grops man page on 4.4BSD

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       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [ -glv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -wn ] [ -Fdir ] [ files...  ]

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using the groff command with a -Tps option.	 If no
       files  are  given, grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -
       will also cause grops to read the standard input.  PostScript output is
       written to the standard output.	When grops is run by groff options can
       be passed to grops using the groff -P option.

       -bn    Workaround broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally grops  pro‐
	      duces  output that conforms the Document Structuring Conventions
	      version 3.0.  Unfortunately some spoolers and  previewers	 can't
	      handle  such output.  The value of n controls what grops does to
	      its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
	      grops  not  to employ any workarounds.  Add 1 if no %%BeginDocu‐
	      mentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments should	be  generated;
	      this  is	needed	for early versions of TranScript that get con‐
	      fused by anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the	 first
	      %%Page comment.  Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with
	      %!  should be stripped out; this is needed  for  Sun's  pageview
	      previewer.   Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog comments
	      should be stripped out of included files;	 this  is  needed  for
	      spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDoc‐
	      ument comments.  Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript  out‐
	      put should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is
	      needed when using Sun's Newsprint with a printer	that  requires
	      page reversal.  The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -g     Guess  the  page	length.	  This	generates PostScript code that
	      guesses the page length.	The guess will be correct only if  the
	      imageable	 area is vertically centered on the page.  This option
	      allows you to generate documents that can	 be  printed  both  on
	      letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -Fdir  Search the directory dir/devname for font and device description
	      files; name is the name of the device, usually ps.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an

       -v     Print the version number.

       There  are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1 to
       4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN,	 N,  P	and  T
       having members in each of these styles:

       AR     AvantGarde-Book

       AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

       AB     AvantGarde-Demi

       ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

       BMR    Bookman-Light

       BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

       BMB    Bookman-Demi

       BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

       CR     Courier

       CI     Courier-Oblique

       CB     Courier-Bold

       CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

       HR     Helvetica

       HI     Helvetica-Oblique

       HB     Helvetica-Bold

       HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

       HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

       HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

       HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

       HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

       NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

       NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

       NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

       NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

       PR     Palatino-Roman

       PI     Palatino-Italic

       PB     Palatino-Bold

       PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

       TR     Times-Roman

       TI     Times-Italic

       TB     Times-Bold

       TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

       ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also	 some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf Dingbats is
       available as ZD and a reversed version of  ZapfDingbats	(with  symbols
       pointing	 in  the opposite direction) is available as ZDR; most charac‐
       ters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       grops understands various X  commands  produced	using  the  \X	escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
	      PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
	      command  before  executing  code.	 The origin will be at the top
	      left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will	increase  down
	      the  page.   A  procedure	 u will be defined that converts groff
	      units to the coordinate system in effect.	 For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will draw a horizontal  line  one	 inch  long.   code  may  make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the page.  Any definitions will also persist  only
	      until  the  end  of the page.  If you use the \Y escape sequence
	      with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over multi‐
	      ple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This  is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript
	      code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There  should  be	 at  most one definition per \X command.  Long
	      definitions can be split over several \X commands; all the  code
	      arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
	      definitions are placed in a dictionary  which  is	 automatically
	      pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names  a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like  def,  except  that	code  may contain up to n definitions.
	      grops needs to know how many definitions code contains  so  that
	      it  can  create  an appropriately sized PostScript dictionary to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx,  lly,
	      urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
	      PostScript coordinate system; they should all be	integers;  llx
	      and  lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner of
	      the graphic; urx and ury are the x  and  y  coordinates  of  the
	      upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
	      that give the desired width and height in	 groff	units  of  the
	      graphic.	 The  graphic will be scaled so that it has this width
	      and height and translated so that the lower left corner  of  the
	      graphic  is  located at the position associated with \X command.
	      If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
	      that the contents of the	\X  command  are  not  interpreted  by
	      troff;  so  vertical  space for the graphic is not automatically
	      added, and the width and height arguments	 are  not  allowed  to
	      have  attached  scaling indicators.  If the PostScript file com‐
	      plies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions  and  con‐
	      tains  a	%%BoundingBox  comment,	 then  the bounding box can be
	      automatically extracted  from  within  groff  by	using  the  sy
	      request to run the psbb command.

	      The  -mps	 macros	 (which are automatically loaded when grops is
	      run by the groff command) include a PSPIC macro which  allows  a
	      picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

		     .PSPIC file [width [height]]

	      file  is the name of the file containing the illustration; width
	      and height give the desired width and  height  of	 the  graphic.
	      The  width  and  height  arguments  may  have scaling indicators
	      attached; the default scaling indicator is i.  This  macro  will
	      scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
	      is no more than width wide and height high.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No output will be generated for text and drawing	commands  that
	      are  bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands are
	      intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
	      being  processed	with grops; if the previewer is unable to dis‐
	      play certain characters or other constructs, then other  substi‐
	      tute  characters	or  constructs	can  be used for previewing by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For example, gxditview is not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
	      character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em char‐
	      acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the \(em
	      character and ignore the line.

       The input to grops must be in the format output by @g@troff(@MAN1EXT@).
       This  is described in groff_out(@MAN1EXT@).  In addition the device and
       font description files for the device used must meet  certain  require‐
       ments.	The  device  and font description files supplied for ps device
       meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(@MAN1EXT@) can be used to create
       font  files from AFM files.  The resolution must be an integer multiple
       of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a	 resolution  of	 72000
       and  a sizescale of 1000.  The device description file should contain a

	      paperlength n

       which says that output should be generated which is suitable for print‐
       ing  on	a page whose length is n machine units.	 Each font description
       file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the  PostScript  font	 should be reencoded using the
       encoding described in enc_file; this file should consist of a  sequence
       of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where  pschar  is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its
       position in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer.	 The code  for
       each  character	given in the font file must correspond to the code for
       the character in encoding file, or to the code in the default  encoding
       for  the font if the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This code
       can be used with the \N escape sequence in troff to select the  charac‐
       ter, even if the character does not have a groff name.  Every character
       in the font file must exist in the  PostScript  font,  and  the	widths
       given  in  the  font  file must match the widths used in the PostScript
       font.  grops will assume that a character with a groff name of space is
       blank (makes no marks on the page); it can make use of such a character
       to generate more efficient and compact PostScript output.

       grops can automatically include the  downloadable  fonts	 necessary  to
       print   the  document.	Any  downloadable  fonts  which	 should,  when
       required, be included by grops  must  be	 listed	 in  the  file	@FONT‐
       DIR@/devps/download; this should consist of lines of the form

	      font  filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism that is used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or  imported	document  con‐
       forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output  is  conforming.	 It will also supply any needed font resources
       that are listed in the  download	 file  as  well	 as  any  needed  file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Gara‐
       mond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and  change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to appear
       before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops will	handle
       this  automatically  provided that the downloadable font file for Gara‐
       mond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means of the Docu‐
       ment Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with the follow‐
       ing lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in  the	download file.	A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeed‐
       edResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginRe‐
       source and %%EndResource comments (or possibly the old  %%DocumentNeed‐
       edFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont and %%End‐
       Font comments) should be used.

       @FONTDIR@/devps/DESC	 Device description file.

       @FONTDIR@/devps/F	 Font description file for font F.

       @FONTDIR@/devps/download	 List of downloadable fonts.

       @FONTDIR@/devps/text.enc	 Encoding used for text fonts.

       @MACRODIR@/	 Macros	 for  use  with	 grops;	 automatically
				 loaded by troffrc

       @MACRODIR@/tmac.pspic	 Definition   of  PSPIC	 macro,	 automatically
				 loaded by

       @MACRODIR@/tmac.psold	 Macros	 to  disable  use  of  characters  not
				 present  in  older PostScript printers; auto‐
				 matically loaded by

       @MACRODIR@/tmac.psnew	 Macros to undo the effect of tmac.psold.

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX		 Temporary file.

       afmtodit(@MAN1EXT@),	  groff(@MAN1EXT@),	  @g@troff(@MAN1EXT@),
       psbb(@MAN1EXT@),	     groff_out(@MAN5EXT@),	groff_font(@MAN5EXT@),

Groff Version @VERSION@		    @MDATE@		      GROPS(@MAN1EXT@)

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