join of the	 revisions  on
	      joinlist.	  This	option is largely obsoleted by rcsmerge(1) but
	      is retained for backwards compatibility.

	      The joinlist is a comma-separated list  of  pairs	 of  the  form
	      rev2:rev3,  where	 rev2 and rev3 are (symbolic or numeric) revi‐
	      sion numbers.  For the initial such pair, rev1 denotes the revi‐
	      sion  selected  by the above options -f, ..., -w.	 For all other
	      pairs, rev1 denotes the revision generated by the previous pair.
	      (Thus, the output of one join becomes the input to the next.)

	      For  each pair, co joins revisions rev1 and rev3 with respect to
	      rev2.  This means that all changes that transform rev2 into rev1
	      are  applied  to a copy of rev3.	This is particularly useful if
	      rev1 and rev3 are the ends of two branches that have rev2	 as  a
	      common  ancestor.	 If rev1<rev2<rev3 on the same branch, joining
	      generates a new revision	which  is  like	 rev3,	but  with  all
	      changes  that  lead  from	 rev1 to rev2 undone.  If changes from
	      rev2 to rev1 overlap with changes from rev2 to rev3, co  reports
	      overlaps as described in merge(1).

	      For  the	initial pair, rev2 may be omitted.  The default is the
	      common ancestor.	If any of the arguments indicate branches, the
	      latest  revisions on those branches are assumed.	The options -l
	      and -u lock or unlock rev1.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n, where n may be 3, 4, or 5.	 This  may  be
	      useful  when interchanging RCS files with others who are running
	      older versions of RCS.  To see which version of RCS your	corre‐
	      spondents	 are running, have them invoke rlog on an RCS file; if
	      none of the first few lines of output contain the string branch:
	      it is version 3; if the dates' years have just two digits, it is
	      version 4; otherwise, it is version 5.  An  RCS  file  generated
	      while  emulating version 3 will lose its default branch.	An RCS
	      revision generated while emulating version  4  or	 earlier  will
	      have  a  timestamp  that	is  off by up to 13 hours.  A revision
	      extracted while emulating version	 4  or	earlier	 will  contain
	      dates  of	 the  form yy/mm/dd instead of yyyy/mm/dd and may also
	      contain different white space in the substitution for $Log$.

	      Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       Strings of the form $keyword$ and $keyword:...$ embedded	 in  the  text
       are replaced with strings of the form $keyword:value$ where keyword and
       value are pairs listed below.  Keywords	may  be	 embedded  in  literal
       strings or comments to identify a revision.

       Initially, the user enters strings of the form $keyword$.  On checkout,
       co replaces these strings with strings of the form $keyword:value$.  If
       a  revision  containing	strings of the latter form is checked back in,
       the value fields will be replaced during the next checkout.  Thus,  the
       keyword	values	are automatically updated on checkout.	This automatic
       substitution can be modified by the -k options.

       Keywords and their corresponding values:

	      The login name of the user who checked in the revision.

       $Date$ The date and time (UTC) the revision was checked in.

	      A standard header containing the full pathname of the RCS	 file,
	      the  revision number, the date (UTC), the author, the state, and
	      the locker (if locked).

       $Id$   Same as $Header$, except that the	 RCS  filename	is  without  a

	      The login name of the user who locked the revision (empty if not

       $Log$  The log message supplied during checkin, preceded	 by  a	header
	      containing  the  RCS  filename, the revision number, the author,
	      and the date (UTC).  Existing log	 messages  are	not  replaced.
	      Instead,	the new log message is inserted after $Log:...$.  This
	      is useful for accumulating a complete change  log	 in  a	source

	      The name of the RCS file without a path.

	      The revision number assigned to the revision.

	      The full pathname of the RCS file.

	      The  state assigned to the revision with the -s option of rcs(1)
	      or ci(1).

       The working file inherits the read and execute permissions from the RCS
       file.  In addition, the owner write permission is turned on, unless -kv
       is set or the file is checked out unlocked and locking is set to strict
       (see rcs(1)).

       If  a  file  with  the  name of the working file exists already and has
       write permission, co aborts the checkout, asking beforehand  if	possi‐
       ble.   If the existing working file is not writable or -f is given, the
       working file is deleted without asking.

       co accesses files much as ci(1) does, except that it does not  need  to
       read the working file.

	      options  prepended  to  the  argument list, separated by spaces.
	      See ci(1) for details.

       The RCS	pathname,  the	working	 pathname,  and	 the  revision	number
       retrieved  are  written	to  the diagnostic output.  The exit status is
       zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Revision Number: 5.7; Release Date: 1991/08/19.
       Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 by Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright © 1990, 1991 by Paul Eggert.

       ci(1), ctime(3), date(1), ident(1), make(1), rcs(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsin‐
       tro(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

       Links to the RCS and working files are not preserved.

       There is no way to selectively  suppress	 the  expansion	 of  keywords,
       except  by  writing them differently.  In nroff and troff, this is done
       by embedding the null-character \& into the keyword.

       The -d option sometimes gets confused, and accepts no date before 1970.

GNU				  1991/08/19				 CO(1)

List of man pages available for 4.4BSD

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net