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VI(1)									 VI(1)

NAME
       ex, vi, view - text editors

SYNOPSIS
       ex [-eFGRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       vi [-eFGlRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       view [-eFGRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]

LICENSE
       The  vi	program	 is  freely redistributable.  You are welcome to copy,
       modify and share it with others under  the  conditions  listed  in  the
       LICENSE	file.	If any company (not individual!) finds vi sufficiently
       useful that you would have purchased it, or if any  company  wishes  to
       redistribute it, contributions to the authors would be appreciated.

DESCRIPTION
       Vi  is  a screen oriented text editor.  Ex is a line-oriented text edi‐
       tor.  Ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program, and it is
       possible	 to switch back and forth during an edit session.  View is the
       equivalent of using the -R (read-only) option of vi.

       This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions  of  the
       ex/vi  text  editors.   Nex/nvi	are intended as bug-for-bug compatible
       replacements for the original  Fourth  Berkeley	Software  Distribution
       (4BSD)  ex  and vi programs.  For the rest of this manual page, nex/nvi
       is used only when it's necessary to distinguish it  from	 the  historic
       implementations of ex/vi.

       This  manual  page  is  intended for users already familiar with ex/vi.
       Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the	editor
       before  this  manual page.  If you're in an unfamiliar environment, and
       you absolutely have to get work	done  immediately,  read  the  section
       after  the options description, entitled ``Fast Startup''.  It's proba‐
       bly enough to get you going.

       The following options are available:

       -c     Execute cmd immediately after starting the edit  session.	  Par‐
	      ticularly	 useful	 for  initial positioning in the file, however
	      cmd is not limited to positioning commands.  This is  the	 POSIX
	      1003.2 interface for the historic ``+cmd'' syntax.  Nex/nvi sup‐
	      ports both the old and new syntax.

       -e     Start editing in ex mode, as if the command name were ex.

       -F     Don't copy the entire file when first starting  to  edit.	  (The
	      default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file
	      during your edit session.)

       -l     Start editing with the lisp and showmatch options set.

       -G     Start editing in gtags mode, as if the gtagsmode option was set.

       -R     Start editing in read-only mode, as  if  the  command  name  was
	      view, or the readonly option was set.

       -r     Recover the specified files, or, if no files are specified, list
	      the files that could be recovered.  If no recoverable  files  by
	      the specified name exist, the file is edited as if the -r option
	      had not been specified.

       -S     Run with the secure edit option set, disallowing all  access  to
	      external programs.

       -s     Enter  batch  mode;  applicable only to ex edit sessions.	 Batch
	      mode is useful when running ex  scripts.	 Prompts,  informative
	      messages	and other user oriented message are turned off, and no
	      startup files or environment variables are read.	 This  is  the
	      POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic ``-'' argument.  Nex/nvi
	      supports both the old and new syntax.

       -t     Start editing at the specified tag.  (See ctags(1)).

       -w     Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines.

       -v     Start editing in vi mode, as if the command name was vi or view.

       Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard  input.   In  the  vi
       interface,  it is an error if standard input is not a terminal.	In the
       ex interface, if standard input is not a terminal, ex  will  read  com‐
       mands  from  it	regardless,  however, the session will be a batch mode
       session, exactly as if the -s option had been specified.

       Ex/vi exits 0 on success, and greater than 0 if an error occurs.

FAST STARTUP
       This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do  sim‐
       ple  editing  tasks  using  vi.	If you've never used any screen editor
       before, you're likely to have problems even with this simple  introduc‐
       tion.   In  that case you should find someone that already knows vi and
       have them walk you through this section.

       Vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost  the	entire
       screen, displaying part of the file on each screen line, except for the
       last line of the screen.	 The last line of the screen is used  for  you
       to give commands to vi, and for vi to give information to you.

       The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful edi‐
       tor, i.e. you are either entering text or you are  executing  commands,
       and  you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other.  You will
       be in command mode when you first start editing a file.	There are com‐
       mands  that  switch  you	 into  input mode.  There is only one key that
       takes you out of input mode, and that is the <escape> key.  (Key	 names
       are  written  using  less-than  and  greater-than signs, e.g.  <escape>
       means the ``escape'' key, usually labeled ``esc''  on  your  terminal's
       keyboard.)   If	you're	ever confused as to which mode you're in, keep
       entering the <escape> key until vi beeps at you.	 (Generally,  vi  will
       beep  at	 you  if you try and do something that's not allowed.  It will
       also display error messages.)

       To start editing a file, enter  the  command  ``vi  file_name<carriage-
       return>''.   The	 command you should enter as soon as you start editing
       is ``:set verbose showmode<carriage-return>''.  This will make the edi‐
       tor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the
       bottom of the screen.

       The commands to move around the file are:

       h      Move the cursor left one character.

       j      Move the cursor down one line.

       k      Move the cursor up one line.

       l      Move the cursor right one character.

       <cursor-arrows>
	      The cursor arrow keys should work, too.

       /text<carriage-return>
	      Search for the string ``text'' in the file, and move the	cursor
	      to its first character.

       The commands to enter new text are:

       a      Append new text, after the cursor.

       i      Insert new text, before the cursor.

       o      Open  a  new  line  below	 the  line the cursor is on, and start
	      entering text.

       O      Open a new line above the line  the  cursor  is  on,  and	 start
	      entering text.

       <escape>
	      Once you've entered input mode using the one of the a, i, O or o
	      commands, use <escape> to quit entering text and return to  com‐
	      mand mode.

       The commands to copy text are:

       yy     Copy the line the cursor is on.

       p      Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on.

       The commands to delete text are:

       dd     Delete the line the cursor is on.

       x      Delete the character the cursor is on.

       The commands to write the file are:

       :w<carriage-return>
	      Write  the  file	back to the file with the name that you origi‐
	      nally used as an argument on the vi command line.

       :w file_name<carriage-return>
	      Write the file back to the file with the name ``file_name''.

       The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

       :q<carriage-return>
	      Quit editing and leave vi (if you've modified the file, but  not
	      saved your changes, vi will refuse to quit).

       :q!<carriage-return>
	      Quit, discarding any modifications that you may have made.

       One final caution.  Unusual characters can take up more than one column
       on the screen, and long lines can take up more  than  a	single	screen
       line.   The  above  commands work on ``physical'' characters and lines,
       i.e. they affect the entire line no matter how  many  screen  lines  it
       takes  up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it
       takes up.

VI COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available in  the  command
       mode  of	 the  vi editor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a usage
       synopsis for the command character.

       [count] <control-A>
	      Search forward count times for the current word.

       [count] <control-B>
	      Page backwards count screens.

       [count] <control-D>
	      Scroll forward count lines.

       [count] <control-E>
	      Scroll forward count lines, leaving the current line and	column
	      as is, if possible.

       [count] <control-F>
	      Page forward count screens.

       <control-G>
	      Display the file information.

       <control-H>

       [count] h
	      Move the cursor back count characters in the current line.

       [count] <control-J>

       [count] <control-N>

       [count] j
	      Move  the	 cursor	 down count lines without changing the current
	      column.

       <control-L>

       <control-R>
	      Repaint the screen.

       [count] <control-M>

       [count] +
	      Move the cursor down count lines to the first nonblank character
	      of that line.

       [count] <control-P>

       [count] k
	      Move  the	 cursor	 up  count lines, without changing the current
	      column.

       <control-T>
	      Return to the most recent tag context.

       <control-U>
	      Scroll backwards count lines.

       <control-W>
	      Switch to the next lower screen in the window, or, to the	 first
	      screen if there are no lower screens in the window.

       <control-Y>
	      Scroll  backwards count lines, leaving the current line and col‐
	      umn as is, if possible.

       <control-Z>
	      Suspend the current editor session.

       <escape>
	      Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands.

       <control-]>
	      Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.	In  gtagsmode,	if  at
	      the  first  column of line, locate function references otherwise
	      function definitions.

       <control-^>
	      Switch to the most recently edited file.

       [count] <space>

       [count] l
	      Move the cursor forward count characters	without	 changing  the
	      current line.

       [count] ! motion shell-argument(s)
	      Replace text with results from a shell command.

       [count] # #|+|-
	      Increment or decrement the cursor number.

       [count] $
	      Move the cursor to the end of a line.

       %      Move to the matching character.

       &      Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line.

       '<character>

       `<character>
	      Return to a context marked by the character <character>.

       [count] (
	      Back up count sentences.

       [count] )
	      Move forward count sentences.

       [count] ,
	      Reverse find character count times.

       [count] -
	      Move to first nonblank of the previous line, count times.

       [count] .
	      Repeat the last vi command that modified text.

       /RE<carriage-return>

       /RE/ [offset]<carriage-return>

       ?RE<carriage-return>

       ?RE? [offset]<carriage-return>

       N

       n      Search forward or backward for a regular expression.

       0      Move to the first character in the current line.

       :      Execute an ex command.

       [count] ;
	      Repeat the last character find count times.

       [count] < motion

       [count] > motion
	      Shift lines left or right.

       @ buffer
	      Execute a named buffer.

       [count] A
	      Enter input mode, appending the text after the end of the line.

       [count] B
	      Move backwards count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] C
	      Change text from the current position to the end-of-line.

       [buffer] D
	      Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line.

       [count] E
	      Move forward count end-of-bigwords.

       [count] F <character>
	      Search  count times backward through the current line for <char‐
	      acter>.

       [count] G
	      Move to line count, or the last line of the file	if  count  not
	      specified.

       [count] H
	      Move  to	the  screen  line count - 1 lines below the top of the
	      screen.

       [count] I
	      Enter input mode, inserting the text at  the  beginning  of  the
	      line.

       [count] J
	      Join lines.

       [count] L
	      Move  to the screen line count - 1 lines above the bottom of the
	      screen.

	M     Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen.

       [count] O
	      Enter input mode, appending text in a new line above the current
	      line.

       [buffer] P
	      Insert text from a buffer.

       Q      Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.

       [count] R
	      Enter input mode, replacing the characters in the current line.

       [buffer] [count] S
	      Substitute count lines.

       [count] T <character>
	      Search  backwards, count times, through the current line for the
	      character after the specified <character>.

       U      Restore the current line to its state  before  the  cursor  last
	      moved to it.

       [count] W
	      Move forward count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] X
	      Delete count characters before the cursor.

       [buffer] [count] Y
	      Copy (or ``yank'') count lines into the specified buffer.

       ZZ     Write the file and exit vi.

       [count] [[
	      Back up count section boundaries.

       [count] ]]
	      Move forward count section boundaries.

       ^      Move to first nonblank character on the current line.

       [count] _
	      Move down count - 1 lines, to the first nonblank character.

       [count] a
	      Enter input mode, appending the text after the cursor.

       [count] b
	      Move backwards count words.

       [buffer] [count] c motion
	      Change a region of text.

       [buffer] [count] d motion
	      Delete a region of text.

       [count] e
	      Move forward count end-of-words.

       [count] f<character>
	      Search  forward,	count  times,  through the rest of the current
	      line for <character>.

       [count] i
	      Enter input mode, inserting the text before the cursor.

       m <character>
	      Save the current context (line and column) as <character>.

       [count] o
	      Enter input mode, appending text in a new line under the current
	      line.

       [buffer] p
	      Append text from a buffer.

       [count] r <character>
	      Replace count characters.

       [buffer] [count] s
	      Substitute  count	 characters  in the current line starting with
	      the current character.

       [count] t <character>
	      Search forward, count times, through the current	line  for  the
	      character immediately before <character>.

       u      Undo the last change made to the file.

       [count] w
	      Move forward count words.

       [buffer] [count] x
	      Delete count characters.

       [buffer] [count] y motion
	      Copy  (or	 ``yank'')  a  text  region specified by the count and
	      motion into a buffer.

       [count1] z [count2] -|.|+|^|<carriage-return>
	      Redraw, optionally repositioning and resizing the screen.

       [count] {
	      Move backward count paragraphs.

       [count] |
	      Move to a specific column position on the current line.

       [count] }
	      Move forward count paragraphs.

       [count] ~
	      Reverse the case of the next count character(s).

       [count] ~ motion
	      Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by
	      the count and motion.

       <interrupt>
	      Interrupt the current operation.

VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS
       The  following  section	describes  the	commands available in the text
       input mode of the vi editor.

       <nul>  Replay the previous input.

       <control-D>
	      Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.

       ^<control-D>
	      Erase all of the autoindent characters, and reset the autoindent
	      level.

       0<control-D>
	      Erase all of the autoindent characters.

       <control-T>
	      Insert  sufficient  <tab> and <space> characters to move forward
	      to the next shiftwidth column boundary.

       <erase>

       <control-H>
	      Erase the last character.

       <literal next>
	      Quote the next character.

       <escape>
	      Resolve all text input into the  file,  and  return  to  command
	      mode.

       <line erase>
	      Erase the current line.

       <control-W>

       <word erase>
	      Erase the last word.  The definition of word is dependent on the
	      altwerase and ttywerase options.

       <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+
	      Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the
	      text.

       <interrupt>
	      Interrupt text input mode, returning to command mode.

EX COMMANDS
       The  following  section describes the commands available in the ex edi‐
       tor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a  usage  synopsis  for  the
       command.

       <end-of-file>
	      Scroll the screen.

       ! argument(s)

       [range]! argument(s)
	      Execute  a  shell	 command, or filter lines through a shell com‐
	      mand.

       "      A comment.

       [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]

       [range] # [count] [flags]
	      Display the selected lines, each preceded with its line number.

       @ buffer

       * buffer
	      Execute a buffer.

       [line] a[ppend][!]
	      The input text is appended after the specified line.

       [range] c[hange][!] [count]
	      The input text replaces the specified range.

       cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset
	      Execute a Cscope command.

       [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
	      Delete the lines from the file.

       di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
	      Display buffers, Cscope connections, screens or tags.

       [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]

       [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
	      Edit a different file.

       exu[sage] [command]
	      Display usage for an ex command.

       f[ile] [file]
	      Display and optionally change the file name.

       [Ff]g [name]
	      Vi mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.

       [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]

       [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
	      Apply commands to lines matching (or not matching) a pattern.

       he[lp] Display a help message.

       [line] i[nsert][!]
	      The input text is inserted before the specified line.

       [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
	      Join lines of text together.

       [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
	      Display the lines unambiguously.

       map[!] [lhs rhs]
	      Define or display maps (for vi only).

       [line] ma[rk] <character>

       [line] k <character>
	      Mark the line with the mark <character>.

       [range] m[ove] line
	      Move the specified lines after the target line.

       mk[exrc][!] file
	      Write the abbreviations, editor options and maps to  the	speci‐
	      fied file.

       [Nn][ext][!] [file ...]
	      Edit the next file from the argument list.

       [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags]
	      Enter open mode.

       pre[serve]
	      Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex
	      -r option.

       [Pp]rev[ious][!]
	      Edit the previous file from the argument list.

       [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
	      Display the specified lines.

       [line] pu[t] [buffer]
	      Append buffer contents to the current line.

       q[uit][!]
	      End the editing session.

       [line] r[ead][!] [file]
	      Read a file.

       rec[over] file
	      Recover file if it was previously saved.

       res[ize] [+|-]size
	      Vi mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.

       rew[ind][!]
	      Rewind the argument list.

       rta[g][!] tagstring
	      Edit the file referring the specified tag. (Only in gtagsmode)

       se[t] [option[=[value]] ...] [nooption ...] [option? ...] [all]
	      Display or set editor options.

       sh[ell]
	      Run a shell program.

       so[urce] file
	      Read and execute ex commands from a file.

       [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] & [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
	      Make substitutions.

       su[spend][!]

       st[op][!]

       <suspend>
	      Suspend the edit session.

       [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
	      Edit the file containing the specified tag.

       tagn[ext][!]
	      Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag.

       tagp[op][!] [file | number]
	      Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack.

       tagp[rev][!]
	      Edit the file containing the previous context  for  the  current
	      tag.

       unm[ap][!] lhs
	      Unmap a mapped string.

       ve[rsion]
	      Display the version of the ex/vi editor.

       [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
	      Ex mode only.  Enter vi.

       [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
	      Vi mode only.  Edit a new file.

       viu[sage] [command]
	      Display usage for a vi command.

       [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]

       [range] w[rite] [!] [file]

       [range] wn[!] [>>] [file]

       [range] wq[!] [>>] [file]
	      Write the file.

       [range] x[it][!] [file]
	      Write the file if it has been modified.

       [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
	      Copy the specified lines to a buffer.

       [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
	      Adjust the window.

SET OPTIONS
       There  are  a  large  number  of	 options that may be set (or unset) to
       change the editor's behavior.   This  section  describes	 the  options,
       their abbreviations and their default values.

       In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the full name of
       the option, followed by any  equivalent	abbreviations.	 The  part  in
       square  brackets	 is  the  default  value  of  the option.  Most of the
       options are boolean, i.e. they are either on or off, and do not have an
       associated value.

       Options apply to both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise specified.

       altwerase [off]
	      Vi only.	Select an alternate word erase algorithm.

       autoindent, ai [off]
	      Automatically indent new lines.

       autoprint, ap [off]
	      Ex only.	Display the current line automatically.

       autowrite, aw [off]
	      Write modified files automatically when changing files.

       backup [""]
	      Backup files before they are overwritten.

       beautify, bf [off]
	      Discard control characters.

       cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
	      The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command.

       cedit [no default]
	      Set the character to edit the colon command-line history.

       columns, co [80]
	      Set the number of columns in the screen.

       comment [off]
	      Vi  only.	  Skip	leading	 comments in shell, C and C++ language
	      files.

       directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
	      The directory where temporary files are created.

       edcompatible, ed [off]
	      Remember the values of the ``c'' and ``g'' suffices to the  sub‐
	      stitute commands, instead of initializing them as unset for each
	      new command.

       errorbells, eb [off]
	      Ex only.	Announce error messages with a bell.

       exrc, ex [off]
	      Read the startup files in the local directory.

       extended [off]
	      Regular expressions are extended (i.e.  egrep(1)-style)  expres‐
	      sions.

       filec [no default]
	      Set  the	character to perform file path completion on the colon
	      command line.

       flash [on]
	      Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error.

       gtagsmode, gt [off]
	      Use GTAGS and GRTAGS instead of tags.

       hardtabs, ht [8]
	      Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.

       iclower [off]
	      Makes all Regular Expressions case-insensitive, as  long	as  an
	      upper-case letter does not appear in the search string.

       ignorecase, ic [off]
	      Ignore case differences in regular expressions.

       keytime [6]
	      The  10th's of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to com‐
	      plete a key mapping.

       leftright [off]
	      Vi only.	Do left-right scrolling.

       lines, li [24]
	      Vi only.	Set the number of lines in the screen.

       lisp [off]
	      Vi only.	Modify various search commands	and  options  to  work
	      with Lisp.  This option is not yet implemented.

       list [off]
	      Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.

       lock [on]
	      Attempt  to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited, read
	      or written.

       magic [on]
	      Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions.

       matchtime [7]
	      Vi only.	The 10th's of a second ex/vi pauses  on	 the  matching
	      character when the showmatch option is set.

       mesg [on]
	      Permit messages from other users.

       modelines, modeline [off]
	      Read  the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands.
	      This option will never be implemented.

       noprint [""]
	      Characters that are never handled as printable characters.

       number, nu [off]
	      Precede each line displayed with its current line number.

       octal [off]
	      Display unknown characters as  octal  numbers,  instead  of  the
	      default hexadecimal.

       open [on]
	      Ex  only.	  If  this option is not set, the open and visual com‐
	      mands are disallowed.

       optimize, opt [on]
	      Vi only.	Optimize text  throughput  to  dumb  terminals.	  This
	      option is not yet implemented.

       paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
	      Vi only.	Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and }
	      commands.

       path []
	      Define additional directories to search for files being edited.

       print [""]
	      Characters that are always handled as printable characters.

       prompt [on]
	      Ex only.	Display a command prompt.

       readonly, ro [off]
	      Mark the file and session as read-only.

       recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
	      The directory where recovery files are stored.

       redraw, re [off]
	      Vi only.	Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one.	  This
	      option is not yet implemented.

       remap [on]
	      Remap keys until resolved.

       report [5]
	      Set  the	number of lines about which the editor reports changes
	      or yanks.

       ruler [off]
	      Vi only.	Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line.

       scroll, scr [window / 2]
	      Set the number of lines scrolled.

       searchincr [off]
	      Makes the / and ?	 commands incremental.

       sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
	      Vi only.	Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]]
	      commands.

       secure [off]
	      Turns off all access to external programs.

       shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
	      Select the shell used by the editor.

       shellmeta [~{[*?$`'"\]
	      Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expan‐
	      sion is necessary.

       shiftwidth, sw [8]
	      Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width.

       showmatch, sm [off]
	      Vi only.	Note matching ``{'' and	 ``(''	for  ``}''  and	 ``)''
	      characters.

       showmode, smd [off]
	      Vi  only.	  Display  the	current editor mode and a ``modified''
	      flag.

       sidescroll [16]
	      Vi only.	Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift.

       slowopen, slow [off]
	      Delay display updating during text input.	 This  option  is  not
	      yet implemented.

       sourceany [off]
	      Read  startup  files not owned by the current user.  This option
	      will never be implemented.

       tabstop, ts [8]
	      This option sets tab widths for the editor display.

       taglength, tl [0]
	      Set the number of significant characters in tag names.

       tags, tag [tags /var/db/libc.tags /sys/kern/tags]
	      Set the list of tags files.

       term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
	      Set the terminal type.

       terse [off]
	      This option has historically made editor messages less  verbose.
	      It has no effect in this implementation.

       tildeop [off]
	      Modify the ~ command to take an associated motion.

       timeout, to [on]
	      Time out on keys which may be mapped.

       ttywerase [off]
	      Vi only.	Select an alternate erase algorithm.

       verbose [off]
	      Vi only.	Display an error message for every error.

       w300 [no default]
	      Vi only.	Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200
	      baud.

       w1200 [no default]
	      Vi only.	Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to  1200
	      baud.

       w9600 [no default]
	      Vi  only.	  Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than
	      1200 baud.

       warn [on]
	      Ex only.	This option causes a warning message to	 the  terminal
	      if the file has been modified, since it was last written, before
	      a !  command.

       window, w, wi [environment variable LINES]
	      Set the window size for the screen.

       windowname [off]
	      Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if  it
	      can't be restored on editor exit.

       wraplen, wl [0]
	      Vi  only.	  Break	 lines	automatically, the specified number of
	      columns from the left-hand margin.   If  both  the  wraplen  and
	      wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapmargin, wm [0]
	      Vi  only.	  Break	 lines	automatically, the specified number of
	      columns from the right-hand margin.  If  both  the  wraplen  and
	      wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapscan, ws [on]
	      Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file.

       writeany, wa [off]
	      Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       COLUMNS
	      The  number  of columns on the screen.  This value overrides any
	      system or terminal specific values.  If the COLUMNS  environment
	      variable	is  not	 set when ex/vi runs, or the columns option is
	      explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the  value  into  the
	      environment.

       EXINIT A	 list  of ex startup commands, read if the variable NEXINIT is
	      not set.

       HOME   The user's home directory, used as the  initial  directory  path
	      for  the	startup	 ``$HOME/.nexrc''  and	``$HOME/.exrc'' files.
	      This value is also used as the default directory for the	vi  cd
	      command.

       LINES  The number of rows on the screen.	 This value overrides any sys‐
	      tem or terminal specific values.	If the LINES environment vari‐
	      able  is not set when ex/vi runs, or the lines option is explic‐
	      itly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the environ‐
	      ment.

       NEXINIT
	      A list of ex startup commands.

       SHELL  The user's shell of choice (see also the shell option).

       TERM   The  user's terminal type.  The default is the type ``unknown''.
	      If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs,  or
	      the  term	 option	 is explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters
	      the value into the environment.

       TMPDIR The location used to stored temporary files (see also the direc‐
	      tory edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       SIGALRM
	      Vi/ex  uses  this	 signal for periodic backups of file modifica‐
	      tions and to  display  ``busy''  messages	 when  operations  are
	      likely to take a long time.

       SIGHUP

       SIGTERM
	      If  the  current buffer has changed since it was last written in
	      its entirety, the editor attempts to save the modified  file  so
	      it  can be later recovered.  See the vi/ex Reference manual sec‐
	      tion entitled ``Recovery'' for more information.

       SIGINT When an interrupt occurs, the current operation is  halted,  and
	      the  editor returns to the command level.	 If interrupted during
	      text input, the text already input is resolved into the file  as
	      if the text input had been normally terminated.

       SIGWINCH
	      The  screen  is resized.	See the vi/ex Reference manual section
	      entitled ``Sizing the Screen'' for more information.

       SIGCONT

       SIGQUIT

       SIGTSTP
	      Vi/ex ignores these signals.

FILES
       /bin/sh
	      The default user shell.

       /etc/vi.exrc
	      System-wide vi startup file.

       /tmp   Temporary file directory.

       /var/tmp/vi.recover
	      The default recovery file directory.

       $HOME/.nexrc
	      1st choice for user's home directory startup file.

       $HOME/.exrc
	      2nd choice for user's home directory startup file.

       .nexrc 1st choice for local directory startup file.

       .exrc  2nd choice for local directory startup file.

SEE ALSO
       ctags(1), more(1), curses(3), dbopen(3)

       The ``Vi Quick Reference'' card.

       ``An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi'',	found  in  the	``UNIX
       User's  Manual Supplementary Documents'' section of both the 4.3BSD and
       4.4BSD manual sets.  This document is the closest thing available to an
       introduction to the vi screen editor.

       ``Ex  Reference Manual (Version 3.7)'', found in the ``UNIX User's Man‐
       ual Supplementary Documents'' section of both  the  4.3BSD  and	4.4BSD
       manual  sets.   This document is the final reference for the ex editor,
       as distributed in most historic 4BSD and System V systems.

       ``Edit: A tutorial'', found in the ``UNIX User's	 Manual	 Supplementary
       Documents''  section  of	 the  4.3BSD  manual set.  This document is an
       introduction to a simple version of the ex screen editor.

       ``Ex/Vi Reference Manual'', found in the ``UNIX User's  Manual  Supple‐
       mentary Documents'' section of the 4.4BSD manual set.  This document is
       the final reference for the nex/nvi text	 editors,  as  distributed  in
       4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-Lite.

       Roff  source  for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in
       the nvi/USD.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code.

       The files  ``autowrite'',  ``input'',  ``quoting''  and	``structures''
       found in the nvi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code.

HISTORY
       The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4.4BSD.

STANDARDS
       Nex/nvi	is close to IEEE Std1003.2 (``POSIX'').	 That document differs
       from historical ex/vi practice in several places; there are changes  to
       be made on both sides.

3rd Berkeley Distribution      October 10, 1996				 VI(1)
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