CAL(1) BSD General Commands Manual CAL(1)NAME
cal, ncal — displays a calendar and the date of Easter
cal [-3hjy] [-A number] [-B number] [[month] year]
cal [-3hj] [-A number] [-B number] -m month [year]
ncal [-3hjJpwy] [-A number] [-B number] [-s country_code] [[month] year]
ncal [-3hJeo] [-A number] [-B number] [year]
ncal [-CN] [-H yyyy-mm-dd] [-d yyyy-mm]
The cal utility displays a simple calendar in traditional format and ncal
offers an alternative layout, more options and the date of Easter. The
new format is a little cramped but it makes a year fit on a 25x80 termi‐
nal. If arguments are not specified, the current month is displayed.
The options are as follows:
-h Turns off highlighting of today.
-J Display Julian Calendar, if combined with the -e option, display
date of Easter according to the Julian Calendar.
-e Display date of Easter (for western churches).
-j Display Julian days (days one-based, numbered from January 1).
Display the specified month. If month is specified as a decimal
number, it may be followed by the letter ‘f’ or ‘p’ to indicate
the following or preceding month of that number, respectively.
-o Display date of Orthodox Easter (Greek and Russian Orthodox
-p Print the country codes and switching days from Julian to Grego‐
rian Calendar as they are assumed by ncal. The country code as
determined from the local environment is marked with an asterisk.
Assume the switch from Julian to Gregorian Calendar at the date
associated with the country_code. If not specified, ncal tries
to guess the switch date from the local environment or falls back
to September 2, 1752. This was when Great Britain and her
colonies switched to the Gregorian Calendar.
-w Print the number of the week below each week column.
-y Display a calendar for the specified year.
-3 Display the previous, current and next month surrounding today.
Display the number of months after the current month.
Display the number of months before the current month.
-C Switch to cal mode.
-N Switch to ncal mode.
Use yyyy-mm as the current date (for debugging of date selec‐
Use yyyy-mm-dd as the current date (for debugging of highlight‐
A single parameter specifies the year (1–9999) to be displayed; note the
year must be fully specified: “cal 89” will not display a calendar for
1989. Two parameters denote the month and year; the month is either a
number between 1 and 12, or a full or abbreviated name as specified by
the current locale. Month and year default to those of the current sys‐
tem clock and time zone (so “cal -m 8” will display a calendar for the
month of August in the current year).
Not all options can be used together. For example “-3 -A 2 -B 3 -y -m 7”
would mean: show me the three months around the seventh month, three
before that, two after that and the whole year. ncal will warn about
A year starts on January 1.
SEE ALSOcalendar(3), strftime(3)HISTORY
A cal command appeared in Version 5 AT&T UNIX. The ncal command appeared
in FreeBSD 2.2.6.
The ncal command and manual were written by Wolfgang Helbig
The assignment of Julian–Gregorian switching dates to country codes is
historically naive for many countries.
Not all options are compatible and using them in different orders will
give varying results.
BSD March 14, 2009 BSD