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ICONV(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		      ICONV(3)

NAME
       iconv - perform character set conversion

SYNOPSIS
       #include <iconv.h>

       size_t iconv (iconv_t cd,
		     const char* * inbuf, size_t * inbytesleft,
		     char* * outbuf, size_t * outbytesleft);

DESCRIPTION
       The argument cd must be a conversion descriptor created using the func‐
       tion iconv_open.

       The main case is when inbuf is not NULL and *inbuf  is  not  NULL.   In
       this  case, the iconv function converts the multibyte sequence starting
       at *inbuf to  a	multibyte  sequence  starting  at  *outbuf.   At  most
       *inbytesleft  bytes,  starting  at *inbuf, will be read.	 At most *out‐
       bytesleft bytes, starting at *outbuf, will be written.

       The iconv function converts one multibyte character at a time, and  for
       each   character	  conversion   it  increments  *inbuf  and  decrements
       *inbytesleft by the number of  converted	 input	bytes,	it  increments
       *outbuf	and decrements *outbytesleft by the number of converted output
       bytes, and it updates the conversion state contained  in	 cd.   If  the
       character  encoding  of	the  input is stateful, the iconv function can
       also convert a sequence of input bytes to an update of  the  conversion
       state  without producing any output bytes; such input is called a shift
       sequence.  The conversion can stop for four reasons:

       1. An invalid multibyte sequence is encountered in the input.  In  this
       case  it	 sets errno to EILSEQ and returns (size_t)(-1). *inbuf is left
       pointing to the beginning of the invalid multibyte sequence.

       2.  The	input  byte  sequence  has  been  entirely   converted,	  i.e.
       *inbytesleft  has gone down to 0. In this case iconv returns the number
       of non-reversible conversions performed during this call.

       3. An incomplete multibyte sequence is encountered in  the  input,  and
       the input byte sequence terminates after it. In this case it sets errno
       to EINVAL and returns (size_t)(-1). *inbuf  is  left  pointing  to  the
       beginning of the incomplete multibyte sequence.

       4. The output buffer has no more room for the next converted character.
       In this case it sets errno to E2BIG and returns (size_t)(-1).

       A different case is when inbuf is NULL or *inbuf is NULL, but outbuf is
       not  NULL  and  *outbuf	is  not NULL. In this case, the iconv function
       attempts to set cd's conversion state to the initial state and store  a
       corresponding  shift sequence at *outbuf.  At most *outbytesleft bytes,
       starting at *outbuf, will be written.  If the output buffer has no more
       room  for  this	reset  sequence,  it  sets  errno to E2BIG and returns
       (size_t)(-1). Otherwise it  increments  *outbuf	and  decrements	 *out‐
       bytesleft by the number of bytes written.

       A  third	 case  is  when inbuf is NULL or *inbuf is NULL, and outbuf is
       NULL or *outbuf is NULL. In this case, the  iconv  function  sets  cd's
       conversion state to the initial state.

RETURN VALUE
       The iconv function returns the number of characters converted in a non-
       reversible  way	during	this  call;  reversible	 conversions  are  not
       counted.	 In case of error, it sets errno and returns (size_t)(-1).

ERRORS
       The following errors can occur, among others:

       E2BIG  There is not sufficient room at *outbuf.

       EILSEQ An invalid multibyte sequence has been encountered in the input.

       EINVAL An  incomplete  multibyte	 sequence  has been encountered in the
	      input.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX:2001

SEE ALSO
       iconv_open(3), iconvctl(3) iconv_close(3)

GNU			       September 7, 2008		      ICONV(3)
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