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NEWLOCALE(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		  NEWLOCALE(3)

       newlocale, freelocale - create, modify, and free a locale object

       #include <locale.h>

       locale_t newlocale(int category_mask, const char *locale,
			  locale_t base);

       void freelocale(locale_t locobj);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       newlocale(), freelocale():
	   Since glibc 2.10:
		  _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 700
	   Before glibc 2.10:

       The  newlocale()	 function  creates a new locale object, or modifies an
       existing object, returning a reference to the new or modified object as
       the function result.  Whether the call creates a new object or modifies
       an existing object is determined by the value of base:

       *  If base is (locale_t) 0, a new object is created.

       *  If base refers to valid existing  locale  object  (i.e.,  an	object
	  returned  by	a  previous call to newlocale() or duplocale(3)), then
	  that object is modified by the call.	If the call is successful, the
	  contents of base are unspecified (in particular, the object referred
	  to by base may be freed, and a new object created).  Therefore,  the
	  caller  should  ensure  that	it stops using base before the call to
	  newlocale(), and should subsequently refer to	 the  modified	object
	  via  the  reference  returned	 as  the function result.  If the call
	  fails, the contents of base remain valid and unchanged.

       If base is the  special	locale	object	LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE  (see	duplo‐
       cale(3)),  or is not (locale_t) 0 and is not a valid locale object han‐
       dle, the behavior is undefined.

       The category_mask argument is a bit mask that specifies the locale cat‐
       egories that are to be set in a newly created locale object or modified
       in an existing object.  The mask is constructed by a bitwise OR of  the

       For each category specified in  category_mask,  the  locale  data  from
       locale  will  be	 used in the object returned by newlocale().  If a new
       locale object is being created, data for all categories	not  specified
       in category_mask is taken from the default ("POSIX") locale.

       The  following  preset  values of locale are defined for all categories
       that can be specified in category_mask:

	      A minimal locale environment for C language programs.

       "C"    Equivalent to "POSIX".

       ""     An implementation-defined native	environment  corresponding  to
	      the  values  of  the  LC_*  and  LANG environment variables (see

       The freelocale() function deallocates  the  resources  associated  with
       locobj, a locale object previously returned by a call to newlocale() or
       duplocale(3).  If locobj is LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE or	is  not	 valid	locale
       object handle, the results are undefined.

       Once a locale object has been freed, the program should make no further
       use of it.

       On success, newlocale() returns a handle that can be used in  calls  to
       duplocale(3),  freelocale(),  and  other functions that take a locale_t
       argument.  On error, newlocale() returns (locale_t) 0, and  sets	 errno
       to indicate the cause of the error.

       EINVAL One  or  more bits in category_mask do not correspond to a valid
	      locale category.

       EINVAL locale is NULL.

       ENOENT locale is not a string pointer referring to a valid locale.

       ENOMEM Insufficient memory to create a locale object.

       The newlocale() and freelocale() functions first	 appeared  in  version
       2.3 of the GNU C library.


       Each  locale  object created by newlocale() should be deallocated using

       The program below takes up to two command-line  arguments,  which  each
       identify	 locales.   The first argument is required, and is used to set
       the LC_NUMERIC category in a locale object created  using  newlocale().
       The  second  command-line argument is optional; if it is present, it is
       used to set the LC_TIME category of the locale object.

       Having created and initialized the  locale  object,  the	 program  then
       applies	it using uselocale(3), and then tests the effect of the locale
       changes by:

       1. Displaying a floating-point number with  a  fractional  part.	  This
	  output  will	be  affected by the LC_NUMERIC setting.	 In many Euro‐
	  pean-language locales, the fractional part of the  number  is	 sepa‐
	  rated from the integer part using a comma, rather than a period.

       2. Displaying  the date.	 The format and language of the output will be
	  affected by the LC_TIME setting.

       The following shell sessions show some example runs of this program.

       Set the LC_NUMERIC category to fr_FR (French):

	   $ ./a.out fr_FR
	   Fri Mar  7 00:25:08 2014

       Set the LC_NUMERIC category to fr_FR (French), and the LC_TIME category
       to it_IT (Italian):

	   $ ./a.out fr_FR it_IT
	   ven 07 mar 2014 00:26:01 CET

       Specify	the LC_TIME setting as an empty string, which causes the value
       to be taken from environment variable settings  (which,	here,  specify
       mi_NZ, New Zealand Māori):

	   $ LC_ALL=mi_NZ ./a.out fr_FR ""
	   Te Paraire, te 07 o Poutū-te-rangi, 2014 00:38:44 CET

   Program source
       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE 700
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <locale.h>
       #include <time.h>

       #define errExit(msg)    do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); \
			       } while (0)

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
	   char buf[100];
	   time_t t;
	   size_t s;
	   struct tm *tm;
	   locale_t loc, nloc;

	   if (argc < 2) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s locale1 [locale2]\n", argv[0]);

	   /* Create a new locale object, taking the LC_NUMERIC settings
	      from the locale specified in argv[1] */

	   loc = newlocale(LC_NUMERIC_MASK, argv[1], (locale_t) 0);
	   if (loc == (locale_t) 0)

	   /* If a second command-line argument was specified, modify the
	      locale object to take the LC_TIME settings from the locale
	      specified in argv[2]. We assign the result of this newlocale()
	      call to 'nloc' rather than 'loc', since in some cases, we might
	      want to preserve 'loc' if this call fails. */

	   if (argc > 2) {
	       nloc = newlocale(LC_TIME_MASK, argv[2], loc);
	       if (nloc == (locale_t) 0)
	       loc = nloc;

	   /* Apply the newly created locale to this thread */


	   /* Test effect of LC_NUMERIC */

	   printf("%8.3f\n", 123456.789);

	   /* Test effect of LC_TIME */

	   t = time(NULL);
	   tm = localtime(&t);
	   if (tm == NULL)

	   s = strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%c", tm);
	   if (s == 0)

	   printf("%s\n", buf);

	   /* Free the locale object */



       locale(1),   duplocale(3),   setlocale(3),   uselocale(3),   locale(5),

       This page is part of release 3.65 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of	the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at

Linux				  2014-03-12			  NEWLOCALE(3)

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