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CREATE ROLE()			 SQL Commands			 CREATE ROLE()

NAME
       CREATE ROLE - define a new database role

SYNOPSIS
       CREATE ROLE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

       where option can be:

	     SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
	   | CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
	   | CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE
	   | CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
	   | INHERIT | NOINHERIT
	   | LOGIN | NOLOGIN
	   | CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
	   | [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
	   | VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
	   | IN ROLE rolename [, ...]
	   | IN GROUP rolename [, ...]
	   | ROLE rolename [, ...]
	   | ADMIN rolename [, ...]
	   | USER rolename [, ...]
	   | SYSID uid

DESCRIPTION
       CREATE ROLE adds a new role to a PostgreSQL database cluster. A role is
       an entity that can own database objects and have database privileges; a
       role  can  be  considered a ``user'', a ``group'', or both depending on
       how it is used. Refer to the documentation and  the  documentation  for
       information about managing users and authentication. You must have CRE‐
       ATEROLE privilege or be a database superuser to use this command.

       Note that roles are defined at the database cluster level, and  so  are
       valid in all databases in the cluster.

PARAMETERS
       name   The name of the new role.

       SUPERUSER

       NOSUPERUSER
	      These clauses determine whether the new role is a ``superuser'',
	      who can override all access restrictions	within	the  database.
	      Superuser	 status	 is  dangerous	and  should  be used only when
	      really needed. You must yourself be a superuser to create a  new
	      superuser.  If not specified, NOSUPERUSER is the default.

       CREATEDB

       NOCREATEDB
	      These  clauses  define  a role's ability to create databases. If
	      CREATEDB is specified, the role being defined will be allowed to
	      create new databases. Specifying NOCREATEDB will deny a role the
	      ability to create databases. If not specified, NOCREATEDB is the
	      default.

       CREATEROLE

       NOCREATEROLE
	      These clauses determine whether a role will be permitted to cre‐
	      ate new roles (that is, execute CREATE ROLE).  A role with  CRE‐
	      ATEROLE  privilege  can also alter and drop other roles.	If not
	      specified, NOCREATEROLE is the default.

       CREATEUSER

       NOCREATEUSER
	      These clauses are an obsolete, but still accepted,  spelling  of
	      SUPERUSER and NOSUPERUSER.  Note that they are not equivalent to
	      CREATEROLE as one might naively expect!

       INHERIT

       NOINHERIT
	      These clauses determine whether a role ``inherits''  the	privi‐
	      leges  of	 roles	it  is	a  member of.  A role with the INHERIT
	      attribute can automatically  use	whatever  database  privileges
	      have  been  granted  to all roles it is directly or indirectly a
	      member of.  Without INHERIT, membership  in  another  role  only
	      grants  the  ability  to SET ROLE to that other role; the privi‐
	      leges of the other role are only available after having done so.
	      If not specified, INHERIT is the default.

       LOGIN

       NOLOGIN
	      These  clauses  determine	 whether  a role is allowed to log in;
	      that is, whether the role can be given as	 the  initial  session
	      authorization  name  during client connection. A role having the
	      LOGIN attribute can be thought of as a user.  Roles without this
	      attribute	 are  useful for managing database privileges, but are
	      not users in the usual sense of the  word.   If  not  specified,
	      NOLOGIN  is  the	default,  except  when	CREATE ROLE is invoked
	      through its alternate spelling CREATE USER.

       CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
	      If role can log in, this specifies how many  concurrent  connec‐
	      tions the role can make. -1 (the default) means no limit.

       PASSWORD password
	      Sets  the	 role's password. (A password is only of use for roles
	      having the LOGIN attribute, but you can nonetheless  define  one
	      for  roles  without  it.)	  If  you  do not plan to use password
	      authentication you can omit this option.

       ENCRYPTED

       UNENCRYPTED
	      These key words control whether the password is stored encrypted
	      in  the  system  catalogs. (If neither is specified, the default
	      behavior is determined  by  the  configuration  parameter	 pass‐
	      word_encryption.) If the presented password string is already in
	      MD5-encrypted format, then it is stored encrypted as-is, regard‐
	      less of whether ENCRYPTED or UNENCRYPTED is specified (since the
	      system cannot decrypt the specified encrypted password  string).
	      This    allows   reloading   of	encrypted   passwords	during
	      dump/restore.

	      Note that older clients may lack support for the MD5 authentica‐
	      tion  mechanism  that  is needed to work with passwords that are
	      stored encrypted.

       VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
	      The VALID UNTIL clause sets a date  and  time  after  which  the
	      role's  password	is  no longer valid. If this clause is omitted
	      the password will be valid for all time.

       IN ROLE rolename
	      The IN ROLE clause lists one or more existing roles to which the
	      new  role	 will be immediately added as a new member. (Note that
	      there is no option to add the new role as an administrator;  use
	      a separate GRANT command to do that.)

       IN GROUP rolename
	      IN GROUP is an obsolete spelling of IN ROLE.

       ROLE rolename
	      The ROLE clause lists one or more existing roles which are auto‐
	      matically added as members of the new  role.   (This  in	effect
	      makes the new role a ``group''.)

       ADMIN rolename
	      The  ADMIN clause is like ROLE, but the named roles are added to
	      the new role WITH ADMIN OPTION, giving them the right  to	 grant
	      membership in this role to others.

       USER rolename
	      The USER clause is an obsolete spelling of the ROLE clause.

       SYSID uid
	      The  SYSID clause is ignored, but is accepted for backwards com‐
	      patibility.

NOTES
       Use ALTER ROLE [alter_role(7)] to change the attributes of a role,  and
       DROP ROLE [drop_role(7)] to remove a role. All the attributes specified
       by CREATE ROLE can be modified by later ALTER ROLE commands.

       The preferred way to add and remove members of  roles  that  are	 being
       used as groups is to use GRANT [grant(7)] and REVOKE [revoke(7)].

       The  VALID UNTIL clause defines an expiration time for a password only,
       not for the role per se. In particular,	the  expiration	 time  is  not
       enforced	 when  logging	in  using  a non-password-based authentication
       method.

       The INHERIT attribute governs inheritance of grantable privileges (that
       is,  access  privileges	for database objects and role memberships). It
       does not apply to the special role attributes set by  CREATE  ROLE  and
       ALTER  ROLE. For example, being a member of a role with CREATEDB privi‐
       lege does not immediately grant the ability to create  databases,  even
       if  INHERIT  is	set; it would be necessary to become that role via SET
       ROLE [set_role(7)] before creating a database.

       The INHERIT attribute is the default for reasons of backwards  compati‐
       bility: in prior releases of PostgreSQL, users always had access to all
       privileges of groups they were members of.  However, NOINHERIT provides
       a closer match to the semantics specified in the SQL standard.

       PostgreSQL  includes  a program createuser [createuser(1)] that has the
       same functionality as CREATE ROLE (in fact, it calls this command)  but
       can be run from the command shell.

       The  CONNECTION LIMIT option is only enforced approximately; if two new
       sessions start at about the same time when just one connection ``slot''
       remains	for  the  role,	 it is possible that both will fail. Also, the
       limit is never enforced for superusers.

EXAMPLES
       Create a role that can log in, but don't give it a password:

       CREATE ROLE jonathan LOGIN;

       Create a role with a password:

       CREATE USER davide WITH PASSWORD 'jw8s0F4';

       (CREATE USER is the same as CREATE ROLE except that it implies LOGIN.)

       Create a role with a password that is valid  until  the	end  of	 2004.
       After one second has ticked in 2005, the password is no longer valid.

       CREATE ROLE miriam WITH LOGIN PASSWORD 'jw8s0F4' VALID UNTIL '2005-01-01';

       Create a role that can create databases and manage roles:

       CREATE ROLE admin WITH CREATEDB CREATEROLE;

COMPATIBILITY
       The CREATE ROLE statement is in the SQL standard, but the standard only
       requires the syntax

       CREATE ROLE name [ WITH ADMIN rolename ]

       Multiple initial administrators, and all the other  options  of	CREATE
       ROLE, are PostgreSQL extensions.

       The  SQL	 standard  defines  the	 concepts  of  users and roles, but it
       regards them as distinct concepts  and  leaves  all  commands  defining
       users to be specified by each database implementation. In PostgreSQL we
       have chosen to unify users and roles into  a  single  kind  of  entity.
       Roles  therefore have many more optional attributes than they do in the
       standard.

       The behavior specified by the SQL standard is most closely approximated
       by  giving  users  the  NOINHERIT  attribute, while roles are given the
       INHERIT attribute.

SEE ALSO
       SET  ROLE  [set_role(7)],  ALTER	 ROLE	[alter_role(l)],   DROP	  ROLE
       [drop_role(l)], GRANT [grant(l)], REVOKE [revoke(l)], createuser(1)

SQL - Language Statements	  2005-11-05			 CREATE ROLE()
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