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GPGSM(1)		       GNU Privacy Guard		      GPGSM(1)

       gpgsm - CMS encryption and signing tool

       gpgsm [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

       gpgsm  is a tool similar to gpg to provide digital encryption and sign‐
       ing services on X.509 certificates and the CMS protocol.	 It is	mainly
       used  as	 a  backend for S/MIME mail processing.	 gpgsm includes a full
       featured certificate management and complies with all rules defined for
       the German Sphinx project.

       Commands	 are  not  distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one command is allowed.

   Commands not specific to the function

	      Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help, -h
	      Print  a	usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
	      options.	Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

	      Print warranty information.  Note	 that  you  cannot  abbreviate
	      this command.

	      Print  a	list of all available options and commands.  Note that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

	      Perform an encryption.  The keys the data is encrypted too  must
	      be set using the option --recipient.

	      Perform  a decryption; the type of input is automatically deter‐
	      mined.  It may either be in binary form or  PEM  encoded;	 auto‐
	      matic determination of base-64 encoding is not done.

       --sign Create a digital signature.  The key used is either the fist one
	      found in the keybox or those set with the --local-user option.

	      Check a signature file for validity.  Depending on the arguments
	      a detached signature may also be checked.

	      Run in server mode and wait for commands on the stdin.

       --call-dirmngr command [args]
	      Behave  as a Dirmngr client issuing the request command with the
	      optional list of args.  The output of  the  Dirmngr  is  printed
	      stdout.	Please	note that file names given as arguments should
	      have an absolute file name (i.e. commencing with / because  they
	      are  passed verbatim to the Dirmngr and the working directory of
	      the Dirmngr might not be the same as the	one  of	 this  client.
	      Currently it is not possible to pass data via stdin to the Dirm‐
	      ngr.  command should not contain spaces.

	      This is command is required for certain maintaining tasks of the
	      dirmngr where a dirmngr must be able to call back to gpgsm.  See
	      the Dirmngr manual for details.

       --call-protect-tool arguments
	      Certain maintenance operations are done by an  external  program
	      call gpg-protect-tool; this is usually not installed in a direc‐
	      tory listed in the PATH variable.	 This command provides a  sim‐
	      ple  wrapper to access this tool.	 arguments are passed verbatim
	      to this command; use '--help' to get a list of supported	opera‐

   How to manage the certificates and keys

	      -This  command  allows  the  creation  of	 a certificate signing
	      request.	It -is commonly used along with the --output option to
	      save  the	 -created CSR into a file.  If used with the --batch a
	      parameter -file is used to create the CSR.  This command	allows
	      the  creation  of a certificate signing request or a self-signed
	      certificate.  It is commonly used along with the --output option
	      to  save	the  created  CSR or certificate into a file.  If used
	      with the --batch a parameter file is used to create the  CSR  or
	      certificate and it is further possible to create non-self-signed


       -k     List all available certificates stored in the  local  key	 data‐
	      base.   Note  that  the  displayed data might be reformatted for
	      better human readability and illegal characters are replaced  by
	      safe substitutes.


       -K     List  all	 available  certificates  for  which a corresponding a
	      secret key is available.

       --list-external-keys pattern
	      List certificates matching pattern  using	 an  external  server.
	      This utilizes the dirmngr service.

	      Same  as	--list-keys  but  also	prints	all keys making up the


	      List all available certificates stored in the local key database
	      using a format useful mainly for debugging.

	      Same  as	--dump-keys  but  also	prints	all keys making up the

	      List all available certificates  for  which  a  corresponding  a
	      secret  key is available using a format useful mainly for debug‐

       --dump-external-keys pattern
	      List certificates matching pattern  using	 an  external  server.
	      This  utilizes  the  dirmngr  service.   It uses a format useful
	      mainly for debugging.

	      This is a debugging aid to reset certain flags in the key	 data‐
	      base  which  are used to cache certain certificate stati.	 It is
	      especially useful if a bad CRL or a weird running OCSP responder
	      did accidentally revoke certificate.  There is no security issue
	      with this command because gpgsm always make sure that the valid‐
	      ity of a certificate is checked right before it is used.

       --delete-keys pattern
	      Delete the keys matching pattern.	 Note that there is no command
	      to delete the secret part of the key directly.  In case you need
	      to  do this, you should run the command gpgsm --dump-secret-keys
	      KEYID before you delete the key, copy the string	of  hex-digits
	      in  the ``keygrip'' line and delete the file consisting of these
	      hex-digits and the  suffix  .key	from  the  ‘private-keys-v1.d’
	      directory below our GnuPG home directory (usually ‘~/.gnupg’).

       --export [pattern]
	      Export  all certificates stored in the Keybox or those specified
	      by the optional pattern. Those pattern consist of a list of user
	      ids (see: [how-to-specify-a-user-id]).  When used along with the
	      --armor option a few informational lines	are  prepended	before
	      each  block.   There  is one limitation: As there is no commonly
	      agreed upon way to pack more than one certificate into an	 ASN.1
	      structure,  the  binary  export (i.e. without using armor) works
	      only for the export of one certificate.  Thus it is required  to
	      specify	a   pattern  which  yields  exactly  one  certificate.
	      Ephemeral certificate are only exported if all pattern are given
	      as fingerprints or keygrips.

       --export-secret-key-p12 key-id
	      Export  the private key and the certificate identified by key-id
	      in a PKCS#12 format. When using along with the --armor option  a
	      few informational lines are prepended to the output.  Note, that
	      the PKCS#12 format is not very secure and this command  is  only
	      provided	if  there is no other way to exchange the private key.
	      (see: [option --p12-charset])

       --import [files]
	      Import the certificates from the PEM or binary encoded files  as
	      well  as	from  signed-only  messages.  This command may also be
	      used to import a secret key from a PKCS#12 file.

	      Read information about the private keys from the	smartcard  and
	      import  the  certificates from there.  This command utilizes the
	      gpg-agent and in turn the scdaemon.

       --passwd user_id
	      Change the passphrase of the private key belonging to  the  cer‐
	      tificate	 specified   as	 user_id.   Note,  that	 changing  the
	      passphrase/PIN of a smartcard is not yet supported.

       GPGSM features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
       change the default configuration.

   How to change the configuration

       These  options  are  used  to  change the configuration and are usually
       found in the option file.

       --options file
	      Reads configuration from file instead of from the	 default  per-
	      user  configuration  file.   The	default	 configuration file is
	      named  ‘gpgsm.conf’  and	expected  in  the  ‘.gnupg’  directory
	      directly below the home directory of the user.

       --homedir dir
	      Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
	      used, the home directory defaults to  ‘~/.gnupg’.	  It  is  only
	      recognized  when	given  on the command line.  It also overrides
	      any home	directory  stated  through  the	 environment  variable
	      ‘GNUPGHOME’  or  (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry


	      Outputs additional information while running.  You can  increase
	      the  verbosity by giving several verbose commands to gpgsm, such
	      as '-vv'.

       --policy-file filename
	      Change the default name of the policy file to filename.

       --agent-program file
	      Specify an agent program to be used for secret  key  operations.
	      The  default  value  is the ‘/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent’.  This is
	      only  used  as  a	 fallback  when	  the	environment   variable
	      GPG_AGENT_INFO  is  not  set  or	a running agent cannot be con‐

       --dirmngr-program file
	      Specify a dirmngr program	 to  be	 used  for  CRL	 checks.   The
	      default  value  is  ‘/usr/sbin/dirmngr’.	This is only used as a
	      fallback when the environment variable DIRMNGR_INFO is  not  set
	      or a running dirmngr cannot be connected.

	      If a system wide dirmngr is running in daemon mode, first try to
	      connect to this one.  Fallback to a pipe based  server  if  this
	      does not work.  Under Windows this option is ignored because the
	      system dirmngr is always used.

	      Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

	      Do not print a warning when the so called "secure memory" cannot
	      be used.

       --log-file file
	      When running in server mode, append all logging output to file.

   Certificate related options


	      By default policy checks are enabled.  These options may be used
	      to change it.


	      By default the CRL checks are enabled and the DirMngr is used to
	      check for revoked certificates.  The disable option is most use‐
	      ful with an off-line network connection to suppress this check.


	      By default the CRL for trusted  root  certificates  are  checked
	      like for any other certificates.	This allows a CA to revoke its
	      own certificates voluntary without the need of putting all  ever
	      issued  certificates into a CRL.	The disable option may be used
	      to switch this extra check off.  Due to the caching done by  the
	      Dirmngr,	there  will  not  be  any noticeable performance gain.
	      Note, that this also disables possible OCSP checks  for  trusted
	      root  certificates.  A more specific way of disabling this check
	      is by adding the ``relax'' keyword to the root CA	 line  of  the

	      Tell the dirmngr to reload the CRL for each request.  For better
	      performance, the dirmngr will actually  optimize	this  by  sup‐
	      pressing the loading for short time intervals (e.g. 30 minutes).
	      This option is useful to make sure that a fresh CRL is available
	      for certificates hold in the keybox.  The suggested way of doing
	      this is by using it along with the option --with-validation  for
	      a key listing command.  This option should not be used in a con‐
	      figuration file.


	      By default OCSP checks are disabled.  The enable option  may  be
	      used  to enable OCSP checks via Dirmngr.	If CRL checks are also
	      enabled, CRLs will be used as a fallback if for some  reason  an
	      OCSP  request  will  not	succeed.  Note, that you have to allow
	      OCSP requests in Dirmngr's configuration	too  (option  --allow-
	      ocsp)  and  configure Dirmngr properly.  If you do not do so you
	      will get the error code 'Not supported'.

	      If a required certificate is missing while validating the	 chain
	      of  certificates,	 try to load that certificate from an external
	      location.	 This usually means that Dirmngr is employed to search
	      for  the	certificate.   Note that this option makes a "web bug"
	      like behavior possible.  LDAP server  operators  can  see	 which
	      keys  you request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand
	      new key (which you naturally will not have on  your  local  key‐
	      box),  the  operator  can tell both your IP address and the time
	      when you verified the signature.

       --validation-model name
	      This option changes the default validation model.	 The only pos‐
	      sible  values  are "shell" (which is the default), "chain" which
	      forces the use of the chain model and "steed" for a new  simpli‐
	      fied  model.   The  chain model is also used if an option in the
	      ‘trustlist.txt’ or an attribute of the certificate requests  it.
	      However  the standard model (shell) is in that case always tried

       --ignore-cert-extension oid
	      Add oid to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The  oid
	      is  expected  to be in dotted decimal form, like  This
	      option may be used more than once.  Critical flagged certificate
	      extensions  matching  one of the OIDs in the list are treated as
	      if they are actually handled and thus the certificate  will  not
	      be  rejected  due	 to  an	 unknown critical extension.  Use this
	      option with care because extensions are usually flagged as crit‐
	      ical for a reason.

   Input and Output


       -a     Create PEM encoded output.  Default is binary output.

	      Create  Base-64  encoded	output;	 i.e.  PEM  without the header

	      Assume the input data is PEM encoded.  Default is to  autodetect
	      the encoding but this is may fail.

	      Assume the input data is plain base-64 encoded.

	      Assume the input data is binary encoded.

       --p12-charset name
	      gpgsm  uses  the	UTF-8  encoding	 when encoding passphrases for
	      PKCS#12 files.  This option may be used to force the  passphrase
	      to be encoded in the specified encoding name.  This is useful if
	      the application used to import the key uses a different encoding
	      and  thus	 will not be able to import a file generated by gpgsm.
	      Commonly used values for name are Latin1 and CP850.   Note  that
	      gpgsm  itself  automagically  imports any file with a passphrase
	      encoded to the most commonly used encodings.

       --default-key user_id
	      Use user_id as the standard key for signing.  This key  is  used
	      if  no  other key has been defined as a signing key.  Note, that
	      the first --local-users option also sets this key if it has  not
	      yet been set; however --default-key always overrides this.

       --local-user user_id

       -u user_id
	      Set  the	user(s)	 to  be	 used for signing.  The default is the
	      first secret key found in the database.

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt to the user id name.  There are several ways a  user  id
	      may be given (see: [how-to-specify-a-user-id]).

       --output file

       -o file
	      Write output to file.  The default is to write it to stdout.

	      Displays extra information with the --list-keys commands.	 Espe‐
	      cially a line tagged grp is printed which tells you the  keygrip
	      of  a  key.  This string is for example used as the file name of
	      the secret key.

	      When doing a key listing, do a full validation  check  for  each
	      key  and	print  the  result.   This is usually a slow operation
	      because it requires a CRL lookup and other operations.

	      When used along with --import, a validation of  the  certificate
	      to  import  is  done  and only imported if it succeeds the test.
	      Note that this does not affect an already available  certificate
	      in  the  DB.  This option is therefore useful to simply verify a

	      For standard key listings, also print the MD5 fingerprint of the

	      Include  the  keygrip  in	 standard key listings.	 Note that the
	      keygrip is always listed in --with-colons mode.

   How to change how the CMS is created.

       --include-certs n
	      Using n of -2 includes all certificate except for the root cert,
	      -1  includes all certs, 0 does not include any certs, 1 includes
	      only the signers cert and all other positive values  include  up
	      to n certificates starting with the signer cert.	The default is

       --cipher-algo oid
	      Use the cipher algorithm with the ASN.1  object  identifier  oid
	      for  encryption.	 For  convenience  the	strings	 3DES, AES and
	      AES256 may be used instead of their OIDs.	 The default  is  3DES

       --digest-algo name
	      Use  name	 as  the message digest algorithm.  Usually this algo‐
	      rithm is deduced from the respective signing certificate.	  This
	      option  forces  the  use	of the given algorithm and may lead to
	      severe interoperability problems.

   Doing things one usually do not want to do.

       --extra-digest-algo name
	      Sometimes signatures are broken in that they announce a  differ‐
	      ent  digest algorithm than actually used.	 gpgsm uses a one-pass
	      data processing model and thus needs to rely  on	the  announced
	      digest  algorithms  to  properly hash the data.  As a workaround
	      this option may be used to tell gpg to also hash the data	 using
	      the  algorithm name; this slows processing down a little bit but
	      allows to verify such broken signatures.	 If  gpgsm  prints  an
	      error  like  ``digest algo 8 has not been enabled'' you may want
	      to try this option, with 'SHA256' for name.

       --faked-system-time epoch
	      This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
	      back  or	forth  to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
	      since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full
	      ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

	      Include  ephemeral  flagged  keys in the output of key listings.
	      Note that they are included anyway if the key specification  for
	      a listing is given as fingerprint or keygrip.

       --debug-level level
	      Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
	      a numeric value or by a keyword:

	      none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be  used
		     instead of the keyword.

	      basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
		     be used instead of the keyword.

		     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
		     be used instead of the keyword.

	      expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
		     be used instead of the keyword.

	      guru   All of the debug messages you can get.  A	value  greater
		     than  8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
		     of hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual debugging flags is not
       specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
	      This  option  is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may
	      change at any time without notice; using --debug-levels  is  the
	      preferred	 method	 to select the debug verbosity.	 FLAGS are bit
	      encoded and may  be  given  in  usual  C-Syntax.	The  currently
	      defined bits are:

	      0 (1)  X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

	      1 (2)  values of big number integers

	      2 (4)  low level crypto operations

	      5 (32) memory allocation

	      6 (64) caching

	      7 (128)
		     show memory statistics.

	      9 (512)
		     write hashed data to files named dbgmd-000*

	      10 (1024)
		     trace Assuan protocol

       Note,  that  all	 flags	set  using  this  option may get overridden by

	      Same as --debug=0xffffffff

	      Usually gpgsm tries to avoid dumping core by well	 written  code
	      and by disabling core dumps for security reasons.	 However, bugs
	      are pretty durable beasts and to squash  them  it	 is  sometimes
	      useful  to  have	a  core	 dump.	This option enables core dumps
	      unless the Bad Thing happened before the option parsing.

	      This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
	      It lets gpgsm bypass all certificate chain validation checks.

	      This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
	      It lets gpgsm ignore all notAfter dates, this  is	 used  by  the
	      regression tests.

       --fixed-passphrase string
	      Supply  the  passphrase  string  to  the gpg-protect-tool.  This
	      option is only useful for the  regression	 tests	included  with
	      this  package  and may be revised or removed at any time without

	      Suppress the import of common certificates on keybox creation.

	      All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
	      after stripping off the two leading dashes.

       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
       are only valid for gpg others are only good for	gpgsm.	 Here  is  the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
	      This  format  is	deduced	 from the length of the string and its
	      content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
	      low  64  bits  of	 its SHA-1 fingerprint.	 The use of key Ids is
	      just a shortcut, for all automated  processing  the  fingerprint
	      should be used.

	      When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
	      using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
	      calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
	      form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
	      long key ID using the option --with-colons.



       By fingerprint.
	      This  format  is	deduced	 from the length of the string and its
	      content or the 0x prefix.	 Note, that only the 20	 byte  version
	      fingerprint  is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the

	      When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to	 force
	      using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
	      calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

	      The best way to specify a key Id is by  using  the  fingerprint.
	      This  avoids  any	 ambiguities in case that there are duplicated
	      key IDs.


       (gpgsm also accepts colons between  each	 pair  of  hexadecimal	digits
       because	this  is the de-facto standard on how to present X.509 finger‐

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
	      This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make	 sense
	      for X.509 certificates.

	 =Heinrich Heine <>

       By exact match on an email address.
	      This  is	indicated  by enclosing the email address in the usual
	      way with left and right angles.


       By word match.
	      All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear
	      in  any  order in the user ID or a subjects name.	 Words are any
	      sequences of letters, digits, the underscore and all  characters
	      with bit 7 set.

	 +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
	      This  is	indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the
	      RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
	      string  printed  by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one as been
	      reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
	      to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

	 /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
	      slash and then directly followed by the rfc2253  encoded	DN  of
	      the  issuer.   This  should  return the Root cert of the issuer.
	      See note above.

	 #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated by a hash mark, followed  by  the  hexadecimal
	      representation  of  the  serial number, then followed by a slash
	      and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

	 #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
	      This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex	digits
	      of  a  keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command
	      --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.


       By substring match.
	      This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
	      indicate	this  by  putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not
	      case sensitive.


       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used
       in  old	GnuPG  versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is not
       anymore used and there should be	 no  conflict  when  used  with	 X.509

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possi‐
       ble to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to
       do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta data.

	 $ gpgsm -er <plaintext >ciphertext

       There  are  a  few  configuration  files	 to control certain aspects of
       gpgsm's operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current  home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

	      This  is	the  standard  configuration  file  read  by  gpgsm on
	      startup.	It may contain any valid long option; the leading  two
	      dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
	      This default name may be	changed	 on  the  command  line	 (see:
	      [gpgsm-option --options]).  You should backup this file.

	      This  is	a  list of allowed CA policies.	 This file should list
	      the object identifiers of the  policies  line  by	 line.	 Empty
	      lines and lines starting with a hash mark are ignored.  Policies
	      missing in this file and not marked as critical in the  certifi‐
	      cate  will  print	 only  a  warning;  certificates with policies
	      marked as critical and not listed in this	 file  will  fail  the
	      signature verification.  You should backup this file.

	      For example, to allow only the policy, the file should
	      look like this:

		# Allowed policies

	      This is the list of root certificates used  for  qualified  cer‐
	      tificates.  They are defined as certificates capable of creating
	      legally binding signatures in the same way as handwritten signa‐
	      tures  are.  Comments start with a hash mark and empty lines are
	      ignored.	Lines do have a length limit but this is not a serious
	      limitation  as the format of the entries is fixed and checked by
	      gpgsm: A non-comment line starts with optional whitespace,  fol‐
	      lowed  by exactly 40 hex character, white space and a lowercased
	      2 letter country code.  Additional  data	delimited  with	 by  a
	      white  space is current ignored but might late be used for other

	      Note that even if a certificate is listed	 in  this  file,  this
	      does  not	 mean  that the certificate is trusted; in general the
	      certificates listed in this file	need  to  be  listed  also  in

	      This  is	a global file an installed in the data directory (e.g.
	      ‘/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt’).  GnuPG	 installs  a  suitable
	      file  with root certificates as used in Germany.	As new Root-CA
	      certificates may be issued over time, these entries may need  to
	      be  updated; new distributions of this software should come with
	      an updated list but it is still the responsibility of the Admin‐
	      istrator to check that this list is correct.

	      Everytime	 gpgsm	uses a certificate for signing or verification
	      this file will be consulted to  check  whether  the  certificate
	      under  question  has ultimately been issued by one of these CAs.
	      If this is the case the user will be informed that the  verified
	      signature	 represents  a	legally binding (``qualified'') signa‐
	      ture.  When creating a signature using  such  a  certificate  an
	      extra  prompt will be issued to let the user confirm that such a
	      legally binding signature shall really be created.

	      Because this software has not yet been  approved	for  use  with
	      such certificates, appropriate notices will be shown to indicate
	      this fact.

	      This is plain text file with a few help entries used with pinen‐
	      try  as  well  as	 a large list of help items for gpg and gpgsm.
	      The standard file has English help texts; to  install  localized
	      versions	use  filenames like ‘help.LL.txt’ with LL denoting the
	      locale.  GnuPG comes with a set of predefined help files in  the
	      data  directory (e.g. ‘/usr/share/gnupg/’) and allows
	      overriding of any help item by help files stored in  the	system
	      configuration  directory (e.g. ‘/etc/gnupg/’).	 For a
	      reference of the help file's syntax, please  see	the  installed
	      ‘help.txt’ file.

	      This  file  is a collection of common certificates used to popu‐
	      lated a  newly  created  ‘pubring.kbx’.	An  administrator  may
	      replace this file with a custom one.  The format is a concatena‐
	      tion of PEM encoded X.509 certificates.	This  global  file  is
	      installed	 in  the  data	directory (e.g. ‘/usr/share/gnupg/com-

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into  the  directory  ‘/etc/skel/.gnupg/’  so  that newly created users
       start up with a working configuration.	For  existing  users  a	 small
       helper script is provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).

       For  internal  purposes	gpgsm creates and maintains a few other files;
       they all live in in the current home directory  (see:  [option  --home‐
       dir]).  Only gpgsm may modify these files.

	      This  a  database	 file storing the certificates as well as meta
	      information.  For debugging purposes the	tool  kbxutil  may  be
	      used  to	show  the internal structure of this file.  You should
	      backup this file.

	      This content of this file is used to maintain the internal state
	      of  the  random  number  generator across invocations.  The same
	      file is used by other programs of this software too.

	      If   this	  file	 exists	  and	the    environment    variable
	      ‘GPG_AGENT_INFO’	is not set, gpgsm will first try to connect to
	      this socket for accessing gpg-agent before starting a  new  gpg-
	      agent  instance.	Under Windows this socket (which in reality be
	      a plain file describing a regular TCP  listening	port)  is  the
	      standard way of connecting the gpg-agent.

       gpg2(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site,  the

	 info gnupg

       should  give  you access to the complete manual including a menu struc‐
       ture and an index.

GnuPG 2.0.22			  2013-12-16			      GPGSM(1)

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