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LSOF(8)								       LSOF(8)

NAME
       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof  [	-?abChlnNOPRstUvVX  ]  [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
       +|-D D ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k  ]  [
       +|-L  [l] ] [ -m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t] ] [ -S [t]
       ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof revision 4.68 lists information about files	 opened	 by  processes
       for the following UNIX dialects:

	    AIX 4.3.[23], 5L, and 5.[12]
	    Apple Darwin 1.[2-5], 5.x and 6.x for Power Macintosh systems
	    BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.[01]
	    FreeBSD 4.[2345678] and 5.[01] for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 5.[01] for Alpha and Sparc64 based systems
	    HP-UX 11.00 and 11.11
	    Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
	    NetBSD 1.[456] for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0123] for x86-based systems
	    OPENSTEP 4.x
	    Caldera OpenUNIX 8
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.[46] for x86-based systems
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.[13] for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, and 9

       (See  the  DISTRIBUTION	section of this manual page for information on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special	 file,
       a  character  special  file,  an executing text reference, a library, a
       stream or a network file (Internet socket,  NFS	file  or  UNIX	domain
       socket.)	  A  specific  file  or	 all the files in a file system may be
       selected by path.

       Instead of a formatted display, lsof will produce output	 that  can  be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT‐
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in	repeat
       mode.   In  repeat  mode it will produce output, delay, then repeat the
       output operation until stopped with an interrupt or quit	 signal.   See
       the +|-r [t] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In  the	absence of any options, lsof lists all open files belonging to
       all active processes.

       If any list request option is specified, other list  requests  must  be
       specifically  requested	-  e.g., if -U is specified for the listing of
       UNIX socket files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is  also	speci‐
       fied;  or  if  a user list is specified with the -u option, UNIX domain
       socket files, belonging to users not  in	 the  list,  won't  be	listed
       unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally	 list  options	that  are specifically stated are ORed - i.e.,
       specifying the -i option without an address and the -ufoo  option  pro‐
       duces  a	 listing  of all network files OR files belonging to processes
       owned by user ``foo''.  One exception is the `^' (negated)  login  name
       or  user	 ID (UID) specified with the -u option.	 Since it is an exclu‐
       sion, it is applied without ORing or ANDing and takes effect before any
       other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.	 For example, specify‐
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution:	 the  -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
       it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by  placing it between them, even though its placement there is accept‐
       able.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the  ANDing  of	all  selection
       options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, net‐
       work addresses, process identifiers, user identifiers - are joined in a
       single  ORed  set and applied before the result participates in ANDing.
       Thus, for example, specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a, and -ufff,ggg
       will select the listing of files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR
       ``ggg'' AND have network connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g.,  the
       option  set  ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.	 However, since values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r,	 -S,  and  -T,
       when  you have no values for them be careful that the following charac‐
       ter isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the  -F  and  -n
       options, or it might represent the n field identifier character follow‐
       ing the -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a new option with
       a  `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If the next option is a file name,
       follow the possibly ambiguous  option  with  ``--''  -  e.g.,  ``-F  --
       name''.

       Either  the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.
       Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may
       be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group  means  the  same  as	 the  separate
       options.	 Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group does take on separate meanings under different prefixes  -	 e.g.,
       +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h	These two equivalent options  select  a	 usage	(help)	output
		list.	Lsof  displays a shortened form of this output when it
		detects an error in the options supplied to it, after  it  has
		displayed  messages  explaining	 each  error.  (Escape the `?'
		character as your shell requires.)

       -a	This option causes list selection  options  to	be  ANDed,  as
		described above.

       -A A	This  option  is available on systems configured for AFS whose
		AFS kernel code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows
		the  lsof  user	 to  specify  A as an alternate name list file
		where the kernel addresses of the  dynamic  modules  might  be
		found.	See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
		for more information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and
		how they affect lsof.

       -b	This  option  causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might
		block - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

		See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS  sec‐
		tions for information on using this option.

       -c c	This option selects the listing of files for processes execut‐
		ing the command that begins with the characters of c.	Multi‐
		ple  commands  may  be	specified,  using multiple -c options.
		They are joined in a single ORed set before  participating  in
		AND option selection.

		If  c  begins  and  ends  with	a  slash ('/'), the characters
		between the slashes is interpreted as  a  regular  expression.
		Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
		to prevent their interpretation by  the	 shell.	  The  closing
		slash may be followed by these modifiers:

		     b	  the regular expression is a basic one.
		     i	  ignore the case of letters.
		     x	  the regular expression is an extended one
			  (default).

		See  the  lsof	FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

		The simple command specification is  tested  first.   If  that
		test fails, the command regular expression is applied.	If the
		simple command test succeeds, the command  regular  expression
		test  isn't  made.   This may result in ``no command found for
		regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w	This option defines the maximum number of  initial  characters
		of  the	 name of the UNIX command associated with a process to
		be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The default is nine.)

		If w is zero ('0'), all command characters will be printed.

		If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'',
		it will be raised to that length.

       -C	This option disables the reporting of any path name components
		from the kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE  sec‐
		tion for more information.

       +d s	This  option  causes  lsof to search for all open instances of
		directory s and the files and directories it contains  at  its
		top  level.   This option does NOT descend the directory tree,
		rooted at s, nor does it follow symbolic links within it.  The
		+D  D  option  may be used to request a full-descent directory
		tree search, rooted at directory D.

		Note: the authority of the user of this option	limits	it  to
		searching  for	files  that the user has permission to examine
		with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s	This option specifies a list  of  file	descriptors  (FDs)  to
		exclude	 from  or  include  in	the  output listing.  The file
		descriptors are specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
		``cwd,1,3'',  ``^6,^2''.   (There  should  be no spaces in the
		set.)

		The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set	 begin
		with  '^'.   It	 is  an inclusion list if no entry begins with
		'^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

		A file descriptor number range may be in the set  as  long  as
		neither	 member	 is  empty,  both members are numbers, and the
		ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g.,  ``0-7''
		or  ``3-10''.	Ranges	may be specified for exclusion if they
		have the  '^'  prefix  -  e.g.,	 ``^0-7''  excludes  all  file
		descritors 0 through 7.

		Multiple  file	descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
		set before participating in AND option selection.

		When there are exclusion and inclusion	members	 in  the  set,
		lsof  reports  them as errors and exits with a non-zero return
		code.

		See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output  values  in
		the  OUTPUT  section  for  more information on file descriptor
		names.

       +D D	This option causes lsof to search for all  open	 instances  of
		directory  D  and all the files and directories it contains to
		its complete depth.  Symbolic links  within  directory	D  are
		ignored - i.e, not followed.

		Note:  the  authority  of the user of this option limits it to
		searching for files that the user has  permission  to  examine
		with the system stat(2) function.

		Further	 note: lsof may process this option slowly and require
		a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
		must  descend  the entire directory tree, rooted at D, calling
		stat(2) for each file and directory, building a	 list  of  all
		the  files  it finds, and searching that list for a match with
		every open file.  When directory D is large, these  steps  can
		take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D	This  option directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The
		use of this option is sometimes restricted.   See  the	DEVICE
		CACHE  FILE  section  and the sections that follow it for more
		information on this option.

		-D must be followed by a function letter; the function	letter
		may  optionally	 be  followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes
		these function letters:

		     ? - report device cache file paths
		     b - build the device cache file
		     i - ignore the device cache file
		     r - read the device cache file
		     u - read and update the device cache file

		The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by  a  path  name,  are
		sometimes  restricted.	 When  these functions are restricted,
		they will not appear in the description of the -D option  that
		accompanies  -h	 or  -?	  option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE
		FILE section and the sections that follow it for more informa‐
		tion on these functions and when they're restricted.

		The  ?	 function  reports  the read-only and write paths that
		lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any envi‐
		ronment	 variables whose values lsof will examine when forming
		the device cache file path, and the format  for	 the  personal
		device	cache  file  path.   (Escape the `?' character as your
		shell requires.)

		When available, the b, r, and u functions may be  followed  by
		the  device  cache  file's  path.   The	 standard  default  is
		.lsof_hostname in the home directory of the real user ID  that
		executes  lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
		configured and	compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h  and  -?
		options	 show  the  current default prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)
		The suffix, hostname, is the first  component  of  the	host's
		name returned by gethostname(2).

		When  available,  the  b  function directs lsof to build a new
		device cache file at the default or specified path.

		The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
		file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
		to the kernel.

		The r function directs lsof to read the device	cache  at  the
		default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
		device cache file when none exists  or	the  existing  one  is
		improperly structured.	The r function, when specified without
		a path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or  out‐
		dated  device  cache file, or creating a new one in its place.
		The r function is always available when it is specified	 with‐
		out  a path name argument; it may be restricted by the permis‐
		sions of the lsof process.

		When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
		cache  file at the default or specified path, if possible, and
		to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
		file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
		f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be inter‐
		preted.	 When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any  combination
		it  specifies that the listing of kernel file structure infor‐
		mation is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

		Normally a path name argument is taken to  be  a  file	system
		name  if  it  matches  a mounted-on directory name reported by
		mount(8), or if it represents a block  device,	named  in  the
		mount  output  and  associated	with a mounted directory name.
		When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
		be  file  system names, and lsof will complain if any are not.
		This can be useful, for example, when  the  file  system  name
		(mounted-on  device)  isn't  a block device.  This happens for
		some CD-ROM file systems.

		When -f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
		be  simple  files.   Thus, for example, the ``-f /'' arguments
		direct lsof to search for open files with a `/' path name, not
		all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

		Be  careful  to	 make sure +f is properly terminated and isn't
		followed by a character (e.g., of  the	file  or  file	system
		name)  that  might  be taken as a parameter.  For example, use
		``--'' after +f as in this example.

		     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name

		The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
		requested  with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally inhib‐
		ited,  and  is	not  available	for  some  dialects  -	 e.g.,
		/proc-based Linux.  When the prefix to f is a plus sign (`+'),
		these characters request file structure information:

		     c	  file structure use count
		     f	  file structure address
		     g	  file flag abbreviations
		     G	  file flags in hexadecimal
		     n	  file structure node address

		When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the
		listing of the indicated values.

		File   structure   addresses,  use  counts,  flags,  and  node
		addresses may be used to detect more readily  identical	 files
		inherited  by  child  processes	 and identical files in use by
		different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by out‐
		put  columns holding the values and listed to identify identi‐
		cal file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK  or
		Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f	This  option  specifies	 a character list, f, that selects the
		fields to be output for processing by another program, and the
		character that terminates each output field.  Each field to be
		output is specified with a single character in f.   The	 field
		terminator  defaults  to  NL, but may be changed to NUL (000).
		See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of
		the  field  identification  characters	and  the  field output
		process.

		When the field selection character list is empty,  all	fields
		are  selected  (except	the raw device field for compatibility
		reasons) and the NL field terminator is used.

		When the field selection character list contains only  a  zero
		(`0'),	all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
		for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
		used.

		Other combinations of fields and their associated field termi‐
		nator character must be set with explicit  entries  in	f,  as
		described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

		When  a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
		not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -  specifica‐
		tion of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
		listing of the item.

		When the field selection character list	 contains  the	single
		character  `?',	 lsof  will  display  a help list of the field
		identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as  your
		shell requires.)

       -g [s]	This  option  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
		whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers are
		in  the	 comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,456''.
		(There should be no spaces in the set.)

		Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed  set	before
		participating in AND option selection.

		The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
		When specified without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]	This option selects the listing of files any of whose Internet
		address	 matches the address specified in i.  If no address is
		specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and
		x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

		If  -i4	 or  -i6  is specified with no following address, only
		files of the indicated IP version,  IPv4  or  IPv6,  are  dis‐
		played.	  (An  IPv6  specification  may	 be  used  only if the
		dialects  supports  IPv6,  as  indicated   by	``[46]''   and
		``IPv[46]''  in lsof's -h or -?	 output.)  Sequentially speci‐
		fying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying  -i,  and
		vice-versa.   Specifying  -i4,	or -i6 after -i is the same as
		specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

		Multiple addresses (up to a limit of  100)  may	 be  specified
		with  multiple	-i  options.   (A  port number or service name
		range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
		ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

		An  Internet address is specified in the form (Items in square
		brackets are optional.):

		[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

		where:
		     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
			  that applies to the following address.
			  '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
			  dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
			  '6' is specified, the following address
			  applies to all IP versions.
		     protocol is a protocol name - TCP or UDP.
		     hostname is an Internet host name.	 Unless a
			  specific IP version is specified, open
			  network files associated with host names
			  of all versions will be selected.
		     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
			  dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
			  colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
			  UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
			  version is selected, only its numeric
			  addresses may be specified.
		     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
			  or a list of them.
		     port is a port number, or a list of them.

		IPv6 options may be used only if  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
		IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and spec‐
		ify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
		of  the	 -i  option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is
		supported.

		IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if  network
		file  selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names
		and addresses may not be specified if network  file  selection
		is  limited  to	 IPv4  with  -i	 4.  When an open IPv4 network
		file's address is mapped in an IPv6 address, the  open	file's
		type  will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be selected
		by '6', not '4'.

		At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR  hostname
		, hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The `@' character,
		leading the host specification, is always required; as is  the
		`:',  leading the port specification.  Specify either hostname
		or hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port	number
		list.	If  a service name list is specified, the protocol may
		also need to be specified if the TCP and UDP port numbers  for
		the service name are different.	 Use any case - lower or upper
		- for protocol.

		Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
		entries	 are  separated	 by  commas  and  whose	 numeric range
		entries are separated by minus signs.  There may be no	embed‐
		ded spaces, and all service names must belong to the specified
		protocol.  Since service  names	 may  contain  embedded	 minus
		signs,	the  staring entry of a range can't be a service name;
		it can be a port number, however.

		Here are some sample addresses:

		     -i6 - IPv6 only
		     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
		     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
		     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
			  3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
		     UDP:who - UDP who service port
		     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
		     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
			  service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
		     tcp@bar:smtp-nameserver - TCP, ports smtp through
			  nameserver, host bar
		     :time - either TCP or UDP time service port

       -k k	This option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place  of
		/vmunix,  /mach,  etc.	This option is not available under AIX
		on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l	This option inhibits the conversion  of	 user  ID  numbers  to
		login  names.	It  is	also  useful when login name lookup is
		working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This option enables (`+') or disables  (`-')  the  listing  of
		file link counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't
		available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

		When +L is specified without  a	 following  number,  all  link
		counts will be listed.	When -L is specified (the default), no
		link counts will be listed.

		When +L is followed by a number,  only	files  having  a  link
		count  less  than  that number will be listed.	(No number may
		follow -L.)  A specification of the form ``+L1''  will	select
		open  files  that  have been unlinked.	A specification of the
		form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on
		the specified file system.

		For  other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a
		post-processing script or program.

       -m m	This option specifies a kernel memory file,  c,	 in  place  of
		/dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

       +|-M	Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper regis‐
		trations for local TCP and UDP ports.  The  default  reporting
		mode  is  set  by  the	lsof  builder  with the HASPMAPENABLED
		#define in the dialect's machine.h header file; lsof  is  dis‐
		tributed  with	the  HASPMAPENABLED  #define  deactivated,  so
		portmapper reporting  is  disabled  by	default	 and  must  be
		requested  with	 +M.   Specifying lsof's -h or -?  option will
		report the default mode.   Disabling  portmapper  registration
		when  it  is  already  disabled	 or  enabling  it when already
		enabled is acceptable.	in a warning.

		When portmapper registration reporting is enabled,  lsof  dis‐
		plays  the  portmapper	registration (if any) for local TCP or
		UDP ports in square brackets immediately  following  the  port
		numbers	  or   service	 names	 -  e.g.,  ``:1234[name]''  or
		``:name[100083]''.  The registration information may be a name
		or  number, depending on what the registering program supplied
		to the portmapper when it registered the port.

		When portmapper registration reporting is  enabled,  lsof  may
		run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
		the portmapper becomes	congested  or  stopped.	  Reverse  the
		reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration report‐
		ing is slowing or blocking lsof.

		For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof consid‐
		ers  a TCP or UDP port local if: it is found in the local part
		of its containing kernel structure; or if it is located in the
		foreign	 part of its containing kernel structure and the local
		and foreign Internet addresses are  the	 same;	or  if	it  is
		located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure
		and  the   foreign   Internet	address	  is   INADDR_LOOPBACK
		(127.0.0.1).   This  rule  may	make  lsof ignore some foreign
		ports on machines with multiple interfaces  when  the  foreign
		Internet  address  is  on a different interface from the local
		one.

		See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives	 its  location.)   for
		further	  discussion   of  portmapper  registration  reporting
		issues.

       -n	This option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host
		names  for network files.  Inhibiting conversion may make lsof
		run faster.  It is also useful when host name  lookup  is  not
		working properly.

       -N	This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o	This  option directs lsof to display file offset at all times.
		It causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to  be  changed  to
		OFFSET.	  Note:	 on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accu‐
		rate or consistent file offset	information  from  its	kernel
		data  sources,	sometimes  just	 for particular kinds of files
		(e.g., socket files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The  FAQ  section
		gives its location.)  for more information.

		The  -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both
		be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays	 what‐
		ever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
		the type of the file.

       -o o	This option defines the number of decimal  digits  (o)	to  be
		printed	 after the ``0t'' for a file offset before the form is
		switched to ``0x...''.	An o value of zero (unlimited) directs
		lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

		This  option  does  NOT	 direct	 lsof to display offset at all
		times; specify -o (without a  trailing	number)	 to  do	 that.
		This  option  only specifies the number of digits after ``0t''
		in either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.	 Thus,
		for  example,  to  direct  lsof to display offset at all times
		with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

		     -o -o 10
		or
		     -oo10

		The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is  normally
		8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
		description of the -o o option in the output of the -h	or  -?
		option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O	This  option  directs  lsof  to bypass the strategy it uses to
		avoid being blocked by some kernel operations  -  i.e.,	 doing
		them  in  forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
		and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for	 more  information  on
		kernel operations that may block lsof.

		While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
		may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
		a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s	This  option  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
		whose ID numbers are in the  comma-separated  set  s  -	 e.g.,
		``123''	 or  ``123,456''.   (There  should be no spaces in the
		set.)

		Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a  single  ORed  set
		before participating in AND option selection.

       -P	This  option  inhibits	the conversion of port numbers to port
		names for network files.  Inhibiting the conversion  may  make
		lsof  run  a  little faster.  It is also useful when host name
		lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t] This option puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof  lists  open
		files  as selected by other options, delays t seconds (default
		fifteen), then	repeats	 the  listing,	delaying  and  listing
		repetitively  until stopped by a condition defined by the pre‐
		fix to the option.

		If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.	 Lsof must  be
		terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

		If  the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle no
		open files are listed - and of course  when  lsof  is  stopped
		with  an  interrupt  or	 quit  signal.	 When repeat mode ends
		because no files are listed, the process  exit	code  will  be
		zero  if  any  open  files were ever listed; one, if none were
		ever listed.

		Lsof marks the end of each listing:  if	 field	output	is  in
		progress  (the	-F,  option has been specified), the marker is
		`m'; otherwise the marker is ``========''.  The marker is fol‐
		lowed by a NL character.

		Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi‐
		cient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively  from  a
		shell script, for example.

		To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec‐
		ification of other lsof selection options, so  the  amount  of
		kernel	memory	access	lsof  does  will be kept to a minimum.
		Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c,  -g,  -p,
		-u - are the most efficient selectors.

		Repeat	mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the
		-F, option description) and a supervising awk or Perl  script,
		or a C program.

       -R	This  option directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentifi‐
		cation number in the PPID column.

       -s	This option directs lsof to display file size  at  all	times.
		It  causes  the	 SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to
		SIZE.  If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

		The -o (without	 a  following  decimal	digit  count)  and  -s
		options	 are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.
		When neither is specified, lsof displays whatever value - size
		or offset - is appropriate and available for the type of file.

		Since  some  types  of	files don't have true sizes - sockets,
		FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
		amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]	This  option  specifies an optional time-out seconds value for
		kernel functions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2)  -  that
		might  otherwise  deadlock.   The  minimum  for	 t is two; the
		default, fifteen; when no value is specified, the  default  is
		used.

		See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]	This  option  controls	the reporting of some TCP/TPI informa‐
		tion, also  reported  by  netstat(1),  following  the  network
		addresses.  In normal output the information appears in paren‐
		theses, each item except state identified by a	keyword,  fol‐
		lowed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

		     <TCP or TPI state name>
		     QR=<read queue length>
		     QS=<send queue length>
		     WR=<window read length>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write length> (not all dialects)

		When  the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
		PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with  a  `T'  leading
		character,  and	 the  TCP  or  TPI  state  name has the prefix
		``ST=''.

		-T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI  informa‐
		tion reporting.

		-T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
		TCP/TPI information:

		     q	  selects queue length reporting.
		     s	  selects state reporting.
		     w	  selects window size reporting (not
			  all dialects).

		State is reported by default.  The -h or -?  help  output  for
		the  -T	 option will show whether window size reporting can be
		requested.

		When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed
		by  one or more selection characters - the displaying of state
		is disabled by default, and it	must  be  explicitly  selected
		again  in  the characters following -T.	 (In effect, then, the
		default is equivalent to -Ts.)	For example, if queue  lengths
		and state are desired, use -Tqs.

       -t	This  option  specifies	 that lsof should produce terse output
		with process identifiers only and no header -  e.g.,  so  that
		the  output  may be piped to kill(1).  This option selects the
		-w option.

       -u s	This option selects the listing of files for  the  user	 whose
		login  names or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated set
		s - e.g., ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no  spa‐
		ces in the set.)

		Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single
		ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

		If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes  a
		negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
		user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
		selection  is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections; it
		is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
		the  listing  of  the  files  of the process.  For example, to
		direct lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to  root
		processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U	This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v	This  option  selects the listing of lsof version information,
		including: revision number; when  the  lsof  binary  was  con‐
		structed;  who	constructed  the binary and where; the name of
		the compiler used to construct the lsof	 binary;  the  version
		number	of  the	 compiler when readily available; the compiler
		and loader flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
		information, typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V	This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to
		list and failed to find - command names, file names,  Internet
		addresses  or  files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and
		UIDs.

		When other options  are	 ANDed	to  search  options,  or  com‐
		pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
		not report that it failed to find a search item when an	 ANDed
		option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
		file containing the located search item.

		For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report
		a  failure  to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and may not
		list any, if none have a file descriptor  number  of  999.   A
		similar	 situtation arises when HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECU‐
		RITY are defined at compile time and they prevent the  listing
		of open files.

       +|-w	Enables	 (+)  or  disables (-) the suppression of warning mes‐
		sages.

		The lsof builder may choose to have warning messages  disabled
		or  enabled  by default.  The default warning message state is
		indicated in the output of the -h or  -?   option.   Disabling
		warning	 messages  when	 they are already disabled or enabling
		them when already enabled is acceptable.

		The -t option selects the -w option.

       -X	This is a dialect-specific option.

	   AIX:
		WARNING: use of this option on a busy AIX system  might	 cause
		an  application process to hang so completely that it can nei‐
		ther be killed nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen  or
		had a report of it, but I think the possibility exists.

		This  IBM  AIX	RISC/System 6000 -X option directs lsof to use
		the kernel readx() function.  (By default use  of  readx()  is
		disabled.)  On AIX 5L and above lsof may need setuid-root per‐
		mission to perform the actions this option requests.

		The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be  restricted
		to  processes  whose real UID is root.	If that has been done,
		the -X option will not appear in the -h	 or  -?	  help	output
		unless	the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
		lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by  default
		it will appear in the help output.

		When  AIX  readx()  use	 is  disabled, lsof may not be able to
		report information for all text and  loader  file  references,
		but  it	 may  also  avoid exacerbating an AIX kernel directory
		search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

		When readx() is enabled, lsof will attempt to report  informa‐
		tion  on  the text file being executed by each process and the
		shared libraries it uses.

		The readx() function, used by lsof or any  other  program,  to
		access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
		Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's  dir_search()
		function erroneously to believe that part of an in-memory copy
		of a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another  applica‐
		tion  process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search
		the  directory	-  e.g.,  by  using  open(2)   -   can	 cause
		dir_search()  to  loop	forever,  thus hanging the application
		process.

		Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ  section	gives  its  location.)
		and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more com‐
		plete description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its  APAR,  and
		methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

       --	The  double minus sign option is a marker that signals the end
		of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example,  when  the
		first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
		when the absence of a value for the last keyed option must  be
		signified  by  the  presence  of a minus sign in the following
		option and before the start of the file names.

       names	These are path names of	 specific  files  to  list.   Symbolic
		links  are  resolved  before use.  The first name may be sepa‐
		rated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

		If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or  the
		device	of  the file system, lsof will list all the files open
		on the file system.  To be considered a file system, the  name
		must  match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or
		match the name of a block device associated with a  mounted-on
		directory  name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to
		consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
		(-f).

		If  name  is  a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on
		directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu‐
		lar  file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to pro‐
		cesses that have it open as a file or  as  a  process-specific
		directory,  such as the root or current working directory.  To
		request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
		use the +d s and +D D options.

		If  a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files -
		e. g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list  all  the  associated
		multipled   files   on	the  device  that  are	open  -	 e.g.,
		/dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

		If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will  search  for
		it  by	the  characters	 of  the name alone - exactly as it is
		specified and is recorded  in  the  kernel  socket  structure.
		Specifying  a  relative	 path - e.g., ./file - in place of the
		file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file -  won't	 work  because
		lsof  must match the characters you specify with what it finds
		in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

		If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open	 files
		whose device and inode match that of the specified path name.

		If  you	 have also specified the -b option, the only names you
		may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
		supplies  alternate  device  numbers.  See the AVOIDING KERNEL
		BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa‐
		tion.

		Multiple  file	names  are  joined in a single ORed set before
		participating in AND option selection.

AFS
       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and  AFS
       versions):

	    AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
	    HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
	    Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
	    Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not been tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented,  lsof  may
       recognize  AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties recog‐
       nizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects	 when  AFS  kernel  support is implemented via dynamic modules
       whose addresses do not appear in the kernel's variable name  list.   In
       that  case,  lsof  may  have to guess at the identity of AFS files, and
       might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that  is
       needed  for  calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof can't com‐
       pute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect  implementations  of  lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in  the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more infor‐
       mation about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they  affect  lsof
       options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name
       cache operations, lsof can't identify  path  name  components  for  AFS
       files.

SECURITY
       Lsof  has  three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its
       default compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with  it.
       Second,	by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable device
       cache file in the home directory of the	real  user  ID	that  executes
       lsof.   (The  list-all-open-files and device cache features may be dis‐
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alter‐
       nate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting  the	 listing  of  all open files is controlled by the com‐
       pile-time HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When  HASSECURITY
       is  defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open files.
       The non-root user may list only open files of processes with  the  same
       user  IDentification  number  as	 the  real  user ID number of the lsof
       process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined,	anyone
       may  list  open	socket	files,	provided they are selected with the -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option,  gives  the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See  the	 Security section of the 0README file of the lsof distribution
       for information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and  HASNOSOCKSE‐
       CURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is controlled by the compile-time HASDCACHE  option.   See  the	DEVICE
       CACHE  FILE  section and the sections that follow it for details on how
       its path is formed.  For security considerations	 it  is	 important  to
       note  that  in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID under
       which lsof is executed is root, the device cache file will  be  written
       in  root's  home	 directory  - e.g., / or /root.	 When HASDCACHE is not
       defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in  response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output  will
       have no -D option description.

       Before  you  decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining  all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion of
       it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ  (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN  IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the  -k	and  -m options, lsof checks the user's authority to read them
       with access(2).	This is intended to  prevent  whatever	special	 power
       lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This section describes the information lsof lists for each  open	 file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof only outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3))	ASCII  charac‐
       ters.   Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms: the
       C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g., ``^@'');  or
       hexadecimal  leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space is non-print‐
       able in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee‐
       ing  that  each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each
       column is separated from its predecessor by at least one space.

       COMMAND	  contains the first nine characters of the name of  the  UNIX
		  command  associated with the process.	 If a non-zero w value
		  is specified to the +c w option,  the	 column	 contains  the
		  first	 w  characters of the name of the UNIX command associ‐
		  ated with the process.

		  If w is less than the length of  the	column	title,	``COM‐
		  MAND'', it will be raised to that length.

		  If  a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the col‐
		  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com‐
		  mand associated with the process.

		  All  command name characters maintained by the kernel in its
		  structures are displayed in field output  when  the  command
		  name	descriptor  (`c')  is  specified.   See the OUTPUT FOR
		  OTHER COMMANDS section for information  on  selecting	 field
		  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID	  is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       PPID	  is  the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.
		  It is only displayed when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID	  is the process group IDentification number  associated  with
		  the  process.	  It  is only displayed when the -g option has
		  been specified.

       USER	  is the user ID number or login name of the user to whom  the
		  process  belongs,  usually  the  same	 as reported by ps(1).
		  However, on Linux USER is the user ID number or  login  that
		  owns	the  directory	in  /proc where lsof finds information
		  about the process.  Usually that is the same value  reported
		  by  ps(1),  but  may differ when the process has changed its
		  effective user ID.   (See  the  -l  option  description  for
		  information  on  when a user ID number or login name is dis‐
		  played.)

       FD	  is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

		       cwd  current working directory;
		       Lnn  library references (AIX);
		       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
		       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
		       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
		       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
		       mem  memory-mapped file;
		       mmap memory-mapped device;
		       pd   parent directory;
		       rtd  root directory;
		       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
		       txt  program text (code and data);
		       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

		  FD is followed by one of these  characters,  describing  the
		  mode under which the file is open:

		       r for read access;
		       w for write access;
		       u for read and write access;
		       space if mode unknown and no lock
			    character follows;
		       `-' if mode unknown and lock
			    character follows.

		  The  mode character is followed by one of these lock charac‐
		  ters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

		       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
		       r for read lock on part of the file;
		       R for a read lock on the entire file;
		       w for a write lock on part of the file;
		       W for a write lock on the entire file;
		       u for a read and write lock of any length;
		       U for a lock of unknown type;
		       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of  the
		  file;
		       X  for  an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the	entire
		  file;
		       space if there is no lock.

		  See the LOCKS section	 for  more  information	 on  the  lock
		  information character.

		  The  FD column contents constitutes a single field for pars‐
		  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE	  is the type of the node associated with  the	file  -	 e.g.,
		  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

		  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

		  or  ``IPv6''	for  an	 open  IPv6 network file - even if its
		  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

		  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

		  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

		  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

		  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

		  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

		  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

		  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

		  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

		  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

		  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

		  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

		  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

		  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

		  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

		  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

		  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

		  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

		  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

		  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

		  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

		  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

		  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

		  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

		  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

		  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

		  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

		  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

		  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

		  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

		  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

		  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

		  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

		  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

		  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

		  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

		  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

		  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

		  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

		  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

		  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

		  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

		  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

		  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

		  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

		  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

		  or ``POLP'' for an old format	 /proc	light  weight  process
		  file;

		  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

		  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

		  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

		  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

		  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

		  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

		  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

		  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

		  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

		  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

		  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

		  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

		  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

		  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

		  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

		  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

		  or  ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown
		  type;

		  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

		  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f  has  been
		  specified to +f;

       FCT	  contains  the	 file  reference  count	 from  the kernel file
		  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f,	 this  field  contains
		  the  contents	 of  the  f_flag[s]  member of the kernel file
		  structure and the kernel's per-process open file  flags  (if
		  available);  `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;
		  `g', as short-hand names; two lists may  be  displayed  with
		  entries  separated by commas, the lists separated by a semi‐
		  colon (`;'); the first list may contain short-hand names for
		  f_flag[s] values from the following table:

		       AIO	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
		       AP	 append
		       ASYN	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
		       BAS	 block, test, and set in use
		       BKIU	 block if in use
		       BL	 use block offsets
		       BSK	 block seek
		       CA	 copy avoid
		       CLON	 clone
		       CLRD	 CL read
		       CR	 create
		       DF	 defer
		       DFI	 defer IND
		       DFLU	 data flush
		       DIR	 direct
		       DLY	 delay
		       DOCL	 do clone
		       DSYN	 data-only integrity
		       EX	 open for exec
		       EXCL	 exclusive open
		       FSYN	 synchronous writes
		       GCDF	 defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GCMK	 mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GTTY	 accessed via /dev/tty
		       HUP	 HUP in progress
		       KERN	 kernel
		       KIOC	 kernel-issued ioctl
		       LCK	 has lock
		       LG	 large file
		       MBLK	 stream message block
		       MK	 mark
		       MNT	 mount
		       MSYN	 multiplex synchronization
		       NB	 non-blocking I/O
		       NBDR	 no BDRM check
		       NBIO	 SYSV non-blocking I/O
		       NBF	 n-buffering in effect
		       NC	 no cache
		       ND	 no delay
		       NDSY	 no data synchronization
		       NET	 network
		       NMFS	 NM file system
		       NOTO	 disable background stop
		       NSH	 no share
		       NTTY	 no controlling TTY
		       OLRM	 OLR mirror
		       PAIO	 POSIX asynchronous I/O
		       PP	 POSIX pipe
		       R	 read
		       RAIO	 Reliant UNIX RAIO request
		       RC	 file and record locking cache
		       REV	 revoked
		       RSH	 shared read
		       RSYN	 read synchronization
		       SL	 shared lock
		       SOCK	 socket
		       SQSH	 Sequent shared set on open
		       SQSV	 Sequent SVM set on open
		       SQR	 Sequent set repair on open
		       SQS1	 Sequent full shared open
		       SQS2	 Sequent partial shared open
		       STPI	 stop I/O
		       SWR	 synchronous read
		       SYN	 file integrity while writing
		       TCPM	 avoid TCP collision
		       TR	 truncate
		       W	 write
		       WKUP	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       WTG	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       VH	 vhangup pending
		       VTXT	 virtual text
		       XL	 exclusive lock

		  this	list of names was derived from F* #define's in dialect
		  header   files   <fcntl.h>,	<linux</fs.h>,	 sys/fcntl.c>,
		  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;	 see the lsof.h header
		  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
		  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

		  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
		  names for kernel per-process open file flags from  this  ta‐
		  ble:

		       ALLC	 allocated
		       BR	 the file has been read
		       BHUP	 activity stopped by SIGHUP
		       BW	 the file has been written
		       CLSG	 closing
		       CX	 close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
		       MP	 memory-mapped
		       LCK	 lock was applied
		       RSVW	 reserved wait
		       SHMT	 UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
		       USE	 in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID	  (or  INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique identi‐
		  fier for the file node (usually the kernel  vnode  or	 inode
		  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
		  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE	  contains the device numbers,	separated  by  commas,	for  a
		  character  special, block special, regular, directory or NFS
		  file;

		  or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under DEC OSF/1,
		  Digital UNIX, or Tru64 UNIX;

		  or  the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket
		  stream;

		  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The
		  kernel  reference  address may be used for FIFO's, for exam‐
		  ple.);

		  or the base address or device name of a Linux	 AX.25	socket
		  device.

		  Usually only the lower thirty two bits of DEC OSF/1, Digital
		  UNIX, or Tru64 UNIX kernel addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
		  is the size of the file or the  file	offset	in  bytes.   A
		  value	 is  displayed in this column only if it is available.
		  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropri‐
		  ate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

		  On  some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consis‐
		  tent file offset information from its kernel	data  sources,
		  sometimes  just  for particular kinds of files (e.g., socket
		  files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g.,
		  sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for their sizes the
		  content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer  descriptors
		  (e.g.,  socket  buffer  size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)
		  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)
		  for more information.

		  The  file  size  is displayed in decimal; the offset is nor‐
		  mally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it  con‐
		  tains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ``0x''
		  if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult  the	 -o  o	option
		  description  for information on when 8 might default to some
		  other value.)

		  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an  offset  when
		  the  column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its
		  title is SIZE/OFF).

		  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
		  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
		  column OFFSET.  The offset  always  begins  with  ``0t''  or
		  ``0x'' as described above.

		  The  lsof  user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x''
		  with the -o o option.	  Consult  its	description  for  more
		  information.

		  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
		  size (or nothing if no size is  available)  and  labels  the
		  column  SIZE.	 The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive;
		  they can't both be specified.

		  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't	reside
		  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
		  about the current size or position of	 the  file  if	it  is
		  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NODE	  is the node number of a local file;

		  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

		  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

		  or ``STR'' for a stream;

		  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME	  is  the name of the mount point and file system on which the
		  file resides;

		  or the name of a file specified in the names	option	(after
		  any symbolic links have been resolved);

		  or the name of a character special or block special device;

		  or  the  local  and  remote  Internet addresses of a network
		  file; the local host name or IP  number  is  followed	 by  a
		  colon	 (':'),	 the  port,  ``->'',  and  the two-part remote
		  address; IP addresses may be reported as numbers  or	names,
		  depending  on	 the +|-M, -n, and -P options; colon-separated
		  IPv6	numbers	 are  enclosed	in   square   brackets;	  IPv4
		  INADDR_ANY  and  IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and
		  zero port numbers are represented by an  asterisk  ('*');  a
		  UDP  destination  address  may  be followed by the amount of
		  time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the  destina‐
		  tion;	 TCP  and  UDP	remote	addresses  may	be followed by
		  TCP/TPI information in parentheses - state (e.g.,  ``(ESTAB‐
		  LISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue  sizes,  and window sizes
		  (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what netstat(1)
		  reports; see the -T option description or the description of
		  the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT  FOR  OTHER  PROGRAMS  for  more
		  information on state, queue size, and window size;

		  or  the  address  or	name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly
		  including a stream clone device name, a file system object's
		  path	name,  local and foreign kernel addresses, socket pair
		  information, and a bound vnode address;

		  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

		  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

		  or a stream character device name, followed  by  ``->''  and
		  the stream name;

		  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
		  module names, separated by ``->'';

		  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as  many  components
		  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache
		  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
		  more information.);

		  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
		  address;

		  or ``COMMON:'', followed by  the  vnode  device  information
		  structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

		  or  the  address family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed
		  by fourteen comma-separated  bytes  of  a  non-Internet  raw
		  socket address;

		  or  the  HP-UX  x.25	local address, followed by the virtual
		  connection number (if any), followed by the  remote  address
		  (if any);

		  or  ``(dead)'' for disassociated DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, or
		  Tru64 UNIX files - typically terminal files that  have  been
		  flagged with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

		  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of the
		  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

		  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones  of
		  the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of
		  the file;

		  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 7, 8,  or  9  UNIX
		  domain  socket,  created by the socketpair(3N) network func‐
		  tion;

		  or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have  a  protocol
		  block	 associated  with  them,  optionally  followed	by ``,
		  CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has  been  disabled,
		  or  ``,  CANTRCVMORE''  if  receiving on the socket has been
		  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

		  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
		  in  the  form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses
		  by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the  connection
		  state;

		  or  ``dgram''	 or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
		  above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets,	followed  by  a	 colon
		  (':')	 and  the  local path name when available, followed by
		  ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address  in
		  hexadecimal when available.

       For  dialects  that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file
       to  be  attached	 to  another   with   fattach(3C),   lsof   will   add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''	   to	 the	NAME   column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will  be	 ``<-''	 if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose
       address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode  address  of
       this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omit‐
       ted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

LOCKS
       Lsof can't adequately report the wide  variety  of  UNIX	 dialect  file
       locks  in a single character.  What it reports in a single character is
       a compromise between the information it finds in	 the  kernel  and  the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only reports the status of the first lock it encounters.	 If  it	 is  a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       - i.e., `r', `w', or `x'	 -  rather  than  the  upper  case  equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally  lsof	can  only  report  on locks held by local processes on
       local files.  When a local process sets a lock on  a  remotely  mounted
       (e.g.,  NFS)  file,  the	 remote	 server	 host usually records the lock
       state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and  in
       all  versions  above  2.4,  the	Solaris	 kernel records information on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.	  Consult  the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is  suitable
       for  processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C
       program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a
       leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)	 The data of the field
       follows	immediately  after  the	 field	identification	character  and
       extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and  file  sets.   A
       process	set  begins  with a field whose identifier is `p' (for process
       IDentifier (PID)).  It extends to the beginning of the next  PID	 field
       or  the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever comes
       first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify  the  com‐
       mand,  the  process group IDentification (PGID) number, and the user ID
       (UID) number or login name.

       A file set begins with a	 field	whose  identifier  is  `f'  (for  file
       descriptor).   It  is followed by lines that describe the file's access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream  module  names.  It extends to the beginning of the next file or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field  identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other	fields
       may  be declared optionally in the field identifier character list that
       follows the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies  an
       item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - spec‐
       ification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR''	 -  also  selects  the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult  to  identify	file sets.  To help you avoid this difficulty,
       lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all  fields  with
       NL  terminators	(the  -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields
       with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither  -F  nor  -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These  are  the	fields	that  lsof will produce.  The single character
       listed first is the field identifier.

	    a	 file access mode
	    c	 process command name (all characters from proc or
		 user structure)
	    C	 file structure share count
	    d	 file's device character code
	    D	 file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    f	 file descriptor
	    F	 file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    G	 file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
	    i	 file's inode number
	    l	 file's lock status
	    L	 process login name
	    m	 marker between repeated output
	    n	 file name, comment, Internet address
	    N	 node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
	    o	 file's offset (decimal)
	    p	 process ID (always selected)
	    g	 process group ID
	    P	 protocol name
	    r	 raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    R	 parent process ID
	    s	 file's size (decimal)
	    S	 file's stream identification
	    t	 file's type
	    T	 TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
		 `=' is part of the prefix):
		     ST=<state>
		     QR=<read queue size>
		     QS=<write queue size>
		     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
		 (TPI state information and window sizes aren't
		   reported for all supported UNIX dialects. The
		   -h or -? help output for the -T option will
		   show whether window size reporting can be
		   requested.)
	    u	 process user ID
	    0	 use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
	    1-9	 dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
		 of -F? identifies the information to be found
		 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information  on	 these	characters  and	 their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.	 (Escape the `?' char‐
       acter as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As  an  example,	 ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID (`p'), command
       name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process  or  file  set,  only
       those  that  are	 available.   Some fields are mutually exclusive: file
       device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode  num‐
       ber  and	 protocol name; file name and stream identification; file size
       and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually  exclusive  sets
       will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally	 lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero)
       field identifier character may be specified to change the field	termi‐
       nator  character	 to  a	NUL  (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier to
       process with xargs (1), for example, or	with  programs	whose  quoting
       mechanisms  may	not  easily  cope  with the range of characters in the
       field output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends  each
       process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included in the lsof distribution.  The	first  is  a  C	 header	 file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification char‐
       acters, indexes for storing them in a table,  and  explanation  strings
       that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The  second  aid	 is a set of sample scripts that process field output,
       written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They're  located  in  the  scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The  third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test
       suite is written in C and uses field output  to	validate  the  correct
       operation  of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file
       of the  lsof  distribution.   The  library  uses	 the  first  aid,  the
       lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof  can  be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2),
       readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in  the  kernel,
       for  example,  when  the	 hosts	where  mounted NFS file systems reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers	and  child  processes,
       but  the	 techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to
       break a block, it will report the break with  an	 error	message.   The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default  timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?  option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two
       seconds,	 but  you should avoid small values, since slow system respon‐
       siveness can cause short timeouts to expire  unexpectedly  and  perhaps
       stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system
       information, it normally	 continues,  although  with  less  information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof  can  also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child
       processes when using the kernel functions that might block by  specify‐
       ing  the	 -O  option.  While this will allow lsof to start up with less
       overhead, it exposes lsof completely  to	 the  kernel  situations  that
       might block it.	Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You  can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option	 usually  requires  that  your	system	supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2)  kernel  functions.   See
       the  ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on alternate
       device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're  file
       system  names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and inode
       numbers of files listed with names in the  lsof	options,  and  the  -b
       option  prevents	 lsof  from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof only
       has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil‐
       ity  to	locate	files on file systems depends completely on the avail‐
       ability and accuracy of the alternates.	If no  alternates  are	avail‐
       able,  or  if  they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to locate files on
       the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that	 lsof  obtains
       from  your  system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able
       to resolve the links.  This is because the -b  option  causes  lsof  to
       avoid  the  kernel  readlink(2)	function  it  uses to resolve symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it  needs  to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs it to
       avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying  the  -w  option,
       but  if	you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers reported in
       the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it  can't  get
       information  about  a  mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2)
       kernel functions, or because you specified  the	-b  option,  lsof  can
       obtain  some of the information it needs - the device number and possi‐
       bly the file system type - from the system mount table.	When  that  is
       possible,  lsof	will  report  the device number it obtained.  (You can
       suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if your mount table is  supported  with  an
       /etc/mtab  or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding
       a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount points that do not  have	one  in	 their
       options strings.

       The  ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the file
       system's device number.	(Consult the st_dev field of the output of the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab	for  a
       file system remotely mounted via NFS:

	    nfs	 ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table
       file, especially for file systems that  are  mounted  from  remote  NFS
       servers.	  When	a  remote  server crashes and you want to identify its
       users by running lsof on one of its clients,  lsof  probably  won't  be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.	If it can obtain the file  system's  device  number  from  the
       mount  table,  it will be able to display the files open on the crashed
       NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab	 or  /etc/mnttab  file
       for  the	 mount table may still provide an alternative device number in
       their internal mount tables.  This  includes  AIX,  Apple  Darwin,  DEC
       OSF/1,  Digital	UNIX,  FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof
       knows how to obtain the alternative device number  for  these  dialects
       and  uses it when its attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is
       blocked.

       If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device  numbers  for
       file  systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:

	      lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning  messages  that  begin  ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof  is	 able  to  examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel
       facilities (e.g., the ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path()  function	under  Digital
       UNIX  or	 Tru64	UNIX)  on  some	 dialects  for most file system types,
       excluding AFS, and extract recently used path name components from  it.
       (AFS file system path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache.)

       Lsof  reports  the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
       can't report all components in a path, it reports in  the  NAME	column
       the  file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters, another
       space, and the name components it has located,  separated  by  the  `/'
       character.

       When  lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified -
       the extent to which it can report path name  components	for  the  same
       file  may  vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other running pro‐
       cesses can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name  cache  and
       replace them with others.

       Lsof's  use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can
       lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.	  This
       can  happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as a
       key (e.g., Linux and SCO OpenServer) and a key on  a  rapidly  changing
       file  system is reused.	If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the
       name cache entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a refer‐
       ence  to	 the  wrong entry in the cache.	 The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
       gives its location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

	    BSDI BSD/OS
	    DC/OSx
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX
	    FreeBSD
	    HP-UX
	    Linux
	    NetBSD
	    NEXTSTEP
	    OpenBSD
	    Reliant UNIX
	    Caldera OpenUNIX
	    SCO OpenServer
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare
	    Solaris

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

	    AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining  all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)
       functions can be time consuming.	 What's	 more,	the  information  that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof	 where
       it's  not  needed.)  The local system administrator who builds lsof can
       control the way the device cache file path is  formed,  selecting  from
       these options:

	    Path from the -D option;
	    Path from an environment variable;
	    System-wide path;
	    Personal path (the default);
	    Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state of device cache support.	The  help  output  lists  the  default
       read-mode  device  cache	 file  path  that is in effect for the current
       invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output  lists  the	read-only  and
       write  device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file  has	been  acciden‐
       tally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the compu‐
       tation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check	 (CRC)
       sum  on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with the
       file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file
       and  create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legiti‐
       mately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a	 device	 cache
       file  may  not  be  the	same  as the path to which it can legitimately
       write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device	 cache
       file,  it may choose a different path for writing it from the path from
       which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a  new	device
       cache  file.  (It's always available when specified without a path name
       argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the  device  cache  file  may
       need  to	 be  recreated.	  Since	 lsof compares the mtime of the device
       cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev	(or  /devices)	direc‐
       tory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that case
       lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device	 cache
       file.

       Whenever	 lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the
       real UID of the executing process, and its permission  modes  to	 0600,
       this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two  permissions	 of  the  lsof executable affect its ability to access
       device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system admin‐
       istrator when lsof is installed.

       The  first  and	rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect
       when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root, while  its  real
       (i.e.,  that  of the logged-on user) UID is not.	 The lsof distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

	    DC/OSx 1.1 for Pyramid systems
	    Reliant UNIX 5.4[34] for Pyramid systems

       The second and more common permission is setgid.	 It comes into	effect
       when  the  effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of the lsof
       process is set to one that can access kernel  memory  devices  -	 e.g.,
       ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An  lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the per‐
       mission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.	 When it  does
       that,  lsof  can	 allow more liberal device cache path formations.  The
       lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run  set‐
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

	    AIX 4.3.[23], 5L, and 5.[12]
	    Apple Darwin 1.[2-5], 5.x and 6.x for Power Macintosh systems
	    BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.[01]
	    FreeBSD 4.[2345678] and 5.[01] for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 5.[01] for Alpha and Sparc64 based systems
	    HP-UX 11.00
	    NetBSD 1.[456] for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0123] for x86-based systems
	    OpenStep 4.x
	    Caldera OpenUNIX 8
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.[46] for x86-based systems
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.[13] for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, and 9

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permis‐
       sions given to the executable don't apply to the device cache file.

	    Linux 2.1.72 and above (/proc-based lsof)

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The  -D	option	provides limited means for specifying the device cache
       file path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write	device
       cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to
       request that the cache file be built in a specific location  (b[path]);
       read  but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).	The b,
       r, and u functions are restricted  under	 some  conditions.   They  are
       restricted  when	 the  lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted  when  the	 lsof  process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section	for  a
       list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid per‐
       mission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to  read  device  information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof  to  read  the	 device	 cache
       file,  but  not	update	it.   When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device cache file path.  The r function is  always  available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not run‐
       ning setuid-root and surrenders its  setgid  permission,	 a  path  name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When  available,	 the  u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it  finds  the
       contents	 of  the  file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the	device
       cache  file,  but  only	to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents  of  the
       LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from
       the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable:  lsof will not write a device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its setgid
       permission.   (See  the	LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE
       ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable or change its name when  building  lsof.   Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The  local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by  a special system administration procedure when the system is booted
       or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined,	it  is
       lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?	 option.

       Lsof  will  never  write	 to  the system-wide device cache file path by
       default.	 It  must  be  explicitly  named  with	a  -D  function	 in  a
       root-owned  procedure.	Once  the file has been written, the procedure
       must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read  and  owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The  default  device  cache  file  path of the lsof distribution is one
       recorded in the home directory of the  real  UID	 that  executes	 lsof.
       Added  to  the  home  directory	is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the
       default.	 If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't find  the
       system-wide  device  cache  file.   This is the only time lsof uses two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the  exe‐
       cuting  host,  as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined
       to be the characters preceding the first	 `.'   in  the	gethostname(2)
       output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no `.'.

       The  device  cache  file	 belongs  to  the  user ID and is readable and
       writable by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are  0600.   Each  dis‐
       tinct  real  user  ID on a given host that executes lsof has a distinct
       device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes	device
       cache  files  in	 an NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents  a
       device  cache  file that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to
       write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect  or  out‐
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?	option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal	 device cache file.  The conversions used in the format speci‐
       fication are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If this option is defined by the local system administrator  when  lsof
       is  built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the	 path  at  the
       place  marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p'' conver‐
       sion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the  dialect's  machine.h
       header  file.   (It's  placed  right  after  the	 home directory in the
       default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home direc‐
       tory  is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and
       the HASPERSDC format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''),	 the  modified
       personal device cache file path is:

	    /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment	 variable  is  ignored	when  the lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache	file  path  if
       the  lsof  process  doesn't surrender setgid permission.	 (See the LSOF
       PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list  of
       implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       If,  for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device
       cache file paths by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  to
       name  it,  and  lsof  doesn't surrender its setgid permission, you will
       have to allow lsof to create device cache files at  the	standard  per‐
       sonal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The  local  system  administrator may: disable this option when lsof is
       built; change the name of the environment variable from	LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to  something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the personal
       path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component
       entirely.   Consult  the	 output of the -D?  option for the environment
       variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V
       option  is  specified, lsof will indicate the search items it failed to
       list.

       It returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able  to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdi‐
       rectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues
       a warning message and continues.	 That lsof will issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output - requested with the -h or >B -?	options -  with the message:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.	In this case, the out‐
       put from the help options will include the message:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after  lsof  has
       created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For  a  more  extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

	      lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

	      lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID  is
       1234, use:

	      lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming  the  UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 net‐
       work files, use:

	      lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of  host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

	      lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To  list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

	      lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'',  or  user	 ID  1234,  or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

	      lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

	      lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

	      lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

	      kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To  find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with
       the name /dev/log, use:

	      lsof /dev/log

       To find processes  with	open  files  on	 the  NFS  file	 system	 named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

	      lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

	      lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

	      lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field  output  for  each	process,  file
       descriptor,  file device number, and file inode number for each file of
       each process, use:

	      lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process  running  the
       lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

	      lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To  list	 the  current working directory of processes running a command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

	      lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To  find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form
       address, use:

	      lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To  find	 an  IP	 version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by an associated numeric colon-form address that  has  a  run  of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

	      lsof -i@[::1]

BUGS
       Since  lsof  reads  kernel  memory  in its search for open files, rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character	 (fol‐
       lowing  the  file  descriptor) is derived from a test of the first lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise	it  is
       limited	to  searching for files to which its user or its set-GID group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina‐
       tion address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1)  does.   For example, the major and minor device numbers that the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files  are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones that
       it reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted  (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The  support  for  /proc	 file  systems	is available only for BSD, DEC
       OSF/1, Digital UNIX, and	 Tru64	UNIX  dialects,	 Linux,	 and  dialects
       derived	from  SYSV  R4	-  e.g.,  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,  OpenBSD, Solaris,
       UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and	 file  size  -
       are  unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.   All
       entries	for  files  other than the current working directory, the root
       directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX,  and  Tru64  UNIX	 named
       pipes  by name, because their kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns
       an improper device number for a named pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01,  10.20,  and	 11.00
       locks  because  of  insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the
       kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section	gives  its  location.)
       for details.

       The  AIX	 SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file struc‐
       tures whose type (15) isn't defined in the AIX  /usr/include/sys/file.h
       header  file.   One  way	 to  create  such  file structures is to run X
       clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based  Linux	 lsof,
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LSOFDEVCACHE	 defines  the  path  to	 a device cache file.  See the
			 DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT	VARIABLE  sec‐
			 tion for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH	 defines  the  middle component of a modified personal
			 device cache file path.  See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL
			 DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked	 questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem	 kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem		 physical memory device

       /dev/swap	 system paging device

       .lsof_hostname	 lsof's	 device	 cache	file (The suffix, hostname, is
			 the first component of the host's  name  returned  by
			 gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof  was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue Univer‐
       sity.  Many others have contributed to lsof.   They're  listed  in  the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof	 distribution  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given a list
       of  some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains
       a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with  caution  -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof	 executables  are  available on lsof.itap.pur‐
       due.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that you build your
       own  from  the  sources.	  If you feel you must use a pre-compiled exe‐
       cutable, please read the cautions that appear in the  README  files  of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of
       the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof	 distribution  can  be	found  in  its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Lsof versions 2 and 3 have been tested under older UNIX dialects.  They
       are available  via  anonymous  ftp  from	 lsof.itap.purdue.edu  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof/OLD directory.

       access(2),  awk(1),  crash(1),  fattach(3C), ff(1), fstat(8), fuser(1),
       gethostname(2), isprint(3), kill(1),  lstat(2),	modload(8),  mount(8),
       netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2), stat(2), uname(1).

				 Revision-4.68			       LSOF(8)
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